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2014年自考英语(二)资料(-unit-12)

2014年自考英语(二)资料(-unit-12)

Unit 12 A Break from Life

I. New words and expressions New words

1. cranky adj. 脾气坏的

2. laundry n. 要(或正在)洗的衣物;刚洗好的衣物

3. resemble v. 看起来像;显得像;像

resemble: take after

resemblance

4. throb n. (强烈有规律的)跳动;阵阵的疼痛

5. subside v. 趋于平静;平息;减弱;消退

6. ache v. 疼痛;隐痛

7. joint n. 关节

8. shuffle v. 拖着脚走

9. wiggle v. (使)扭动,摆动,摇动

10. sniffle n. 抽鼻子(声)

11. tissue n. (尤指用作手帕的)纸巾,手巾纸

12. pillow n. 枕头

13. crack v. 找到解决(难题等的)方法

14. contagious adj. 患接触性传染病的

15. germ n. 微生物;细菌;病菌

16. resourceful adj. 机敏的;足智多谋的;随机应变的

17. scrounge v. 觅取;搜寻

18. nurture v. 养育;养护;培养

19. chore n. 令人厌烦的任务、乏味无聊的工作

20. respite n. 暂停;暂缓

21. manufacture v. 编造;捏造

22. symptom n. 症状

23. pamper v. 细心照顾;精心护理;娇惯;纵容

24. hermit n. 隐土;隐修者;遁世者

25. gel n. 凝胶,冻胶(尤指用于头发或护肤的产品)

26. hearty adj. 大的;丰盛的

27. chamomile n. 苹果菊;春黄菊;甘菊

28. vanilla-scented adj. 香草味的

29. gingerly adv. 谨慎地;小心翼翼地;轻手轻脚地

30. grateful adj. 感激的;表示感谢的

be grateful to sb. for sth.

ungrateful

比较:graceful

disgraceful

31. spa n. 水疗

32. tub n. 浴缸;浴盆

33. drain n. 下水道;排水管

34. refresh v. 使恢复精力;使凉爽

35. emotionally adv. 感情上地;情感上地

emotion

emotional

36. empower v. 增加(某人的)自主权;使控制局势

37. permission n. 准许;许可;批准

permit

38. justify v. 对…作出解释;为…辩解(或辩护)

39. awareness n. 知道;认识;意识

Phrases and Expressions

1. pile up 堆积;积压

2. come down with 患,得,染上(小病)

3. slip away 消失;消亡;死去

4. respond to 作出反馈;响应

5. care for 照顾,照料(病、老、幼者等)

6. tend to 照料;照管;护理

II. Text Learning

Feeling Free

① I woke up feeling cranky. I didn't want to do housework, though the laundry was piling up. I didn't want to read the work I brought home from the office. I didn't want to do anything that resembled responsible behavior. It was that kind of day.(承上总结句)

② As I drank my morning tea, I thought I felt a headache coming on. Yes, there it was, adull throb just behind my eyes. Maybe I should go back to bed until it subsided. As I put the dishes in the sink, it seemed that my muscles were beginning to ache. Or was the ache in my joints? That could mean I was coming down with the flu.(承上启下句) Everyone I knew had the flu this year. Why should I be the one to escape it? I absolutely should be in bed.

③ I shuffled back to bed, wiggled under the covers and shut my eyes. (1)Another couple of hours of sleep would be so nice, but I was already completely awake.I ought to get up.

But no, there was that headache and the beginning of a sniffle. Better get the tissues. 本部分重点及难点:

1. Another couple of hours of sleep would be so nice, but I was already completely awake. be completely / wide awake

be fast / sound asleep

④ On my way back from the bathroom with a family-sized(适合全家用的)tissue box, I stopped to grab that big new novel I had bought but had no time to read. I opened the book and settled against the pillows.

⑤ The morning was moving along and so was my reading. Another twenty pages and I was stretching. I should try to crack(找到解决办法)the report I was working on. I should at least get up and do the wash. What if I was contagious? I certainly didn't want to spread any germs. The wash could wait. (2)My family was resourceful enough to scrounge clothing for the next day.

⑥ Maybe I wasn't actually getting the flu. I didn't really want to be sick. To be truthful, all I wanted was a little time off. (3)I needed to nurture myself away from people, chores, career and the outside world. Did I have to wait to be sick to do that? As a child, the only respite from school or family chores was illness. But I wasn't a child any more.

(4)Did I have to manufacture symptoms to provide myself with an excuse? No, I decided, I didn't.

