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高考英语动词时态语态复习

高中时态语态专题

(一)动词的时态

时态动词是谓语动所表示的动作或情况发生时间的各种形式。英语动词有16种时态,但是常用的只有9种:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时、过去将来时、现在完成进行时。下面分别介绍。

高考英语动词时态语态复习

考点一、一般现在时:一般现在时表示主语经常性和习惯性发生的动作或存在的状态。

1、常用的时间状语有:always(总是;一直), often(经常), sometimes(有时), seldom(很少), hardly ever(几乎不), never(从不), every day(每天), every week(每星期), every month(每月), every year(每年)等。

2.第三人称单数的构成方式

当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数,其变化规则同名词变复数。

(1)直接在词尾加-s。swim→swims, travel→travels,play→plays, leave→leaves

(2)以字母s,x,ch,sh, o结尾的,在词尾加-es。

pass→passes, fix→fixes, teach→teaches,wash→washes, go→goes, do→does

(3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i加-es。study→studies, fly→flies, cry→cries

例、Diana, together with her friends, __________ Chinese in China.

A.study B.have studied C.studies D.are studying

3.一般现在时的用法小结

(1)表示经常性或习惯性发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表频度的时间状语连用。

My mother often does housework. My father goes to work every day.

(2)描述现在的状态、能力、性格等。

She is very tired now. He speaks Russian very well.

(3)描述客观真理、客观存在或科学事实等。

The light travels faster than the sound. The sun rises in the east.

注意、(1)在宾语从句中,即使主句是一般过去时,但从句表示客观真理、客观存在或科学事实时,从句依然用一般现在时。

The teacher told us that the earth is round yesterday.

(2)在时间、条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。即“主将从现”。

I want to be a policeman when I grow up in the future.

I'll ring you up if he comes back tomorrow.

(3)在以here, there开头的句子中常用一般现在时代替现在进行时。

Here comes the bus! 汽车来了!There goes the bell! 铃响了!

(4)一般现在时常出现在格言或警句中。

All roads lead to Rome. One is never too old to learn.

考点二、一般过去时:表示过去某个时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。

1、常用的时间状语有:yesterday(昨天), the day before yesterday(前天), last week(上星期), last month(上个月), last year(去年), three years ago(三年前), in 2001(在2001年), the other day(前几天),just now(刚才),等。

2.动词过去式的构成方式

在一般过去时中,谓语动词要用过去式,过去式的变化分为规则和不规则两种。下面单讲一下

规则变化:

(1)直接在词尾加-ed。plant→planted, work→worked, look→looked

(2)以e结尾的,加-d。live→lived, change→changed

(3)以重读闭音节或r音节结尾的,且末尾只有一个辅音字母,则双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed。plan→planned, stop→stopped

(4)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i加-ed。study→studied, try→tried

3.一般过去时的用法小结

(1)表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态。

She visited the Great Wall yesterday. They went to England for a holiday last summer.

(2)用于虚拟语气句中,表示与现在事实相反的情况。

If I were you, I would take a small present. If I won a million dollars, I'd give it to charities.

注意在虚拟条件句“If I were you...”中,were不能改为was。

例、—I've got a ticket for the basketball game tonight.

—Cool! How ________you ________it?

A.had; got B.did; get C.were; getting D.will; get

考点三、一般将来时:一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

1、句式结构(肯定句)有以下几种:

Will/shall do 单纯表将来,强调未经事先考虑将要做某事。

is/am/are going to do 表示按计划、安排好要做的事情。其次可以表示有迹象表明要做某事。

例如It is going to rain.(有迹象表明要下雨)

is/am/are doing 进行时态表将来,

is/am/are to do 表计划安排要做某事,此外还可以表示职责、义务和可能性。

is/am/are about to do 表示正要做某事,所在的句子不会再出现时间状语。

例:I was about to leave when (suddenly) the telephone rang.

2、常用的时间状语有:tomorrow(明天), the day after tomorrow(后天), tomorrow morning(明天上午), next week(下周), next month(下个月), next year(明年), in two hours(两个小时以后), in three days(三天后)等。

注意若表示经过一定的计划安排之后打算做某事,要用be going to,而不能用will。

My brother is going to learn English next year.

