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World Bank

介绍

世界银行(WBG)是世界银行集团的俗称,“世界银行”这个名称一直是用于指国际复兴开发银行(IBRD)和国际开发协会(IDA)。这些机构联合向发展中国家提供低息贷款、无息信贷和赠款。它是一个国际组织,其一开始的使命是帮助在第二次世界大战中被破坏的国家的重建。今天它的任务是资助国家克服穷困,各机构在减轻贫困和提高生活水平的使命中发挥独特的作用。

Broadly speaking, World Bank refers to World Bank Group. But the term "World Bank" generally refers to the IBRD and IDA, while the World Bank Group is used to refer to the institutions collectively. It’s a family of five international organizations that makes leveraged loans, generally to poor countries. The Group's headquarters are in Washington, D.C.

The five international organizations are: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD国际复兴开发银行), International Development Association (IDA国际开发协会), International Finance Corporation (IFC国际金融公司), International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID国际投资争端解决中心), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA多边投资担保机构). The IBRD and IDA provide loans at preferential rates to member countries, as well as grants to the poorest countries. And the activities of the IFC and MIGA include investment in the private sector and providing insurance respectively.

The function of IBRD is to provide financial aid to help countries, especially developing countries to overcome poverty. That is to help undeveloped member countries achieve economic development through capital investment and advisory services. IDA is responsible for providing long-term, interest-free to world’s 80 poorest countries. While the IBRD raises most of its funds on the world's financial markets, IDA is funded largely by contributions from the governments of the richer member countries. IDA loans address primary education, basic health services, clean water supply and sanitation, environmental safeguards, business-climate improvements, infrastructure and institutional reforms. These projects are intended to pave the way toward economic growth, job creation, higher incomes and better living conditions. IFC promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries primarily by: financial private sector projects and companies located in the developing world, helping private companies in the developing world mobilize financing in international financial markets, providing advice and technical assistance to businesses and governments. It shares the primary objective of all World Bank Group institutions.

ICSID provides facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes between member countries and individual investors. MIGA promotes foreign direct investment into developing countries by insuring investors against political risk, advising governments on attracting investment, sharing information through on-line investment information services, and mediating disputes between investors and governments.

Structure

世界银行投票权排名前十国家:

World Bank

World Bank

WBG is an international organization owned by its member governments. It has a total number of 186 member countries. But there is a restriction. You should firstly be a member of IMF (International Monetary Fund), then you can join the WBG.

Each institution in the World Bank Group is also owned by its member governments, which subscribe to its basic share capital, with votes proportional to shareholding. That means, if you hold more share, you have more power. All countries have an equal amounts of voting rights but there are also additional votes which depend on financial contributions to the organization. (每个世界银行集团的机构的拥有权在于其成员国政府,这些成员国的表决权按其所占股份的比例不同。每个成员国的表决权分两个部分:第一个部分是所有成员国相同的,第二个部分按每个成员国缴纳的会费而不同) So, it is criticized that although a major amount of the member countries are developing countries, they are in fact controlled by those developed countries. For example, until now the United States held 15.8% of total votes. Since changes to the Bank's Charter require an 85% super-majority, the US can block any major change in the Bank's governing structure.

Presidency

Traditionally, the Bank President has always been a U.S. citizen nominated by the President of the United States, the largest shareholder in the bank. The nominee is subject to confirmation by the Board of Governors, to serve for a five-year renewable term.

List of presidents

Eugene Meyer (June 1946–December 1946)

John J. McCloy (March 1947–June 1949)

Eugene R. Black, Sr. (1949–1963)

George D. Woods (January 1963–March 1968)

Robert McNamara (April 1968–June 1981)

Alden W. Clausen (July 1981–June 1986)

Barber Conable (July 1986–August 1991)

Lewis T. Preston (September 1991–May 1995)

James Wolfensohn (May 1995–June 2005)

Paul Wolfowitz (1 June 2005–June 2007)

Robert Zoellick (1 July 2007–present)

He is the former deputy secretary of state. And on May 30, 2007, US President George W. Bush nominated him as President of the World Bank Group.

发展

The WBG was established at the same time with IMF. In order to rebuild the international monetary and financial system, the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held in Bretton Woods in July 1944. The Conference concluded two agreements. One is International Monetary Fund Agreement and the other is IBRD Agreement. On 27th Dec,1945, IBRD was formally set up, and at that time it is commonly known as the World Bank.

Then, with the European economic recovery, financial issues came out. There are too many restrictions of loans, which can’t meet the financial needs of developing countries. So, on 24th Nov, 1960, IDA was established in Washington, serving as a subsidiary institution of the World Bank. Sometimes these two are together called the Bank. This is why the World Bank generally referS to IBRD and IDA.

In March 1951, 美国国际开发咨询局 suggest to set up an international finance corporation under the World Bank. So, after discussion, in 1954, IFC was set up, also in Washington as a subsidiary institution of the World Bank. Since then, these three are combined together as the World Bank Group.

