文档库

最新最全的文档下载
当前位置:文档库 > 2003年广东外语外贸大学英语水平考试考研试题

2003年广东外语外贸大学英语水平考试考研试题

广东外语外贸大学2003年研究生入学考试

英语专业水平考试试题

I. Error correction (30%)

The following passage contains FIFTEEN errors. Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case, only one word is involved. You should correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “A” sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of

the line.

For an unnecessary word, cross out the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in

the blank provided at the end of the line.

Example

When A art museum wants a new exhibit, [1] an

It never buys things in finished form and hangs them on the wall. [2] never When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it. [3] exhibit

Memory processes by that people and other organisms encode, store, and retrieve[1] ___ information. Encoding refers to the initial perception and registration of information.

Storage is the retention of encoded information over time. Retrieval refers to the pro-

cesses involved using stored information. Whenever people successfully recall a [2]

former experience, they must have encoded, stored, and retrieved information about the [3]______ experience. Conversely, memory failure for example, forgetting an important fact reflects a breakdown in one of these stages of memory.

Memory is critical to humans and all living organisms. Practically all of our daily[4]_______ activities talking, understanding, reading, socializing depend on our having learned and stored information about our environments. Memory allows us to retrieve events

from the distant past or from moments before. It enables us to learn new skills and to [5]

form habits. Without the ability to access past experiences or information, we would be unable to comprehend language, recognize our friends and family members, find our way to home, or even tie a shoe. Life would be a series of disconnected experiences, [6]

each one new and unfamiliar. Without any sort of memory, humans will quickly perish.[7]_______

Philosophers, psychologists, writers, and other thinkers have long been fascinated by memory. The following are among their questions: How does the brain store memories?

Why do people remember some bits of information but not others? Can people improve

their memories? What is the capacity for memory? Memory also is frequently a subject [8]______ of controversy because of questions about its accuracy. An eyewitness’s memory of a

crime can play a crucial role in determining a suspect’s guilt or innocence. However, psychologists agree that people do not always recall events like they actually happened,[9]______ and sometimes people mistakingly recall events that never happened. [10]

Memory and learning are close related, and the terms often describe roughly the same[11] processes. The term learning is often used to refer to processes involved in the initial acquisition or encoding of information, but the term memory more often refers to [12]

later storage and retrieval of information. Therefore, this distinction is not hard and fast.[13] Above all, information is learned only when it can be retrieved later, and retrieval cannot[14] occur unless information was learned. Thus, psychologists often refer to the learning/

memory process a means of incorporating all facets of encoding, storage, and retrieval.[15]

. Cloze (40%)

Fill in each blank with the words given in the box. Each word can be used only once.

degree while verge over Even

such ready as majored efficiency

when once whom full which

held that than growing because

Zhang Ling recently attended a Beijing job fair 1 of optimism. She was sure she could find a teaching job at a college, particularly at a time 2 education is the last choice for many university graduates. But Zhang, who holds a master’s 3 from Beijing Normal University, was greeted by so many recruiters saying “we only want men” 4 she went to a corner at the bustling fair, angry and frustrated and on the 5 of tears.

Zhang is not the only female who feels frozen out of job markets 6 for college seniors. More 7 half of the posts at the exchanges read “men only.” Even occupations 8 are traditionally reserved for women, 9 as secretaries and teachers, are being taken by men.

While China’s hot economy is demanding well-educated talent, bosses are 10 to reject qualified female applicants. And the problem is 11 worse this year. One reason is the streamlining of staff in government and enterprises to improve 12 .

Also, some employers are reluctant to hire women 13 they think the women cannot go on business trips alone, cannot serve 14 business representatives abroad and are less career-minded 15 they get married and have children.

Liao Aidong, who 16 in textile engineering, an industry which is not hiring many people this year, said no one responded to her applications, 17 male classmates readily secured jobs in Beijing textile mills. 18 women who graduate with “hot” degrees, such as computer programming and foreign languages, have to swallow their pride when men who didn’t perform well in school are chosen 19 them by employers.