注意、当主语是第一人称I或we时,可以用shall。不过在现代英语中,will适用于任何人称。

3、一些表示位置移动的动词,如go, come, leave, arrive, fly, start, move, sail, travel等,常用现在进行时表示即将发生的动作。

I am coming to see you. He is leaving for Shanghai tomorrow.

例、—I __________ the Great Wall next week.

—Have a good trip!

A.visit B.visited C.am visiting D.have visited

考点四、过去将来时:表示在过去看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

(1)相对于一般将来时而言,句式结构有以下几种:

①would/should+动词原形

②was/were going to+动词原形

③was/were doing(进行时表将来)

例、It was May 30th Mike had just left his home. He was going to start to fish in the river with his friend, so he decided to call his friend first.

(2)用于主句为一般过去时,宾语从句表示将要发生的事情或曾经打算要做的事情。

He asked when the meeting would end. 他问会议何时会结束。

I thought it was going to rain. 我(当时)认为要下雨。

(3)表示位置移动的动词,如come, go, leave, arrive等,可用过去进行时表示在过去某时看来将要发生的动作。

She said she was leaving for Beijing that week. 她说那周她要去北京。

例、He wanted to know when __________ the English party.

A.will we have B.we will have C.would we have D.we would have 考点五、现在进行时:现在进行时表示现在正在发生或进行的动作。

句式结构:主语+am(is, are)+现在分词

1、常见标志词:now, at the moment(此刻)或含有情景词look, listen等。

She is doing some washing now. 。We are having a meeting at the moment.

Look! She is swimming in the river. Listen! He is singing.

2.现在分词的构成方式

(1)直接在词尾加-ing。listen→listening, read→reading, laugh→laughing

(2)以不发音的e结尾的,去e再加-ing。make→making, change→changing

(3)以重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母,则双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing。

stop→stopping,swim→swimming, sit→sitting plan→planning

(4)以ie结尾的动词,改ie为y,再加-ing。die→dying, lie→lying, tie→tying

3.与always, usually, forever等词连用,表示赞扬、厌恶或不满的情绪。

He is always helping others. We all like him. 他一直在帮助别人,我们都喜欢他。(赞扬)

You are usually playing computer games. 你通常都是在玩电脑游戏。(不满)

注意下列动词通常不用于现在进行时:

(1)表示感觉、情感、心理活动的动词,如see, hear, listen, look, smell, taste, notice, seem, hate, like, love, want, wish等;

(2)表示所有或占有的动词,如have, own, belong等;

(3)表示理解、记忆或决定的动词,如forget, remember, understand, believe, know, decide等。

考点六、过去进行时:表示在过去某个时刻或某段时间内正在进行的动作。

1、句式结构:主语+was(were)+现在分词

2、常用的时间状语有:at nine o'clock last night(昨天晚上九点), at that time(那时), at that moment(当时), this time yesterday(昨天的这个时候)

如:I was watering my flowers at nine yesterday morning. 昨天上午九点我正在给花浇水。

I watered my flowers yesterday. 昨天我浇花了。

例、—Linda, I called you this morning, but nobody answered the phone.

—I'm sorry. I__________football with my friends then.

A.play B.Played C.am playing D.was playing

考点七、现在完成时:表示截止于现在,已经完成的动作

1、句式结构:主语+have(has)+done

2.现在完成时对应的时间状语:(1)常与already/yet(已经), so far(到现在为止), up till now(到现在为止), recently/lately(最近), before+现在时间, in the past(last)...years(在过去的……年里)等连用,She has already finished the work. I haven't met him before.

(2)常与“for+时间段”或“since+表过去的时间点或时间段”连用。

I have worked in the school for about ten years.

He has studied English since 10 years ago. =He has studied English for 10 years.

例、The volunteers __________ a lot of help to the community for nearly ten years.

