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小学英语介词讲解及练习

小学英语介词讲解及练习

小学英语总复习

小学英语介词总结

介词(Preposition)

一、概述

介词是英语中很活跃的词,一般置于名词之前。它常和名词或名词性词语构成介词短语。同一个介词常和不同的词语搭配形成固定搭配,表示不同意义。二、常用介词的基本用法

at

①表示时间:I go to school at seven every day 我每天早上7点去上学。

②表示在某一具体地点:He is standing at the bus stop 他站在公共汽车站。

③表示动作的方向、目标:Let me have a look at the picture 让我看看这幅图。

④用于某些固定搭配:at once 立刻、马上at last 最后

at the same time 同时at first 开始时

not at all 一点也不

about

①表示大约时间:I's about six o'clock now. 现在大约6点钟了。

②表示地点;在……周围:Everthing about me is so beautiful 我周围的一切都那么美好。

③关于,对于:We are talking about the news. 我们正在谈论新闻。

after

①在……之后:After dinner I watch TV. 晚饭后我看电视。

②在……后面:He came into the room after me. 他在我后面进了房间。

behind

①在……之后:There is a bike behind the tree. 树后有一辆自行车

②比……晚,迟于:The train is behind time. 火车晚点了

by

①在……旁:He is sitting by the bed. 他正坐在床边。

②到……时候:We have learned three English songs by now. 到现在为止,我们已经学会了三首英文歌曲。

③以……方式:I go to school by bus. 我乘公共汽车去上学。

④用于某些固定搭配:one by one 一个接一个by the way 顺便说一句

for

①为,给,替:I'll make a card for my teacher. 我要给老师做张卡片。

②由于:Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你帮我。

③表示给(某人)用的:There is letter for you. 这儿有你一封信。

in

①在……里面:The pencil is in the desk. 铅笔在课桌里。

②在一段时间里:We have four classes in the morning. 我们上午有四节课。

③用,以:What's this in English? 这用英语怎么说?

④在某一年份,季节,月份:in 2002, in spring, in January

⑤表示状态,服饰:Helen is in yellow. 海伦身穿黄色衣服。

⑥在……方面:He is weak in English. 他的英语不行。

⑦用于某些固定搭配:in front of 在……前面

in the end 最后

in time 及时

like

①像……样:He looks like his father. 他像他的父亲。

②这样,那样:Don't look at me like that. 别那样看着我。

③怎样:What's the weather like? 天气怎样。

near

靠近,在……附近:My bed is near the window. 我的床在窗户旁。

of

①的(表示所属关系):This is a photo of my family. 这是一张我家的照片。

②……的(用于所有格):He is a friend of mine. 他是我的一个朋友。

③表示数量(与连词连用):One of us is from Beijing. 我们中有一个来自北京

④想到,谈到:I often think of them. 我常常想到他们。

⑤用于某些固定搭配:of course 当然

because of 因为,由于

on

①在……上面:There are some apple on the tree. 树上有些苹果。

②在(星期)天,在某天的上午(下午,晚上):They go to English class on Sunday. 星期天他们去上英语课。

I left Beijing on the morning of May 1. 我在5月1日早上离开北京。

③用于某些固定搭配:on duty 值日on time 准时

over

①在……正上方:There is a lamp over the table. 桌子上方有一盏灯。

②遍及,穿过:There is a bridge over the river. 有座桥横跨那条河。

③超过,不止:She is a little over 2. 她两岁多了。

to

①到,往,向:He walks to the window. 他走向窗户。

②表示时间、数量,

到……为止Please count from ten to thirty. 请从10数到30.

③向,对,给:Happy New Year to you all. 大家新年好。

under

What's under your desk? 你书桌底下是什么?

with

①和,写:Could you go home with me? 你能和我一起回家吗?

②表示伴随状态,带有:Who's that girl with glasses? 那位戴眼睛的女孩是谁?

三、介词的固定搭配

1)介词和名词的连用2)动词和介词的连用

at arrive at/in 到达

at first 起初;开始get off 下车

at last 最后help sb. With sth. 帮组某人做某事

at school 在上课,在上学ask for 请求

at the moment 此刻get up 起床

at home 在家;无拘束laugh at 嘲笑

at present 现在learn from 向……学习

at work 上班,在工作look after 照顾

at the same time 同时look for 寻找

think for 想到

on worry about 担心

on duty 值日listen to 听

on holiday 度假look at 看;注视

on time 准时talk about 交谈;谈

on the left/right 在左/右边wait for 等候;等

on the radio 在广播中thank for 为……而感谢

on foot 步行

on sale 出售;降价出售3)形容词和介词连用

on TV 在电视上播放be afraid of 害怕

on the phone 在电话中be careful with 小心;关心

on the way 在路上be interested in 对……感兴趣

be good at 善于

in be proud of 感到自豪

in all 总体be crazy about 酷爱

in class 在课堂上be late for 干某事迟到

in English 用英语be good for 对……有利

in short 总之4)其他

in a hurry 匆忙地by+交通工具

in the end 最后by bus/train/plane/air/ship/bike/sea/land…

in bed 躺在床上lots of/a lot of 许多,大量

in danger 在危险中at most 至多

in fact 事实上at least 至少

in time 及时地at once 立刻;马上

in a minute 立刻in order to 为了

、小学英语介词at,in与on在时间方面的用法

at表示时间的一点;in表示一个时期;on表示特殊日子。

如:

He goes to school at seven o’clock in the morning. 他早晨七点上学。

Can you finish the work in two days. 你能在两天内完成这个工作吗?