本部分重点及难点:

2. My family was resourceful enough to scrounge clothing for the next day.

家人足够有能力找到第二天能穿的衣服。

3.I needed to nurture myself away from people, chores, career and the outside world. nurture 养育,培养,培育;支持,鼓励

Parents want to know the best way to nurture and raise their child to adulthood. 父母们想了解把他们的孩子养育成人的最好方法。

She had always nurtured great ambitions for her son. 她一直在培养她儿子的雄心大志。

The human learns partly by nature, partly by nurture. 人的学习能力部分是先天的,部分是后天培育的。

nature and nurture 先天与后天,遗传与环境;先天遗传说和后天培养说

We want to nurture the project, not destroy it. 我们要支持这个新工程,不要破坏它。

4. Did I have to manufacture symptoms to provide myself with an excuse?

(1) manufacture 编造,捏造

(2) provide sb. with sth. / provide sth. for sb.

⑦ I talked to myself. Okay, I said, you need a day off. Admit it. Accept it. Toss out the

guilt and enjoy a mini-vacation. What would you like to do? Read? You're already doing that. Pamper yourself? Take a bubble bath. Be a hermit? Let the machine answer the phone.

⑧ I poured half the bottle of bath gel into the streaming water and added a hearty handful of chamomile bath salts. Then I lit a vanilla-scented candle and gingerly stepped into thebathtub. With a grateful sigh, I immersed myself in my homemade spa. I heard the phone ring somewhere off in the distance and smiled.

⑨ It is funny how the aches sub sided in the heat of the tub. They just slipped away with the last of the bubbles down the drain. My head felt just fine, the throb replaced by a sense of well-being.

⑩ By late afternoon, I was back at it, refreshed physically, mentally and emotionally. And rather than feeling helpless, I felt empowered. (5)I had given myself permission to listen and respond to my needs, to care for myself the way I tended to my family. (6)I didn't need the crutch of illness to justify a rest. It was such a simple awareness, but then isn't it the simple things that set us free?

本部分重点及难点:

5. I had given myself permission to listen and respond to my needs, to care for myself the way I tended to my family.

(1) give sb. permission to do sth.

(2) respond to one's needs: meet one's needs

(3) the way sb. did sth.

(4) tend to sb. 照顾,照料

(5) 译文:我给了自己倾听并满足自己需求的机会,像照顾家人一样关心一下自己。

6. I didn't need the crutch of illness to justify a rest.

(1) crutch: 拐杖;依靠,支持

(2) justify: prove sth. to be reasonable

The high quality of the cloth justifies its high price.

III. 部分练习讲解

P325 Bridging the Gap

Directions: Fill in the blanks with a word or a phrase that best completes the passage. You may choose a suitable one from the list given.

解题方法:把词分类

动词形容词副词介词代词

get out of positive physically through one

free unfortunately in addition to either(限定词)

rather than

Nothing takes its toll on the body(对身体有害) like stress. 1 In addition to the mental

damage that it causes, stress is also linked to many diseases, including cancer. 2Unfortunately, in today's world, most of us are experiencing a stressful life with no way to get out of it - or so we think.

If you are 3 one of the many people who want to alleviate your stress, you can learn some simple techniques to help you 4 get out of the vicious cycle of leading a stressful life.

Your stressful life does not just affect you, but everyone around you. It affects your relationships as well as any children or co-workers. Most of all, it can actually make you 5physically ill.

Do you really want to go 6 through the rest of your life feeling "stressed out"? Do you like

the idea of feeling "out of control" and that everything in life is a trial? Perhaps it is time for you to confront this situation and seek help to restore some sort of balance in your life and break 7 free from this cycle.

There are many facets to stress. Stress manifests itself(显露) in many different ways and can be 8 either self-induced(自诱导的) or something that occurs in life. We can never eliminate stress from our lives, as stressful situations are part of life. However, we can learn to react to stress in a 9 positive manner and take control of the situation 10 rather than allowing the stress to remain in control.