A.offered B.will offer C.are offering D.have offered

(3)短暂性动词的现在完成时在肯定句中不能和表示一段时间的状语连用,但在否定句中可以和一段时间连用,因为否定句表示的是状态。

I haven't seen him for a long time. 我好久没有看见他了。

She hasn't received his letter for three years. 她已经三年没有收到过他的信了。

3、使用以下两种句型:

①It's+时间段+since+从句。②时间段+has+passed+since+从句。

他起床一个小时了。(×)He got up for one hour.

(√)It's one hour since he got up. (√)One hour has passed since he got up.

考点八、过去完成时:表示到过去某时为止或在过去某时之前已经发生或完成的动作即“过去的过去”。

---|-------|--------|―→

过去的过去过去现在

句式结构:主语+had+done

1、常用的时间状语有:by the end of last term(到上学期期末为止), by then(到那时为止), before(在……以前), by the time(到……时)等。

如:By the time we arrived, the meeting had already begun.

By the end of last term, we had learned 2,000 new words.

例、The plane __________ when we got to the airport.

A.had taken off B.was taken off C.will take off D.is taking off

考点九、现在完成进行时:表示从过去开始一直持续到现在,现在还在进行的动作

1、句式结构:主语+have(has)+been+doing

(1)强调过去发生的动作一直延续到现在,常与all day, all this morning, all these years或“for+时间段”连用。

She is very tired. She has been typing letters all day. 她很累,她整天都在打字。

I've been working for the company for 15 years. 我为这家公司工作15年了。

(二)动词语态

1.当句子的主语是动作的执行者时,谓语的形式叫主动语态。句子的主语是动作承受者时,谓语的形式叫被动作语态。被动语态由助动词be + 过去分词构成(be done),时态通过be 表现出来。

1)一般现在时:am/is/are done 2)一般过去时:were/was done

3)一般将来时:will/shall be done 4)现在进行时:am/is/are being done

5)过去进行时:was/were being done 6)现在完成时:has/have been done

7)过去完成时:had been done 8)过去将来时:would be done

9. 将来完成时:will have been done

2. 一些特殊的被动结构

1)带情态动词的被动结构(情态动词be done):

The problem must be solved soon.

2)非谓语的被动结构:being done 和to be done

I don't like being laughed at in the public.

the room is going to be painted. the homework needs to be done with care.

3)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

例Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为

4). 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

例The meeting is to be put off till Friday

5). 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等无被动。系动词无被动

例: How do the newspapers come out? 例:Your reason sounds reasonable

6)主动形式表达被动意义

①be worth doing; ②it is +adj+(for sb)to do sth

③ need,require,want, 主语为物时,sth need/reqiure/want doing 表达被动意义,(相当于sth need/require/want to be done)

例:The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。

④. It is said that+从句

一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+be +过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。

例It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

⑤. 英语中有很多动词如break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式表达被动意义,主语通常是物。

例:This kind of cloth washes well.

注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。

试比较:The door won't lock.(指门本身有毛病)

The door won't be locked.(指不会有人来锁门,指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

⑥在too… to 结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。

例This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

特殊句式:

1.it/this is the first/second time that…(have/has done)

it/this was the first/second time that…(had done)

2. it is (high/about) time that …(过去时或者should do)

3. it is/has been 段时间since… (过去式)

4.sb was/wer e aboout to do…

sb was/ were doing sth…when 一般过去式

sb was/ were going to do sth

5. would rather+从句,从句常用一般过去时

6. hardly /scarcely...when…

no sooner...than... 从句用一般过去时,主句用过去完成时

巩固练习

I适当形式填空

A. 高考真题演练

1.Shakespe are’s play Hamlet(make)into at least ten different films over the past years.

2. --- Do you think Mom and Dad (be)late?

--- No, Swiss Air is usually on time.

3. Hurry up! Mark and Carl (expect)us.

4.--- So what is the procedure?

--- All the applicants (interview)before a final decision is made by the authority. 5. The famous musician, as well as his students, _______ (invite)to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo.

6.The girl has a great interest in sport and ______ (take)badminton classes twice a week over the last three years.

7.“What do you want to be?” asked Mrs. Crawford. “Oh, I _______(be)president,” said the boy, with a smile.