The Beijing Foreign Studies University has 300 graduates this year, 60 percent of 20 are women.

. Fill in the following blanks with the CORRECT FORM or the CORRESPONDING FORM of the words given according to the MEANING of the sentences. (20%)( )

Example

Prolong, refuse, delay, postpone, lengthen

I hope the of the appointment will not cause you much inconvenience. The key is

postponement.

1. able, capable , competent

GPS (Global Positioning System) has been successful in classical navigation applications, and because its are accessible using small, inexpensive equipment, GPS has also been used in many new applications.

2. scar, scratch, bruise, blister, spot

If you are so careless as to go on long walks in tight-fitting shoes, you must expect to get .

3. decay, rot, decompose, disintegrate

The of the Soviet Union enabled the Bush administration to scale back dramatically the enormous defense buildup of the previous decade.

4. ignorant, illiterate, uneducated, unlearned

After the Russian Revolution the Soviet government virtually eliminated through the establishment of various institutions and extension classes for adults.

5. encourage, motivate, award, stimulate

It’s of great importance that a(n) mechanism should be introduced to bring the initiative of the workers into full play.

6. insist, persist, adhere, persevere

As an intellectual, he bestowed upon the games of golf and bridge all the enthusiasm and

___________ that he withheld from books and ideas.

7. likely, possible, probable, plausible

Such high temperatures restrict the surface to a barren desert wasteland and rule out the

_________ of life on Venus.

8. landscape, scenery, sight, scene, view

This National Geographic article discusses the ,culture, and history that give the French region of Provence such a distinctive character.

9. combine, partner, unite, ally

As a result of their , the three small independent countries felt less afraid of their powerful neighbour.

10. obey, observe, abide, conform

He often forgets to do what he has been told and is scolded for being .

. Reading Comprehension (60%)

Text A

Hiring of Grads Is Up, But Terms Are Tough

By Shelley Donald Coolidge

With college graduation less than a month away, the topic on many students’ minds is the job market.

The good news for the class of 1996 is that hiring is up slightly for the third straight year and so are salaries. But in today’s lean and mean corporation culture, where the push is to do more with less, employers still have the upper hand. The proof is in several trends emerging on the hiring landscape:

Employers are more seriously scrutinizing the skills of new grads.

Internships are often a prerequisite to landing an interview.

Some firms are starting to hire graduates on a contract basis.

“Employers are generally looking at a few more new college grads than they hired a year ago,” says Patrick Scheetz, director of Michigan State University’s Collegiate Employment

Research Institute in East Lansing. “But they’re not aggressively hiring larger numbers at all. They’re pretty much following the economy.”

Hiring will be up 4.7 percent for new graduates, according to the institute’s annual survey, and starting salaries are expected to jump as much as 3 percent. Still, the job market is far from returned to the days of robust hiring back in 1988.

But many schools have seen more employers visiting campus this year. The rise, they say, stems from small to mid-sized companies, not Fortune 500 heavyweights.

On-campus recruiting at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, for example, is up 10 to 15 percent this year, says Larry Simpson, director of career planning. He attributes the increase to smaller firms that aren’t household names.

To many students, however, a name still means a lot, career counsellors say, so students tend to shy away from the smaller firms.

Computer science, business management, accounting, and health care continue to be hot job markets, while the social sciences, such as communications and psychology, are more competitive.

Melissa chin, for example, a senior at Boston University, decided to major in accounting because it was “practical”. Four years later, it’s paid off: She has several job offers.

“Them does seem to be better [job] availability in accounting than other areas,” says Ms.Chin, swinging her backpack over her shoulder.

1. For the class of 1996, the job market is .

A. still the employers’ market where they have upper hand

B. up and robust

C. down slightly for the third straight year

D. up greatly for the third straight year

2. often a prerequisite to landing an interview.