I. New words and expressions

New words

1. skinny adj. 极瘦的;干瘦的;皮包骨头的

2. curly adj. 鬈发(或毛)的;卷曲状的

3. adjust v. 适应;习惯

4. worthwhile adj. 重要的;令人愉快的;有趣的;得花时间(或花钱、努力等)的

5. puberty n. 青春期

6. tempting adj. 吸引人的;诱人的;有吸引力的

7. celeb n. 名人(celebrity的缩写)

8. bloomer n. 完全成熟的人

9. temporary adj. 短暂的;暂时的;临时的

10. spurt n.(速度、干劲、活动或感情的)短时激增,迸发

11. permanently adv. 永久地;永恒地;长久地

12. gene n. 基因

13. embarrassed adj. (人或行为)(尤指在社交场合)窘迫的,尴尬的,害羞的

embarrass

embarrassed

embarrassing

embarrassment

to one's embarrassment

much to one's embarrassment

to one's great embarrassment

14. mature v. 成熟;长成

maturity

immature

15. bulked-up adj. 胀大的;发起来的

16. influence v. 影响;对…起作用

influential

注意比较benefit-beneficial

17. criticize v. 批评;批判;挑剔;指责

critic

critical

criticism

18. hurtful adj. 感情的;伤害自尊的

19. peer n. 身份(或地)l相同的人;同龄人;同辈

20. racial adj. 种族的;种族间的

21. ethnic adj. 种族的;民族的

22. prejudice n. 偏见;成见

23. ignorance n. 无知

ignore

ignorant

24. independent adj. 自立的;自食其力的

25. boost v. 使增长;使兴旺

26. optimistic adj. 乐观的;抱乐观看法的

optimist

optimism

反义词:pessimist

pessimistic

pessimism

27. capable adj. 有能力的;有才能的

incapable

capability

28. lifestyle n. 生活方式;工作方式

29. combination n. 结合体;联合体;混合体

combine

combined 结合的,化合的

30. verify v. 核实;查对;核准

31. ultimately adv. 最终;最后;终归

32. nutritious adj. 有营养的;营养丰富的

nutrition

malnutrition

再如:maltreat, malfunction

Phrases and Expressions

1. put…down 使(当众)出丑;使出洋相;让某人现眼

2. go through 经历;遭受

3. be linked to 与…有联系

4. fill out 膨胀;扩张;长胖;长肥

5. feel good 感到愉快(或有信心等)

6. keep track of 了解…的情况(或动态)

II. Text Learning

Self-Esteem and Body Image

1 I'm fat. I'm too skinny. I'd be happy if I were taller, shorter, had curly hair, straight hair, a smaller nose, , bigger muscles, longer legs.

2 Do any of these statements sound familiar?(承上句) Are you used to putting yourself

down? If so, you're not alone. As a teen, you're going through a ton of changes(大量的变化) in your body. And as your body changes, so does your image of yourself. Lots of people have trouble adjusting, and this can affect their self-esteem.

3 Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important?

Self-esteem is all about how much people value themselves, the pride they feel in themselves, and how worthwhile they feel. Self-esteem is important because feeling good about yourself can affect how you act. A person who has high self-esteem will make friends easily, is more in control of his or her behavior, and will enjoy life more.

Body image is how someone feels about his or her own physical appearance. For many people,

especially those in their early teens, body image can be closely linked to self-esteem.That's because as kids develop into teens, they care more about how others see them.(承上句)4 What Influences a Person's Self-Esteem?

Puberty

Some teens struggle with their self-esteem when they begin puberty because the body goes through many changes. (1)These changes, combined with a natural desire to feel accepted, mean it can be tempting for people to compare themselves with others.They may compare themselves with the people around them or with actors and celebs they see on TV, in movies, or in magazines.

本部分重点及难点:

1. These changes, combined with a natural desire to feel accepted, mean it can be tempting for people to compare themselves with others.

(1) natural desire 天生的欲望

(2) it can be tempting(吸引人的,诱惑人的)for people to compare themselves with others 中it是形式主语,真正的主语是for people to compare themselves with others, for people 作不定式的逻辑主语。

注意不定式和动名词逻辑主语的选择

It's selfish of you to think of yourself all the time(你老是想着自己).

It's important for you to master a foreign language(你掌握一门外语).

It's +adj. +of sb. to do sth. 此类形容词包括:nice, kind, cruel, selfish, selfless, brave, wise, foolish, stupid 等。

Do you mind my/me/ Tom's / Tom opening the window(我/汤姆开窗)?

His/Tom's having left home(他/汤姆离家出走)made his parents very sad.

请认真答题,答题结果将记入知识点测评的成绩!

【单选题】24. It's essential ______ to keep a dictionary at hand while you are reading an English novel.

