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学术英语理工类abstrcat 1,3,5,6,8,9,11,15,18

Computer vulnerabilities are often utilized by hackers or crackers. The security of each computer is challenging. This paper firstly redefines the term “hacker”, “cracker” and “getting inside” the computers and describes the pro cedure in detail. The term “unauthorized user” (UU) will be a better choice for defining the insider group. The known and unknown vulnerabilities will be taken advantage of by UUs ranging from poor password protection to leaving a computer turned on and physically accessible to visitors in the office. The first step of employing technical exploits will be the determination of the specifications of the target system. There are two ways of attacking including being through capabilities inherent in hypertext transfer protocol (http) and being preprogrammed against specific vulnerabilities and launched without any specific target. The variability of hacking action including the weak system and the strong system warns the users to choose the right way to protect the computer and do not authorize the computer to others easily. Lastly, the solution of avoiding vulnerabilities has been given, including updating patches, making complex passwords, getting information only from the reliable websites or services, updating anti-virus software and backing up the data to protect the computer not being hacked.

This article aims to account for the advantages of cloud computering.At the begin of this article,it states what cloud computing is and the overall feature of cloud computering.Then the author lists all kinds of the cloud computering in order to reflect the virtue of it:the most basic ones being remote accessibility,lower costs,and quick re-provisions.At the section of Green computeing,it talks about energy efficient usage of computering resources which is an important advantage of the cloud computering.To draw a conclusion,the cloud computering combines remote accessibility,easy expansion,security and environmentally friendly into one,it is making changes to the whole world.

With the development of social and technology, Artificial intelligence may replace human jobs in the future. There are a lot of news that reported artificial intelligence has play a important role in our life. For decades. People wrote about how machines replace humans. It will be better or ill. But all expected did not come. Around the time of the Revolution. Most of Americans worked in the farm. They farmed to keep themselves alive. With the development of traffic. Farming increasingly became a cash business. But as the agricultural industry grew, there are fewer and fewer workers who worked at farming and ranching. Today agricultural provides fewer than two million jobs. Because of automation happened. It bring better plows, planting and sowing machines. Agricultural become more and more scientific. The farmers’ children found new kinds of jobs in the city, they do not like stay on the farm. The early water-and-steam-powered factories also displace millions of craftsmen, because machine-handing factory workers made the goods better than the goods made by craftsmen. So that the number of factory jobs growing rapidly at that time. The automation of farming, craft work and manufacturing made products. Among them, food become cheaper and cheaper, so people can save money from food, then spend money on other expensive goods. Will A.I. machines take over the best occupations? The author is optimist and may not agree that machines will replace

human jobs.

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The article gives detailed explanation for game theory.Firstly the author states the research object of the game theory.Recent research has focused on games that are neither

zero-sum nor purely cooperative,but the games in which palyers must make choice allow for both competition and cooperation.

The essence of a game is the interdependence of player strategies.Some games can be "solved" completely like tic-tac-toe,while others such as chess are too complex to perform in practice.A game with simultaneous moves involves a logical circle is squared using a concept of equilibrium developed by John Nash,but this notion remains an incomplete solution to the problem of circular reasoning in simultaneous-move games.

Then the author gives several examples including the prisoners' dilemma,mixing moves,strategic moves,bargaining,concealing and revealing information to illustrate some of the fundamentals of game theory.

Though game theory has made some progress in solving several situations of conflict and cooperation recently,it remains far from complete and people still need to try more about the design of successful strategy.

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At the begin of this article,it states that there are unprecedented multidisciplinary convergence scientists dedicated to the study of a world so small that we can’t see it—even with a light microscope and tells us the important of nanotechnology.Then in order to understand the unusual world of nanotechnology ,we need to get an idea of the units of measure involved.The long of one nanometer is so small.When we measure the atomic scale,we can find that it ’s still small compare to the nannmeter.But in a lecture called “Small Wonders:The World of Nanoscience”,Nobel Prize winner Dr.Horst Stormer said that the nanoscale is more interstesting than the atomic scale because the nanoscale is the first point where we can assemble something—it’s not until we start putting atoms together that we can make anything useful.Then the article states that some predictions of nanotechnology such as the use of the rule of quantum mechanics,nanorobot.It nanotechnology in future.

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The principal risks associated with nuclear power arise from health effects of radiation.The radiation mainly comes form the radioactive material.They can penetrate deep inside the human body where they can damage biological cells and thereby initiate a cancer. If they strike sex cells, they can cause genetic diseases in progeny.But the rate of the latter is far less than the former. Reactor accidents is also one of the risk of nuclear power.But the nuclear power plant design strategy for preventing accidents ,back-up system and mitigating their potential effects is “defence in depth”, so they happen probabili ty is exceedingly small. If they all fails,very high radiation doses can destroy body functions and lead to death within 60 days.The radioactive waste products from the nuclear industry must be isolated from contact with

people for very long time periods. The bulk of the radioactivity is contained in the spent fuel, which is quite small in volume and therefore easily handled with great care. At other radiation problems,for example, exploitation of materials and transport of radioactive materials also produce radiation.The effects of routine releases of radioactivity from nuclear plants depend somewhat on how the spent fuel is handled.

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Genetically modified food caused a fierce debate in the modern society, especially in long agrarian tradition and vocal green lobbies in the country。

In fact, genetically modified food has become very much a part of our lives, the transgenic biological technology can not only improve the total agricultural output increased by 25%, and help the losses prevent the crops after the harvest,but also can improve the nutritional value of the food, to alleviate malnutrition problem in the world, the use of biological technology can also improve farming productivity in places where food shortages are caused by crop damage attribution to pests, drought, poor soil and crop viruses, bacteria or fungi.

Although it has so much potential, biological technology can not solve all the problems, biotech cannot overcome the challenge of distributing food in developing countries, many transgenic products may be too expensive not where it is most needed.

Now More and more biotech research is being carried out in developing countries.But to increase the impact of genetic research on the food production of those countries, there is a need for better collaboration between government agencies

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Marijuana is a drug of controversy in medical history. Whether its ultimate effects are harmful, harmless or beneficial to human functioning remains to be investigated. This paper focuses on the study of the physical effects of Marijuana uses. Based on previous research, the study divided the physical effects of marijuana use into the short-term effects and long-term ones, according to its frequency, duration and intensity of physical symptoms. The studies indicated that an increase of pulse rate and changes in blood sugar pressures are two remarkable signs of short-term effects together with the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, headache and so on. It was also found that the chronic use of marijuana may weaken one’s immune system and interf ere with DNA production in terms of long-term effects.