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钻井设备的介绍

Drilling Rig Components

Petex and the University of Texas Austin

? Petex 2001

Drilling Rig Components

1.Crown Block and Water

Table

2.Catline Boom and Hoist

Line

3.Drilling Line

4.Monkeyboard

5.Traveling Block

6.Top Drive

7.Mast

8.Drill Pipe

9.Doghouse

10.Blowout Preventer

11.Water Tank

12.Electric Cable Tray

13.Engine Generator Sets

14.Fuel Tank

15.Electrical Control House

16.Mud Pumps

17.Bulk Mud Component

Tanks

18.Mud Tanks (Pits)

19.Reserve Pit

20.Mud-Gas Separator

21.Shale Shakers

22.Choke Manifold

23.Pipe Ramp

24.Pipe Racks

25.Accumulator

Additional rig components not illustrated at right.

26.Annulus

27.Brake

28.Casing Head

29.Cathead

30.Catwalk

31.Cellar

32.Conductor Pipe

33.Degasser

34.Desander

钻井设备的介绍

Equipment used in drilling

48.Ram BOP

49.Rathole

50.Rotary Hose

51.Rotary Table

52.Slips

53.Spinning chain

54.Stairways

55.Standpipe

56.Surface Casing

57.Substructure

钻井设备的介绍

Crown Block and Water Table

An assembly of sheaves or pulleys mounted on beams at the top of the derrick. The drilling line is run over the sheaves down to the hoisting drum.

Catline Boom and Hoist Line

A structural framework erected near the top of the derrick for lifting material.

35. Desilter 36. Drawworks 37. Drill Bit 38. Drill Collars 39. Driller's Console 40. Elevators 41. Hoisting Line 42. Hook 43. Kelly

44. Kelly Bushing 45. Kelly Spinner 46. Mousehole

47. Mud Return Line

58. Swivel 59. Tongs 60. Walkways

61. Weight Indicator

钻井设备的介绍

Drilling Line

A wire rope hoisting

line, reeved on

sheaves of the crown

block and traveling

block (in effect a

block and tackle). Its

primary purpose is to

hoist or lower drill

pipe or casing from or

into a well. Also, a

wire rope used to

support the drilling

tools.

钻井设备的介绍

Monkeyboard

The derrickman's working

platform. Double board, tribble

board, fourable board; a monkey

board located at a height in the

derrick or mast equal to two,

three, or four lengths of pipe

respectively.

钻井设备的介绍

Traveling Block

An arrangement of

pulleys or sheaves

through which drilling

cable is reeved, which

moves up or down in

the derrick or mast.

Top Drive

The top drive

rotates the drill

string end bit

without the use of

a kelly and rotary

table. The top drive

is operated from a

control console on

the rig floor.

Mast

A portable derrick

capable of being

erected as a unit, as

distinguished from a

standard derrick,

which cannot be raised

to a working position

as a unit.

Drill Pipe

The heavy seamless tubing used

to rotate the bit and circulate the

drilling fluid. Joints of pipe 30

feet long are coupled together

with tool joints.

钻井设备的介绍

Doghouse

A small enclosure on the rig floor used as an

office for the driller or as a storehouse for small

objects. Also, any small building used as an

office or for storage.

钻井设备的介绍

Blowout Preventer

A large valve, usually installed

above the ram preventers, that

forms a seal in the annular space

between the pipe and well bore or,

if no pipe is present, on the well

bore itself

钻井设备的介绍

Water Tank

Is used to store water that is

used for mud mixing,

cementing, and rig cleaning.

钻井设备的介绍

Electric Cable Tray

Supports the heavy

electrical cables that feed

the power from the control

panel to the rig motors.

Engine Generator Sets

A diesel, Liquefied

Petroleum Gas (LPG), natural

gas, or gasoline engine, along

with a mechanical

transmission and generator

for producing power for the

drilling rig. Newer rigs use

electric generators to power

electric motors on the other

parts of the rig.

钻井设备的介绍

Fuel Tanks

Fuel storage tanks for the power generating

system.

Electric House

On diesel electric rigs, powerful diesel engines drive

large electric generators. The generators produce

electricity that flows through cables to electric

switches and control equipment enclosed in a

control cabinet or panel. Electricity is fed to electric

motors via the panel.

钻井设备的介绍

Mud Pump

A large reciprocating

pump used to

circulate the mud

(drilling fluid) on a

drilling rig.