A. Skills of new grads are

B. Internships are

C. Willingness to accept contract basis is

D. Employees’ interest is

3. companies are visiting campus and hiring grads.

A. Heavyweight

B. Fortune 500

C. Small to mid-sized

D. Large

4. The present job market .

A. is expected to reach the rate of hiring as high as that in 1988

B. is expected to jump as much as 3 percent in hiring of new graduates

C. is far from obtaining the rate of hiring in 1988

D. reaches a higher rate of hiring than in 1988

5. is more competitive in the job market.

A. Computer science

B. Business management

C. Psychology

D. Accounting

Text B

More Judges Say “Cut!” to Cameras in Court

By Robert Marquand

The camera may not lie. But an increasing number of jurists from California to Massachusetts now argue television cameras have become an obstruction of justice in the courtroom, and should be removed.

In the electric aftermath of the O.J.Simpson case last November, many lawyers and judges argued that the benefits of cameras in the courtroom, such as civic participation and educational value, have been eclipsed by the potential for unfairness in celebrity trials.

Hours after the Simpson verdict, California Gov.Pete Wilson called for the removal of cameras in the state criminal courts. On Jan.8, a California judicial council the same body that ushered in courtroom cameras in 1984-heard arguments about ending the practice or changing the rules that allow the broadcasts.

“It is time for the judiciary to declare that we are not part of the entertainment industry,” said Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Mary Ann Murphy, speaking on behalf of a group of independent judges.

Courtroom drama that is broadcast live certainly has riveted Americans in celebrity trials such as those of Mr. Simpson and William Kennedy Smith and for bizarre crimes like those of the Menendez brothers, Lorena Bobbit, or New Hampshire teacher Pamela Smart, who conspired with her high-school student-lover to murder her husband.

Currently, 47 states allow cameras in the courts. The anticamera jurists, however, want to limit the broadcasts or disallow them entirely, as is the case in federal courts.

In Massachusetts, fallout from the Simpson trial was felt immediately. An Essex County judge barred Court TV from televising the retrial of a man found guilty of murdering his wife, then stealing a plane and strafing the city of Boston with a handgun.

Currently, lawyers for John Salvi, the man accused of murdering several employees in two abortion clinics in Brookline one year ago, say Mr. Salvi cannot get a fair trial if the same atmosphere surrounds his client as surrounded the Simpson trial. Jurors get distracted, and broadcasters try to out-sensationalized each other, says Mr.Salvi’s lawyer, J.W. Carney.

In the California case, news organizations argued that eliminating cameras would restrict the public’s right to know.

“Flamboyant lawyers like Johnnie Cochrane and F.Lee Bailey behave the same way with or without cameras,” says William Bennett Turner, Lawyer for the Society of Professional Journalists.

Some experts argue the Simpson trial, with its length, its Hollywood locale and its “star” witnesses such as Kato Kaelin, should not be used as a typical example or test case. Of 25 recent studies of the effect of cameras on jurors, judges and witnesses, 24 concluded that the camera did not preset a significant problem.

6. should not be allowed in the courtroom.

A. Television cameras may lie and

B. Jurists don’t like television cameras and say they

C. More and more judges say television cameras influence the trials and

D. A decreasing number of jurists now argue that television cameras

7. courtroom dramas in the United States.

A. Celebrity trials become

B. Pamela Smart and her lover dominated

C. All murder trials become

D. Americans have no interest in

8.Most states in the U.S. .

A. allow cameras in the court

B. want to limit the broadcasts

C. do not broadcast trials

D. disallow cameras entirely in the court

9. argue that the public has the right to know the trials.

A. Lawyers

B. News organizations

C. Jurists

D. Witnesses

10.Studies indicated that cameras problems in trials.

A. presented a big

B. presented no

C. present little

D. might present some

Text C

The Poets and the Housewife

Adapted from Martin Armstrong

Once upon a time, on a summer’s day, two poets, having shut up shop, went out into the country to collect copy, for their stock of this commodity was exhausted.