After WWII, newly independent developing countries began to nationalize some foreign enterprises involving important natural resources and national economy. This caused great conflicts between developing and developed countries. In order to solve this problem, Washington Convention was passed in 1965. According to it, ICSID was set up as an international professional institution mainly to solve investment conflicts between countries.

In the 1950s, in order to provide international protection to international private investment, some organizations and individuals were trying to establish a kind of multinational investment guarantee agency. On 12th Apr, 1989, MIGA was set up.

世界银行和国际货币基金组织同时建立的。1944年7月,为重建国际货币金融体系,在美国布雷顿森林举行了联合国货币金融会议,会议通过了两个协定,一个是《国际货币基金组织协定》,另一个即是《国际复兴开发银行协定》。1945年12月27日,28个国家的代表签署了《国际复兴开发银行协定》,正式成立了"国际复兴开发银行"(International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IBRD),俗称"世界银行"(The World Bank)。世界银行于1946年6月25日正式开业,1947年11月成为联合国专门机构之一,总部设在华盛顿。

1944年举行布雷顿森林会议时,各国所关心的重点是重建一个开放的世界经济和稳定的汇率制度,而不是对发展提供资金,所以当时讨论的主要是国际货币基金组织的问题,而不是世界银行的问题。随着欧洲经济的复兴,资金问题日益突出,引起了越来越多的注意。人们感到世界银行的贷款条件严格,有很多局限,不能满足发展中国家的资金需求。1957年,美国参议员迈克·门罗尼向美国参议院提出设立国际开发协会的建议。1959年9月美国在世界银行的代表正式向银行理事会提这一建议,并获同年10月举行的世界银行第十四届年会通过。1960年9月24日,国际开发协会在华盛顿正式成立,11月8日开始营业。国际开发协会(International Developmet Association,IDA)是世界银行的附属机构,有时和世界银行一起合称为"银行"(The Bank),它也是联合国的专门机构之一。

1951年3月,美国国际开发咨询局建议在世界银行下设立国际金融公司,专门对发展中国家的私人企业贷款或投资。1954年,世界银行同成员国政府协商后正式决定建立国际金融公司(International Finance

Corporation,IFC)。1956年7月24日,公司正式宣告成立,总部设在华盛顿,作为世界银行的附属机构。1957年2月20日,它成为联合国的专门机构之一。

国际复兴开发银行、国际开发协会、国际金融公司三大机构合起来,开始一起被称为世界银行集团(World Bank Group)。

第二次世界大战以后,新独立的发展中国家纷纷对涉及重要自然资源和国民经济命脉的外资企业实生片收或国有化,引起了发达国家与发展中国家之间的矛盾和纠纷,为解决这类纠纷, 1965年3月18日,世界银行执行董事会正式通过了《解决一国与他国国民间投资争端国际公约》(即《华盛顿公约》),1966年10月正式生效。根据公约,在世界银行总部设立了解决投资争端国际中心(International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes ,ICSID),作为解决国家与他国国民间投资争端的国际性专门机构。解决投资争端国际中心是世界银行集团的第四个成员。

50年代以来,为了对国际私人投资的政治风险提供国际性保护,一些国际组织、民间团体和私人致力于创设多边投资担保机构,世界银行也一直进行研究。1985年10月,世界银行年会通过了《多边投资担保机构公约》,该公约的中心任务是建立一个多边投资担保机构(Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency ,MIGA)。1988年4月12日,公约正式生效。多边投资担保机构成为世界银行集团的第五个成员。

宗旨和职能

Although it makes profits, these profits are used to support continued efforts in poverty reduction.(非营利性的国际组织)

I’m going to talk about it in a simple way because it’s very complicated. When it was first established, the main purpose was to help Western European countries recover from wars. But after 1948, European countries began to mainly depend on 马歇尔计划to recover the economy destroyed by wars. Since then, the World Bank turned to offer 中期or long-term loans and investment to developing countries, so as to 刺激their economical and social development.

世界银行在成立之初,主要是资助西欧国家恢复被战争破坏了的经济,但在1948年后,欧洲各国开始主要依赖美国的“马歇尔计划”来恢复战后的经济,世界银行于是主要转向向发展中国家提供中长期贷款与投资,促进发展中国家经济和社会发展。

世界银行是1944年7月布雷顿森林会议后,与国际货币基金组织同时产生的两个国际性金融机构之一,也是联合国属下的一个专门机构。世界银行于1945年12月正式宣告成立,1946年6月开始办理业务,1947年11月成为联合国的专门机构。

世界银行与国际货币基金组织两者起着相互配合的作用。国际货币基金组织主要负责国际货币事务方面的问题,其主要任务是向成员国提供解决国际收支暂时不平衡的短期外汇资金,以消除外汇管制,促进汇率稳定和国际贸易的扩大。世界银行则主要负责经济的复兴和发展,向各成员国提供发展经济的中长期贷款。

按照《国际复兴开发银行协定条款》的规定,世界银行的宗旨是:

(1)通过对生产事业的投资,协助成员国经济的复兴与建设,鼓励不发达国家对资源的开发;

(2)通过担保或参加私人贷款及其他私人投资的方式,促进私人对外投资。当成员国不能在合理条件下获得私人资本时,可运用该行自有资本或筹集的资金来补充私人投资的不足;

(3)鼓励国际投资,协助成员国提高生产能力,促进成员国国际贸易的平衡发展和国际收支状况的改善;

(4)在提供贷款保证时,应与其他方面的国际贷款配合。

批评

World Bank

另一方面,自由主义者批评世界银行完全是一个政治组织。他们认为世界银行不相信市场调节经济的能力,而是一个国家拥有、调整国际经济的工具,其目的是来掩盖这些国家的政策对世界经济的控制。

Although many poor governments in the world rely on the World Bank to carry out their develop plans, it is always criticized by some people who are opposed to the globalization of neo-colonialism. Some think that the World Bank is politically influenced by some countries, especially America, so its policies always benefit these countries. And some think that the aim of the World Bank is 新自由主义. The principle is to believe that the market is the only way to bring a country property and that a country can be prosperous only when she 实行自由市场竞争. But this has no effect on those countries that are having wars or being 压迫. Under these circumstance, the World Bank prefer to bring in some 外企to destroy the development of local economic system. They can’t agree with this.

世界银行与中国

中国是国际复兴开发银行的发起国之一。新中国成立之后.世界银行的席位为国民党政府占据,1980年.世界银行理事会通过决议恢复了中国的合法席位,1980?1981年世界银行计对中国的经济进行了一次全面的考察,并写出了一份长达百万字的《中国:社会主义经济的发展》考察报告。1981年6月,世界银行董事会批准了我国的第一个贷款项目一重点大学发展项目。从此开始了对我国提供长期开发性贷款业务.世界银行贷款也是目前我国利用外资的一条重要渠道,据财政部统计,截止1994年底,世界银行已批准对中国贷款项目148个.承诺资金达203亿美元左右,其中有息贷款120多亿美元。约占贷款总额的6%%;无息贷款80多亿美元,约占贷款总额的40%。这些项目几乎履盖了中国大陆除西藏和台湾省以外的所有省份和自治区,涉及工业、农业、能源、交通、社会发展、金融等行业和部门。世界银行提供给中

国大陆的贷款重点是农业,主要用于农业开发、水利灌溉、土壤改造、果林副业、畜牧水产、扶贫事业等等.可以说是项目受益面最广的部门。贷款额约占世行对中国货款承诺总额的25.6%.其次是交通项目,占总额的21.5%,为中国的铁路、公路、港口、尤其是近几年的高速公路发展起到了很大的推动作用。

社会发展项目内容广泛,包括各类教育、卫生。供水、城建住房等等,金额占总额的19.2%。

另外中国还与世行达成技术援助协定项目.中间金融机构转贷项目.中国还引进世行资金用于工业.林业发展.已显示出良好的效益。

目前,中国已有四十多个世界银行贷款项目竣工.一百多项正在执行当中,其中有一些也接近尾声、世界银行管理部门认为,中国是利用世行贷款效益最好的国家之一。

世界银行及国际货币基金组织在1994年马德里召开的年会上宣布,将于1997年9月在香港举行联合理事周年大会,届时香港主权刚回归中国,香港特别行政区政府又成立不到三个月,有包括上百个国家政府要员,国际财经界巨子及全球媒介云集香港。这对新的特区政府是一个考验,也是对香港顺利过渡的检阅。

一、与世界银行的往来

中国是世界银行的创始国之一,新中国成立后,中国在世界银行的席位长期为台湾当局所占据。1980年5月15日,中国在世界银行和所属国际开发协会及国际金融公司的合法席位得到恢复。1980年9月3日,该行理事会通过投票,同意将中国在该行的股份从原7 500股增加到12 000股。我国在世界银行有投票权。在世界银行的执行董事会中,我国单独派有一名董事。我国

从1981年起开始向该行借款。此后,我国与世界银行的合作逐步展开、扩大,世界银行通过提供期限较长的项目贷款,推动了我国交通运输、行业改造、能源、农业等国家重点建设以及金融、文卫环保等事业的发展,同时还通过本身的培训机构,为我国培训了大批了解世界银行业务、熟悉专业知识的管理人才。

二、与国际开发协会的往来

1980年5月15日,中国在该协会的席位也得到恢复,在协会中享有投票权。国际开发协会主要向我国提供长期低息贷款,用于我国基础设施的建设与完善。

三、与国际金融公司的往来

1980年5月15日,中国在该公司的席位也得到恢复。我国按规定认缴股金并享有投票权。目前,我国与国际金融公司的业务往来日益密切。从1987年该公司开始向我国中外合资企业提供融资开始,援助的范围不断扩大,现已涉及到包括中外合资企业、集体企业(含乡镇)、私营企业及实行股份制的企业等,为我国这些企业竞争能力的提高及我国多种所有制经济成分的发展,作出了一定的贡献。