Bulk Mud Components

in Storage

Hopper type tanks for

storage of drilling fluid

components.

钻井设备的介绍

Mud Pits

A series of open tanks, usually made of steel plates, through which the drilling mud is cycled to allow sand and sediments to settle out. Additives are mixed with the mud in the pit, and the fluid is temporarily stored there before being pumped back into the well. Mud pit compartments are also called shaker pits, settling pits, and suction pits, depending on their main purpose.

钻井设备的介绍

Reserve Pits

A mud pit in which a supply of

drilling fluid has been stored. Also,

a waste pit, usually an excavated,

earthen-walled pit. It may be lined

with plastic to prevent soil

contamination.

Mud Gas Separator

A device that removes gas

from the mud coming out of

a well when a kick is being

circulated out.

钻井设备的介绍

Shale Shaker

A series of trays with sieves or screens that vibrate to remove cuttings from circulating fluid in rotary drilling operations. The size of the openings in the sieve is selected to match the size of the solids in the drilling fluid and the anticipated size of cuttings. Also called a shaker.

钻井设备的介绍

Choke Manifold

The arrangement of piping and special valves, called chokes, through which drilling mud is circulated when the blowout preventers are closed to control the pressures encountered during a kick.

钻井设备的介绍

Pipe Ramp

An angled ramp for dragging drill pipe up to the drilling platform or bringing pipe down off the drill platform.

Pipe Racks

A horizontal support for tubular

goods.

Accumulator

The storage device for nitrogen pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is used in operating the blowout preventers.

钻井设备的介绍

钻井设备的介绍

钻井设备的介绍

Annulus

The space around a pipe in a well bore, the outer wall of which may be the wall of either the bore hole or the casing; sometimes termed the annular space.

钻井设备的介绍

Brake

The braking device on the

drawworks to stop a load

being lifted.

Casing Head

A heavy, flanged steel fitting

connected to the first string

of casing. It provides a

housing for slips and packing

assemblies, allows

suspension of intermediate

and production strings of

casing, and supplies the

means for the annulus to be

sealed off. Also called a

spool.

钻井设备的介绍

Cathead

A spool-shaped

attachment on a winch

around which rope for

hoisting and pulling is

wound.

钻井设备的介绍

The ramp at the side of the

drilling rig where pipe is

laid to be lifted to the

derrick floor by the catline

or by an air hoist.

Cellar

A pit in the ground to

provide additional height

between the rig floor and

the well head to

accommodate the

installation of blowout

preventers, ratholes,

mouseholes, and so forth. It

also collects drainage water

and other fluids for

disposal.

钻井设备的介绍

Conductor Pipe

The largest diameter casing and the topmost length of casing. It is relatively short and encases the topmost string of casing.

The equipment used to

remove unwanted gas

from a liquid, especially

from drilling fluid.

Desilter

A centrifugal device, similar

to a desander, used to remove

very fine particles, or silt,

from drilling fluid. This

keeps the amount of solids in

the fluid to the lowest

possible level.

钻井设备的介绍

Drawworks

The hoisting mechanism on a

drilling rig. It is essentially a

large winch that spools off or

takes in the drilling line and

thus raises or lowers the drill

stem and bit.

Drill Bit

The cutting or boring element used

in drilling oil and gas wells. Most

bits used in rotary drilling are

roller-cone bits. The bit consists of

the cutting elements and the

circulating element. The circulating

element permits the passage of

drilling fluid and uses the hydraulic

force of the fluid stream to improve

drilling rates.

钻井设备的介绍

Drill Collar

A heavy, thick-walled tube, usually steel, used between

the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem. It is used to put

weight on the bit so that the bit can drill.

Drillers Console

The control panel, located on

the platform, where the driller

controls drilling operations.

钻井设备的介绍

Elevators

A set of clamps that

grips a stand, or

column, of casing,

tubing, drill pipe, or

sucker rods, so the

stand can be raised or

lowered into the hole.

Hoisting Line

A wire rope used in hoisting operations. Must conform to the API standards for its intended uses.

钻井设备的介绍

A large, hook-shaped device from which

the elevator bails or the swivel is

suspended. It is designed to carry

maximum loads ranging from 100 to 650

tons and turns on bearings in its supporting

housing.

Kelly

The heavy square or hexagonal steel member suspended from the swivel through the rotary table. It is connected to the topmost joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary

table turns.