Linda was born on the second of May. 琳达五月二日出生。

1>. at后常接几点几分,天明,中午,日出,日落,开始等。如:

at five o’clock (五点),at down (黎明),at daybreak (天亮),at sunrise (日出),at noon (中午),at sunset (日落),at midnight (半夜),at the beginning of the month (月初),at that time (那时),at that moment (那会儿),at this time of day (在一天的这个时候)。

2>. in后常接年,月,日期,上午,下午,晚上,白天,季节,世纪等。如:in 2006(2006年),in May,2004 (2004年五月),in the morning (早晨/上午),in the afternoon (下午),in the evening (晚上),in the night (夜晚),in the daytime (白天),in the 21st century (21世纪),in three days (weeks/month)三天(周/个月),in a week (一周),in spring (春季)。

3>. on后常接某日,星期几,某日或某周日的朝夕,节日等。如:

on Sunday (星期日),on a warm morning in April (四月的一个温暖的上午),on a December night (12月的一个夜晚),on that afternoon (那天下午),on the following night (下一个晚上),on Christmas afternoon (圣诞节下午),on October 1,1949 (1949年10月1日),on New Year’s Day (新年),on New Yea r’s Eve (除夕),on the morning of the 15th (15日的早上)等。

常用的方位介词有:in on to

在范围之内用in

在范围之外,如果两地接壤就用on 不接壤的用to

Beijing is in the north of China .

Japan is to the east of China .

Shanxi Province is on the west of Hebei Province .

1. at表示"在......处",一般指较小的比较具体的地点。如:

He isn't at school. He is at home. 他不在学校,他在家。

2. in表示"在......内部;在......里面"的意思。如:

What is in the box? 盒子里有什么?

3. on表示"在某物的上面",但两者互相接触。如:

My books are on that table. 我的书在那张桌子上。

4. under表示"在某物垂直的正下方",两者之间不接触。如:

My cat is under my chair. 我的猫在我的椅子下。

5. behind表示"在某物体的后面"。如:

The broom is behind the door. 笤帚在门后。

6. in front of表示"在......的前面",正好与behind相反。如:

There are some big trees in front of our classroom. 我们教室前面有几棵大树。

7. near表示"在某物体的附近",意为"接近、靠近"。如:

The ball is near the door. 球在门旁边。

介词in, on, under, behind是表示静态位置的介词

也可以参考这些

介词用法口诀

早、午、晚要用in,at黎明、午夜、点与分。

年、月、年月、季节、周,阳光、灯、影、衣、冒in。

将来时态in...以后,小处at大处in。

有形with无形by,语言、单位、材料in。

特征、方面与方式,心情成语惯用in。

介词at和to表方向,攻击、位置、恶、善分。

日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早、午、晚,

收音、农场、值日on,关于、基础、靠、著论。

着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付、相反,准。

特定时日和"一……就",on后常接动名词。

年、月、日加早、午、晚,of之前on代in。

步行、驴、马、玩笑on,cab,carriage则用in。

at山脚、门口、在当前,速、温、日落、价、核心。

工具、和、同随with,具有、独立、就、原因。

就……来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分。

海、陆、空、车、偶、被by,单数、人类know to man。

this、that、tomorrow,yesterday,next、last、one。

接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯。

over、under正上下,above、below则不然,

若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关。'

beyond超出、无、不能,against靠着,对与反。

besides,except分内外,among之内along沿。

同类比较except,加for异类记心间。

原状because of,、owing to、due to表语形容词

under后接修、建中,of、from物、化分。

before、after表一点, ago、later表一段。

before能接完成时,ago过去极有限。

since以来during间,since时态多变换。

与之相比beside,除了last but one。

复不定for、找、价、原,对、给、段、去、为、作、赞。

快到、对、向towards,工、学、军、城、北、上、南。

but for否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言。

ing型由于鉴,除了除外与包合。

之后、关于、在......方面,有关介词须记全。

in内to外表位置,山、水、国界to在前。

1\ the first day ________ school 2\ ________ the school playground

3\ _________ classes 4\ _________ Wednesday

5\ __________ a farm 6\ pull _________ carrots

7\ a lot _______ fruit trees 8\ live _________ a town

9\ ________ the weekends12\ look _______ them

10\ _________ the sitting room 11\

________ the 4th ______ November

13\ _________ the playground 14\ _______ the school hall

15\ ________ New Year16\ talk _______ his students _______ holidays

17\ _________ Christmas Day18\ have a big lunch _________ my family

19\ dress _______ _________ costumes24\ __________ Mum and Dad.