A.that you

B.your

C.of you

D.for you

【答案】D

【解析】本题考查不定式的逻辑主语。形容词essential不是表示人的品质、行为的词,故选择for you而不是of you。如果选择A应该把题干中空格后的to去掉,即essential后接用虚拟语气的从句。

【知识点】不定式的逻辑主语

(2)But it's impossible to measure ourselves against others because the changes that come with puberty are different for everyone.(承上启下句、主题句) Some people start

developing early; others are late bloomers. Some get a temporary layer of fat to prepare for agrowth spurt(急剧增长); others fill out permanently, and still others feel like theystay skinny no matter how much they eat. (3)It all depends on how our genes have programmed our bodies to act.(承上总结句)

The changes that come with puberty can affect how both girls and guys feel about themselves. Some girls may feel uncomfortable or embarrassed about their maturing bodies. Others may wish that they were developing faster. Girls may feet pressure to be thin but guys may feel like they don't look big or muscular enough.

本部分重点及难点:

2. But it's impossible to measure ourselves against others because the changes that come with puberty are different for everyone.

measure oneself against ... 对照……评价自己,一较高下,与……较量

3. It all depends on how our genes have programmed our bodies to act.

(1) depend on 取决于

It depends. 看情况吧。

(2) program 使按预定的步骤进行

our genes have programmed our bodies to act 我们的基因已经设定好了身体将如何成长

Outside Influences

It's not just development that affects self-esteem, though. Many other factors (like media images of skinny girls and bulked-up guys) can affect a person's body image too.

Family life can sometimes influence self-esteem. Some parents spend more time criticizing their kids and the way they look than praising them, which can reduce kids' ability to develop good self-esteem.

People also may experience negative comments and hurtful teasing about the way they lookfrom classmates and peers. Sometimes racial and ethnic prejudice is the source of such comments. Although these often come from ignorance, sometimes they can affect someone's body image and self-esteem.

5 Healthy Self-Esteem

If you have a positive body image, you probably like and accept yourself the way you are. This healthy attitude allows you to explore other aspects of growing up, such asdeveloping good friendships, growing more independent from your parents, and challenging yourself physically and mentally. Developing these parts of yourself can help boost your self-esteem.

A positive, optimistic attitude can help people develop strong self-esteem. For example,

saying, "Hey, I'm human" instead of "Wow, I'm such a loser" when you've made a mistake, or not blaming others when things don't go as expected.

Knowing what makes you happy and how to meet your goals can help you feel capable, strong, and in control of your life. A positive attitude and a healthy lifestyle (such as exercising and eating right) are a great combination for building good self-esteem.

6 Tips for Improving Your Body Image

Some people think they need to change how they look or act to feel good about themselves. But actually all you need to do is change the way you see your body and how you think about yourself.

The first thing to do is recognize that your body is your own, no matter what shape, size, or color it comes in. If you're very worried about your weight or size, check with your doctor to verify that things are OK. But it's no one's business but your own what your body is like. Ultimately, you have to be happy with yourself.

Next, identify which aspects of your appearance you can realistically change and which you

can't. Everyone (even the most perfect-seeming(表面上)celeb) has things about themselves that they can't change and need to accept, like their height, for example, or their shoe size.

(4)If there are things about yourself that you want to change and can (such as how fit you are), do this by making goals for yourself. For example, if you want to get fit, make

a plan to exercise every day and eat nutritious foods. Then keep track of your progress until you reach your goal. Meeting a challenge you set for yourself is a great way to boost self-esteem!

本部分重点及难点

4. If there are things about yourself that you want to change and can (such as how fit you are), do this by making goals for yourself.

do sth. for oneself

Good students should learn to think for themselves.

do sth. by oneself

Because there was nobody else, he had to do it by himself.

live to oneself

He bought a house near his widowed mother's because he didn't want her to live to herself. 请认真答题,答题结果将记入知识点测评的成绩!

【单选题】25. You are over 18 now, so try to carry out the task ______ oneself. That is, please try to do it _______.