8. Around two o’clock every night, Sue will start talking in her dream. It somewhat ________ (bother)us.

9. If nothing ________(do), the oceans will turn into fish deserts.

10. — Have you heard about the recent election?

— Sure, it ________ (be)the only thing on the news for the last three days.

11. — I don’t understand why you didn’t go to the lecture yesterday afternoon.

—I’m so sorry. But I _________ (do)my homework.

12. Generally, students’ inner motivation with high expectations from others _________(be)essential to their development.

13. —Could I use your car tomorrow morning?

—Sure. I (write)a report at home.

14. —What about your self-drive trip yesterday?

—Tiring! The road is being widened, and we (have) a rough ride.

15. I ________ (come)to visit you later that day, but I had to phone and cancel.

16. He was unhappy when he sold his guitar. After all, he ______(have)it for a very long time.

17. We are confident that the environment ______(improve)by our further efforts to reduce pollution.

18. I didn’t think I’d like the movie, but actually it _____(be)pretty good.

19. — Oh no! We’re too late. The train _______(leave).

— That’s Ok. We’ll catch the next train to London.

20. On Monday mornings it usually (take)me an hours to drive to work although the actual distance is only 20 miles.

21. Jim (watch)a late night film at home when, right in the middle of a thrilling scene, the television went blank.

22. Hurry up, kids! The school bus _____ (wait)for us!

23. The water supply has been cut off temporarily because the workers _ _ (repair)one of the main pipes.

24. We (leave)very early so we packed the night before.

25. If we (act)now to protect the environment, we’ll live to regret it.

26. When I first met Bryan I didn’t like him, but I (change)my mind.

27. During the last three decades, the number of people participating in physical fitness programs ______ (increase)sharply.

28. I felt very tired when I got home, and I (go)straight to bed

29. A Midsummer Night's Dream (open)at the Theatre Royal on 19th June, and then tours throughout Scotland.

30. I’m calling about the apartment you (advertise)the other day. Could you tell me more about it?

B.模拟训练

1. Don’t take the magazine away. It _____________(belong) to me.

2. I will go to see my son when he __________(finish) the training course.

3. Perhaps it will be a long time before Tom ________ from abroad .

4. Often a storm ________________(follow) by a calm.

5. If city noises ________________(keep) from increasing,people will have to shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now.

6. I bought this radio yesterday,but it ____________(work).

7. A friend of mine ___________(return) to his house after a holiday only to find it had been broken into.

8. When Jack arrived he _____________(learn) Mary had been away for about an hour.

9. We miss Ted a lot, for he ____________(kill) trying to save a child in earthquake.

10. Shortly after we ________(seat),a waiter came over to our table with a smile.

11. I have left the light of my office on, so I __________(go) back and turn it off.

12. The number of the guests who _____________(invite) to the wedding reaches 800.

13. Mr. Smith told us that he ______________(deliver) a speech the next week.

14. The professor asked his assistant whether his report _____________(complete) in a week.

15. I feel it is your husband who ________________(blame) for the spoiled child.

16. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology

___________(change) so rapidly.

17.You can’t move in right now. The house ___________________(paint).

18.Shirley ____________(write) a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished.

19. Henry remained silent for a moment. He _______________(think).

20. They believed that by using computers the production of their factory ________ (increase) greatly.

21. We would like to go and thank him ourselves,but we ___________(find) out his address yet.

22. I wonder why Jenny __________________(write) us recently. We should have heard from her by now.

23. My father _____________________(employ) at this job since 1990.

24.The price _______________(fall) down,but I doubt whether it will remain so.

25. How long ____________(know) each other before they got married?

26. By the end of last year,another new gymnasium ____________(complete) in Beijing.

27.The little girl cried her heart out because she _____________(lose) her toy bear and believed she wasn’t ev er going to find it.

28. Is this the third time that you _____________(be) late?

29. He ________________(write) the composition the whole morning and he is still working.

30. He __________________(learn) English for eight years by the time he graduates from the university next year.

31.By this time tomorrow we _____________(repair) the machine.