20\ _________ September or October 21\ ________ his grandpa?ˉs house

22\ _________ the Christmas tree 23\ ________ me 30\ a book ________ holidays

25\ _________ English 26\ ________ Christmas 27\ play ________ lanterns

28\ ________ Christmas Day 29\ the names _______ the day

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1\ the first day (of) school

2\(in)the school playground

3\ (in)classes

4\(on) Wednesday

5\(on)a farm

6\ pull (up) carrots

7\ a lot (of) fruit trees

8\ live (in) a town

9\ (at)the weekends

10\ (in) the sitting room

11\ (on)the 4th (of) November

12\ look (at) them

13\ (in) the playground

15\ (on) New Year

16\ talk (with) his students (in) holidays

17\ (on) Christmas Day

18\ have a big lunch (with) my family 19\ dress (up) (in) costumes

20\ (in) September or October

21\ (in) his grandpa?ˉs house

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( )1.___ the afternoon of May, we visited the old man.

A. On

B. At

C. In

( )2.Many people work ___ the day and sleep ___ night.

A. on ; at

B. in ; in

C. in ; at ( )3.He speaks Japanese best ____ the boy students.

A. between

B. with

C. among

( )4.A wolf ___ a sheep skin is our dangerous enemy.

A. with

B. in

C. on

( )5.Joan hopes to come back ___ three days.

A. after

B. for

C. in ( )6.They sent the letter to me ___ mistake.

A. by

B. for

C. with ( )7.He left home ___ a cold winter evening.

A. at

B. on

C. in

( )8.Shanghai is ____ the east of China.

A. in

B. on

C. to ( )9.____ my father?ˉs help, I have

finished my composition.

A. Under

B. On

C. with ( )10.He?ˉs very strict ____ himself and he?ˉs very strict ___ his work.

A. with ; in

B. in ; with

C. with ; with

( )11.I really can?ˉt agree ____ you.

A. to

B. on

C. with

( )12.The shop won?ˉt open ___ nine in the morning.

A. until

B. at

C. during

( )13.How about ___ the flowers now?

A. watering

B. are watering

C. watered

( )14.She spent all his money ___ books.

A. in

B. with

C. on ( )15.They are talking ___ low

voices.

A. with

B. in

C. on

( )16.It?ˉs very kind ___ you to help us.

A. for

B. to

C. of ( )17.What will you have ___ breakfast this morning?

A. with

B. for

C. by ( )18.A plane is flying ____ the city.

A. on

B. over

C. above

( )19.You are free to speak ___ the meeting.

A. at

B. in

C. on ( )20.Mr. Green will stay in China___ Friday.

A. to

B. on

C. till ( )21.It?ˉs wrong to play jokes ___ other people.

A. on

B. of

C. with

( )22.Which color do you like? I prefer blue ___ red.

A. for

B. as

C. to ( )23.The student will give us a talk ___ how to use our spare time.

A. for

B. on

C. in ( )24.I paid two hundred yuan ___ that kind of bicycle.

A. in

B. for

C. on ( )25.The doctor is very kind ___ his patients

A. to

B. on

C. at ( )26.We can?ˉt live ___ air.

A. in

B. with

C. without

( )27.The child was afraid ___ the strange sound.

A. at

B. for

C. of

( )28.He was very angry ___ her for being late.

A. for

B. with

C. at

( )29.What do you think __ _ the

play?

A. about

B. like

C.

of

( )30.I think it?ˉs the right way to

work out the problem, but I am not

sure _____ it.

A. do

B. about

C.

of

( )31.Reading ___ the sun isn?ˉt

good _ __ you

A. under ; for

B. in ; for

C. in ; to

( )32.I won?ˉt ask about it, I?ˉm

going to see it ___ _ my own eyes.

A. by

B. for

C.

with

( )33.We go to school every day _ ___ Sunday.

A. except

B. without

C.

on

( )34.There is a small river ___

the two towns

A. in

B. between

C. among

( )35.Li Lei sometimes falls asleep ___ the lesson.

A. for

B. through

C. during ( )36.Mr. Black went to Paris ___ a few days.

A. for

B. in

C. after

( )37.They will leave ________ London next month.

A. to

B. from

C. for ( )38.Are you going to the zoo __ _ bus or ___ my car?

A. on ; by

B. by ; in

C. on ; in

( )39.He woke up several times _ __ the night

A. in

B. at

C. on ( )40. We traveled overnight to Paris and arrived _______ 5 o?ˉclock ______ the morning.

A. on; in

B. at; in

C. at; on

D.

in; on

( )41. Where?ˉs Lily? We are all here _______ her.

A. beside

B. about

C. except

D. with

( )42. She sent her friend a postcard _______ a birthday present.

A. on

B. as

C. for

D. ( )43. Jack has studied Chinese in this school ______ the year of 2000.

A. since

B. in

C. on

D. by ( )44. ---What is a writing brush, do you know?

---It?ˉs _______ writing and drawing.

A. with

B. to

C. for

D. by ( )45. English is widely used ______ travellers and business people all over the world.

A. to

B. for

C. as

D. by ( )46. _____ the help of my teacher, I caught up with the other students.