A.by, independent

B.for, independently

C.to, dependently

D.in, dependently

【答案】B

【解析】本题考查for / to / by oneself及dependently / independently。for oneself相当于

independently,强调主观能动性,意为"独立地";by oneself相当于alone,强调客观含义,意为

"独自地"。故本题选择B,句意为"你已经超过18岁了,所以尽量独立完成这样任务。也就是说,请

独立做这件事。"

【知识点】for / to / by oneself及dependently / independently

重点知识补充:构词法

英语单词的构成有一定的规律,这种规律称为构词法。掌握构词法知识对我们更好地理解词义、认识

新词和扩大词汇量有重要意义。

构词法主要有三种:派生法、合成法和转换法。

一、派生法

在一个词的词根前面或后面加上某个词缀来产生新词,这种构词法称为派生法。词缀分为前缀和后缀。(一)后缀:

许多名词、形容词、副词和动词是由词根加后缀构成的。

1.构成名词的常用后缀有:

(1)-er, -or, -ist, -ee, -ian, -ese, -ant等用于构成表示人或物的名称。

如:writer, translator, trainee, employee, scientist, physicist, musician, physician,

Italian, Asian, Chinese, assistant等。

(2)-ance, -ence, -(a)tion, -sion, -al, -ing, -ity, -ment, -th, -ty, -ure, -ship等用于

构成表示行为、性质、状态等的抽象名词。

如:acceptance, assistance, dependence, confidence, repetition, preparation, discussion,

division, arrival, survival, approval, disapproval, building, reality, simplicity, ability,

rapidity, regularity, argument, warmth, length, growth, safety, leadership, failure,

pressure, friendship等。

(3)其他名词后缀:-hood, -ness, -ology, -phy。

如:childhood, neighborhood(附近,街坊), motherhood(母性,母亲身份), kindness, happiness,

sadness, biology, psychology, philosophy, geography

2. 构成形容词的常用后缀有:-able, -ible, -al, -ful, -less, -ish, -ive, -ous, -an, -ic, -ly,

-y, -ant, -ent, -ary, -en等。

如:available, suitable, responsible, natural, national, powerful, helpful, faithful,

successful, fearless, useless, helpless, selfless, selfish, childish, decisive, famous,

continuous, African, American, European, scientific, historic, friendly, lively, thirsty,

noisy, pleasant, dependent, consistent(一贯的), imaginary, golden, wooden等。

3. 构成动词的常用后缀有:-ise/ize, -en, -ify等。

如:modernize, realize, widen, strengthen, beautify, modify(修饰)等。

4. 构成副词的后缀有:-ly, -ward(s), -wise。例如:completely, rarely, truly, simply,

backward(s), forward(s), clockwise, likewise同样地

(二)前缀

1. 表示相反意义的前缀有:un-, dis, -in, -im, -ir, -il, -de等。

如:unhappy, unreasonable, uncomfortable, uncover(揭露), unload(卸货), dislike(注

意比较unlike), dishonest, disagree, informal, inaccurate, inactive, imbalanced, impossible,

immobile, irregular, irresponsible, illegal, illogical, devalue(贬值)等。

2. 表示其他意思的前缀有:

anti-: 表示"反","反对" antisocial 反社会的

anto-: 表示"自己的" autobiography 自传

bi-: 表示"二" bicycle 自行车;bilingual 双语的

bio-: 表示"生物的" biology 生物学;biochemical 生化的

co-: 表示"共同" cooperate 合作;co-existence 共存,共处

counter-: 表示"相反","反对" counterattack 反击

de-: 表示"除去",表示否定 decompose 分解;defrost 除霜

en-: 表示"使","使处于……状态" enable, enrich, enlarge, endanger

inter-: 表示"在……之间","互相" international 国际的;interpersonal 人际的

kilo-: 表示"千" kilometer 公里,kilogram公斤

mal-: 表示"错误","坏" malfunction 出故障,失灵;malnutrition 营养不良; maltreat / mi mid-: 表示"中间" midnight 午夜;midday 中午

mini-: 表示"极小的","极短的" minibus 小型公共汽车,面包车;miniskirt 超短裙

mis-: 表示"错误的" misunderstand 误解;mistake

non-: 表示否定nonstop 不停的;non-defective 没有缺陷的;non-smoker非烟民

post-: 表示"后","以后" postwar 战后的;postdoctor 博士后

pre-: 表示"在……之前" preview 预习;predict 预言

re-: 表示"再","重新" rewrite 重写;review 复习;retell 复述

sub-: 表示"在……下面" subway 地铁;submarine 潜水艇 marine 海洋的,海洋的;舰队

super-: 表示"超级的" uperman; supermarket

tele-: 表示"远距离的" telephone; telescope 望远镜;telegram 电报

tri-: 表示"三" tricycle

under-: 表示"在……之下","不足" underestimate; understatement

二、合成法

如:output, by-product, duty-free, undergo, overthrow 推翻

三、转换法

词形不变,单词的词性发生转变。如:dream, look, back等。

2014年自考英语(二)资料(-unit-12)