32. The telephone _____________(ring) four times in the last hour,and each time it

________(be) for my roommate.

33. Helen _____________(leave) her key in the office so she had to wait until her husband

________(come) home.

34. John and I ________ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we ________ each other a couple of times before that.

35.His eyes __________(shine) brightly when he finally received the award he

_____________(expect).

36. I _______________(think) the room to be empty but found it occupied.

37.Visitors ______________ (request) not to touch the exhibits.

38.They _____________(catch) a snowstorm on their way home.

39. I was wondering if you ________ tell me how to fill out this form.

40.Good care ________ be taken of babies particularly while they are ill.

II. 单句改错

A级

1. The teacher told that the sun rose in the east.

2. I will speak to him when I will see him next Sunday.

3. I will get everything ready before my boss come back.

4. Does your mother has lunch at home?

5. He was writing a letter at the moment, I believe.

6. He can't be waiting us.

7. I am looking at the sky, and I see a strange star.

8. I haven't seen her since two months.

9. She has gone to Beijing several times.

10. Jane is doing some cleaning this time yesterday.

B级

1. If it won't rain, we will go to visit the zoo.

2. The new secretary will supposed to report to the manager as soon as she arrives.

3. When I was at college I spoken three foreign languages, but I had forgotten all except a few words of each.

4. The police found that the house has been broken into and a lot of things stolen.

5. The volleyball match will be put off if it rain.

6. Mary is making a dress when she cut her finger.

7. This is the first time I had been here.

8. You can join the club when you will get a bit older.

9. Mother promised she will buy me a bike.

10. ---- We could have walked to the station. It was so near.

---- Yes. A taxi wasn't at all necessary.

III. 语法填空

It was getting dark when I got home. It was cold and I 1_______________(wear) a coat. I walked up to the door and put my hand into my pocket 2________(take) out my key but I

3_________ find it. I suddenly remembered that I 4__________(leave) it on my desk in the office. It really didn’t make any difference. I knew my wife 5 ________(be) at home and the children must have come back from school by now, so I 6________(knock) at the door.

There was no answer, so I knocked again. I continued knocking at the door for some time. was getting angry. Then I remembered something the office boy7 (have) told me at noon. He said that my wife 8________ (phone) saying that she 9_____________(go) shopping in the afternoon with the children.

There was only one thing for me to do: I had to clime in 10___________ a window.

答案

适当形式填空A。1 has been made 2 will be 3 are expecting 4 are interviewed5. was invited 6.has been taking 7 will be 8 bothers 9 is done 10 has been11 was doing12 is13 will be writing14 had15 was coming 16.had had 17. will be improved18 was 19 has left 20 takes21 was watching22 is waiting 23 are repairing(24 were leaving25 don't act 26 have changed 27 has increased 28. went 29. opens 30. advertised

B. 1. belongs 2. finishes 3. comes 4. is followed 5. are not kept 6. doesn’t work

7. returned 8. learned 9. was killed 10. were seated11. will go 12. will be invited

13. would deliver 14. would be completed 15. is to blame 16 .is changing

17. is being painted 18. was writing 19. was thinking 20. .would be increased

21. haven’t found 22. hasn’t written 23.has been employed 24. has fallen down

25. had they known 26. had been completed 27. had lost 28. .have been

29. has been writing 30. will have learned 31. shall/will have repaired 32. has rung; was 33. had left; came 34. have been; had seen 35. shone; has long expected 36. had thought 37. are requested 38.were caught in 39. could 40. must

单句改错

A级

1. rose – rises

2. 将when I 后will划去

3. come – comes

4. has – have

5. was -- is

6. 在waiting后加for

7. 正确

8. 在months后加ago

9. gone – been 10. is -- was

B级

1. won't -- doesn't

2. will – is

3. had – have

4. has --- had

5. rain – rains

6. is -- was

7. had – have 8. 将you 后will划去9. will – would 10. 正确

语法填空

1. was wearing

2. to take

3. couldn’t

4. had left

5. was

6. knocked

7. Had 8. had phoned 9. would go 10. through