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英语高考专题 阅读理解之猜测词义

How to deal with questions of

word guessing in reading comprehension

Learning aims:

Students should master the skills of guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases while reading.

Step 1 Pre-class

Read the following passage and guess the meanings of the underlined words.

Can Animals Count?

The American coot is a duck-like North American bird. Sometimes a coot will try and sneak one of its eggs into a neighbor‘s nest. Some coots recognize the deception, and roll the stranger‘s egg out again. Others don‘t catch on, and raise the stranger‘s egg as their own.

Researcher Bruce Lyon at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and his team observed a series of coot nests for four seasons, noting which birds could spot a stranger‘s eggs and which couldn‘t. Then they compared how many eggs each kind laid.

Their finding? The coots that couldn‘t tell when a stranger‘s egg had been stuck into their nest la id that many fewer of their own. Sneak one in, the coot lays one fewer. Sneak two in, the coot lays two fewer. Coots that successfully spotted intruders knocked them out again and then laid the same number they normally would.

Lyon argues that, along with egg recognition, the coots must therefore be doing some version of ―I see I have nine eggs here–time to stop laying now.‖ And that means coots count. Other researchers aren‘t convinced. But though the debate goes on, the case for animal counting just got stronger…by the weight of one coot.

Write down the meanings of the underlined words:

coot sneak deception

catch on spot intruders

Step2 During-class

猜测词义的方法:

一, 根据构词法知识猜测词义。

在英语中有许多种构成单词的方法,常见的有三种:合成法,派生法和转化法。

1. 合成法是指由两个或两个以上的词组成一个新词的构词法。如:nightlife, snow-white, ice-covered, good-looking, typewriter, absent-minded, darkroom, downtown, sightseeing等。

2. 派生法,也叫词缀法。一般是通过在已有词语的词根加上前缀或后缀而形成的一个新词。如:dislike, unnecessary, impossible, endanger, retell, useless, foolish, national, friendly, golden, movement, worker, childhood, happiness, direction等。

3. 转化法是指不通过给一个已有的词语加上前缀或后缀却能改变词语的词性或词义。Have you booked your ticket? (n.—v.) His hair is beginning to grey. (adj.—v.)

Let me have a try. (v.—n.) Tom went home early. (n.—adv.)

注:首先要熟悉基本的构词法及其规律, 其次要掌握一定的词根和词缀。

二,联系上下文,猜测词义。

1. 关注上下文中的定义,定语从句,同位语短语或从句,is, means, that is(to say), or, or rather,

i.e., in other words, namely, :,( ) ,

①It will be very hard but also very brittle-that is, it will break easily.

A. easily broken

B. soft inside

C. very hard

D. expensive

②The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 Yuan a month.

A. keeper of a group of animals, esp. cattle

B. a butcher

C. a man who sell sheep

D. a person who looks after and kills animals

③The word ―adolescence‖ means the period between children and adulthood.

A. 少儿期

B. 幼儿期

C. 青春期

D. 成人期

2. 留意上下文中的信息词。

⑴注意对比和转折关系。

①Although the early morning had been very cool, the noonday sun was tropical. ()

②He had been getting better but during the night his condition deteriorated. ()注:表对比转折关系的词常有but, while, however, instead of , rather than , unlike, yet, though, otherwise等。

⑵依据同义词和反义词进行猜测

①The football player was penalized for unnecessary roughness and the punishment was a good lesson for him. ()

②He replied quickly, but after he considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision. ()

③Unlike her gregarious sister, Jane is a shy, unsociable person who does not like to go to parties or make new friends. ()

注:信息词常有and, but, while, however, unlike等。

⑶通过因果关系猜词

①All his attempts to unlock the door were futile, because she was using the wrong key. ()

②I found I was paying too much attention to the job and thus sacrificing my study time ()

注:常用关联词如: because,as,since,for,so,as a result, so, so …that, such …that, thus 等表示前因后果。

⑷注意并列结构

①Most women in China—the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old—work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers.

②It is really causing slight anger or irritation. ()

注:常有信号词有: and, but, or, than, more than, rather than, etc.

⑸根据举例猜测词义

①I have found Lucy is quite generous, for example, whenever she meets a beggar, she gives some coins to him. ()

②Wild flowers such as orchids and primroses are becoming rare. ()

注:常用的关联词有: for example, e.g, such as, such .etc

3. 利用常识、自己的经验、经历及社会、科技等方面的知识猜词。

①But sometimes, no rain falls for a long, long time. Then there will be a drought. ()

②The snake slithered through the grass. ()

特别提醒:

在推测生词的过程中不一定只用一种方法,可能会综合运用两种或几种方法,不管用什么办法都离不开对生词所处的上下文的理解。

Competition

Guess the meanings of the following words and phrases.