And as they journeyed, poking about with their walking sticks after the precious substance of their quest, there gathered over their heads the devil of a storm.

And at the proper moment the storm burst and the rain came down and the poets left off seeking copy and huddled under a hawthorn tree. And they appeared as two proud exotic birds, lighted down from the Lord knows where.

And there was a lodge near the hawthom tree, and the lodgekeeper’s wife looked out and, seeing the two, she exclaimed: “Lord, look what the wet brings out!”And the rain increased fearfully.

And after a while she looked out again and the poets were changed, for their bloom was impaired, the rain had clotted their hair, and the scarlet cravat of the one had become crimson from saturation. And rain dripped from all their extremities.

And the woman was grieved for them and called out: “Young men, will you not come in? Why play the heron who stands lugubrious with his feet in cold water when it is open to you to become as sparrows twittering with gladness beneath the eaves?”

But they bowed politely and replied: “Thanks awfully, ma’am, but we are poets and we like it.”

And she was riled and sneered at them, remarking: “They have certainly had a drop too much.” But they, smiling deprecatingly upon her, responded: “Madam you are pleased to be dry.” “And you,” quoth she, “are please to be wet.” And she slammed-to the window, casting up her eyes and inquiring rhetorically, “Did you ever?” and “What next?”

And the rain came down like hell, leaping a foot high and sousing all things.

And after another while, the woman looked out again, and the two had gathered closer about the trunk of the hawthorn-tree, and their beaks were down and they were unbelievably disheveled.

And she shouted to them again, for she was a charitable woman, saying: “O miserable gentlemen, in the name of civilization and commonsense, come inside.”

But they dared not turn their faces to her, lest the water should run down their necks: so, revolving themselves all of a piece, they replied: “Renewed thanks, ma’am, but we are very well, for we are acquiring copy.” And they cowered under the deluge with great earnestness of purpose.

But the lodgekeeper’s wife did not understand the word copy, so that she was amazed beyond measure and the power of comment was taken from her.

And the storm, having stormed itself out, abated: and the place was bathed in delicious smells of breathing leaves, and the warm sweetness of hawthorn perfumed the air.

And the woman looked out from the window a fourth and last time, and the poets were in the act of departure. And the tragedy of their appearance was beyond all comparing. For the scarlet of the cravat of one had run down into the bosom of his shirt, so that he was, as it were, a robin-redbreast. And both were soaked to the uttermost.

And when those poets were returned home, the one found that he had lost a shirt and the other that he had gained a cold. Therefore the one went out and bought a new shirt at seven and six and dear at that, and the other got himself a shilling bottle of Ammoniated Quinine which was tolerably cheap considering.

And the one wrote an ode called Midsummer Storm for which he obtained five guineas, so that (deducting fourpence for stamps and seven and six for the shirt) his net profit was nineteen and eightpence.

But the other could only manage a one-guinea sonnet called Rain Among Leaves, so that (deducting fourpence for stamps and a shilling for the quinine) his net profit was four pounds seventeen and twopence.

Thus the two acquired great store of copy (more , indeed, than they bargained for) and the sum of five pounds sixteen shillings and tenpence thrown in.

But the wife of the lodgekeeper knew nothing of all this, so that she still believes, like many another ill-informed person, that poets are nothing more than unpractical dreamers.

11.The meaning of the word copy is _____________________.

A. poetic book

B. poetic material

C. poetic addition

D. poetic copy

12.The phrase poking about in the third paragraph means_____________________.

A. digging about

B. touching about

C. finding about

D. idling about

13.In the sentence “Why play the heron who stands lugubrious with his feet in cold water when it is open to you to become as sparrows twittering with gladness beneath the eaves?” the woman uses _____________________.

A. similes

B. metaphors

C. symbols

D. hyperbole

14.This story reveals that the two poets are _____________________.