1. We like our new house because it has a few elms in the backyard that will give us shade and keep the house cooler.

A. a kind of building

B. a kind of animal

C. a kind of tree

D. a kind of grass

2. Mike gave his sister a small, red tulip because he knows how much she likes natural things.

A. radio

B. flower

C. jewelry

D. toy

3. The driver tried to avert the accident by bringing the car to a sudden stop.

A. avoid

B. cause

C. notice

D. keep

4. Sabots, or wooden shoes, are frequently worn by the field workers in Belgium and France.

A. a kind of clothes

B. a kind of caps

C. a kind of shoes

D. a kind of trousers

5. Archaeology is the study of the buried remains of ancient times, such as houses, pots, tools and weapons.

A. 地理

B. 生态学

C. 心理学

D. 考古学

6. The football game was getting more and more exciting; however, the old lady was still as dozy as she usually was.

A. 昏昏欲睡的

B. 亢奋的

C. 欣喜若狂的

D. 麻木的

7. She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading.

A. 心不在焉的

B. 紧张的

C. 全神贯注的

D. 睡意浓的

8. Just for fun, they decided to try a very circuitous country road instead of the more direct highway.

A. direct

B. indirect

C. straight

D. secret

9. She asked the hairdresser to trim her hair because it was too long. ()

10. Mark Twain was not the author‘s real name; it was a pseudonym. ()

11. Finally the enemy surrendered. They threw down their guns and walked out of the home with their hands over their heads. ()

12. The shop sells stationery, such as pens, pencils, paper, envelopes, and so on. ()

13. He is one of the most loquacious men I know His brother, however, does not like to talk much. ()

14

A two-bedroom flat in Moscow now costs $4,000 a month; a CD $24.83, and an international newspaper $6.30, according to Mercer. By comparison, a fast food meal with a hamburger is a steal at $4.80.

14. What do the underlined words ―a steal‖ in Paragraph 3 mean?

A. an act of stealing

B. something delicious

C. something very cheap

D. an act of buying

15

Please stay on permitted paths. Otherwise you may destroy desert plants. Pack out what you pack in, so you leave no signs of your visit. It is important to keep in mind that you are in a national park where wildlife exists.

15. What do the underlin ed words ―pack out what you pack in‖ in Paragraph 4 probably mean?

A. keep everything out of campgrounds.

B. take away everything you bring in.

C. carry all the necessary food.

D. look after your personal belongings.

Consolidation

1

By the end of the seventeenth century , when newspapers were beginning to be read by more People, printed materials became all important way to promote products and services.The London Gazette was the first newspaper to set aside a place just for advertising .This was so successful that by the end of the century several companies started businesses for the purpose of making newspaper ads for merchants.(2011全国Ⅰ,B)

61. What does the word ―This‖ in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A. Advertising in newspapers.

B. Including pictures in ads.

C. Selling goods in markets.

D. Working with ad agencies.

2

Can dogs and cats live in perfect harmony in the same home? People who are thinking about adopting a dog as a friend for their cats are worried that they will fight. A recent research has found a new recipe of success. According to the study, if the cat is adopted before the dog, and if they are introduced when still young (less than 6 months for cats, a year for dogs), it is highly probable that the two pets will get along swimmingly. Two-thirds of the homes interviewed reported a positive relationship between their cat and dog. (2011 广东B)

31. The underlined word swimmingly in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ______.

A. early

B. lowly

C. quickly

D. smoothly

3

The real reason why I ask students to leave technology at the door is that I think there are very few places in which we can have deep conversations and truly engage complex ideas. Interruptions by technology often break concentration and allow for too much dependence on outside information for ideas. I want students to dig deep within themselves for inspiration and ideas. I want them to push each other to think differently and make connections between the course the material and the class discussion. (2011北京卷C)

64. The underlined word ―engage‖in para.4 probably means ____

A. explore

B. accept

C. change

D. reject

4

I didn't hear them call my name," explained Shelley Hennig to Active Teens (A T) as she talked about that exciting moment on national television when she won the honor of Miss Teen USA 2004. "Are you ready?" is what she heard. Then she said, "I shook my head no, and then they said ?yes‘ and it was announced again."

It was four days after that life changing moment for the seventeen-year-old high school student from Destrehan, Louisiana----she was still on cloud nine.

56. What do the words ―on cloud nine‖ in Paragraph 2 probably mean? (2011全国卷ⅡE)

A. frightened

B. troubled

C. very happy

D. very angry

Step 3 post-class

1. Review what we have learnt in this class.

2. Finish the reading comprehension on textbook. (P122&p123)