A. practical

B. unpractical

C. clever

D. abnormal

15.In the story, the implied author’s tone is _____________________.

A. ironical

B. sympathetic

C. indifferent

D. straightforward

Text D

Certain gases in the atmosphere allow visible light to pass through, but they block much of the heat reflected from Earth’s surface-in the same fashion as the glass windows in a green house. Without this greenhouse effect, worldwide temperatures would be lower by 35 degrees Celsius, most of the oceans would freeze, and life would cease or be totally altered. According to the theory of global warming, an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will produce unacceptable temperature increases. A doubling of the volume of gases, for example, would cause temperatures to go up by 1.5 degrees centigrade or more, a phenomenal change by historical standards.

The most dramatic consequence of the warming would be a rise in sea level from the melting of polar ice caps, a rise that the Environmental Protection Agency projects to be 20 feet as early as the year 2300-sufficient to submerge large parts of coastal cities. Global warming would result in profound shifts in agriculture and may, as some have suggested, hasten the spread of infectious diseases.

Aside from water vapour the principal greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels and by the decomposition of chemical fertilizers and by bacterial action; and chlorofluorocarbons, used for industrial and commercial purposes, such as air conditioning. Of these, carbon dioxide is the most important. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide was 280 parts per million before the Industrial Revolution; with the increasing use of fossil fuels, it has risen to more than 350 parts per million today.

The idea of global warming gained support as temperatures soared to record levels in the 1980s and 1990s, but there are several problems with the theory, including doubts about the reliability of the temperature record. Despite this and other questions, a majority of climatologists feel that a risk of global warming exists, although there is much disagreement concerning the extent and timing.(One of the uncertainties is the possibility that large amounts of methane now locked in Arctic tundra and permafrost could be rapidly released if warming reaches a critical point.) At the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development, more than 150 countries signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which pledges signatories to control emissions of greenhouse gases.

16.The passage mainly deals with _____________________.

A. global warming

B. carbon dioxide emissions

C. greenhouse effect

D. the use of fossil fuels

17.Without certain gases in the atmosphere, _____________________.

A. the each would be too hot to live on

B. the earth would be too cold to live on

C. light would pass through more easily

D. temperature would fluctuate considerably

18.According to the theory of global warming, _____________________.

A. a decrease in gases in the atmosphere causes a rise in temperature on the earth

B. a rise in gases in the atmosphere results in an increase in temperature on the earth

C. an increase in gases in the atmosphere leads to a drop in temperature on the earth

D. a decline in gases in the atmosphere produces a fall in snowfall

19.Which of the following statements is TRUE? _____________________.

A. Only some countries show concern over the increase in worldwide temperatures.

B. Many climatologists are making great efforts to prevent global warming.

C. Nowadays temperatures on the earth are becoming higher than ever before

D. Climatologists believe that global warming will be brought under control.

20.The author wants to tell us_____________________.

A. global warming does both harm and good to the earth

B. people are coming to realize the importance of protecting the earth

C. people are arguing over the possible risk of global warming

D. something ought to be done to control emissions worldwide

Text E

Scientists have found a gene for longevity in a break-through that could enable them to prolong human life by more than 40 years. It also raises hopes of delaying the onset of cancer and age-related illnesses such as arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.

The discovery of the gene, named Age-1, represents the first step towards understanding how cells that degenerate in later life could be repaired.

Age-1was found in tiny worms during research in America. Gordon Lithgow, a British scientist and one of the leading investigators, now plans to isolate similar genes in human tissue.

“We have found a major physiological cause of ageing,” said Lithgow, a molecular biologist from Glassgow who works at the Institute for Behavioural Genetics at the University of Colorado.

Lithgow believes the research will help to curb the spiraling cost of caring for the elderly by making them healthier. Other scientists think it could also lead to cures for grey hair, wrinkles, deafness and fragile bones.

However, Richard Nicholson, editor of the Bulletin of Medical Ethnics, said: “If you can prevent the diseases of old age, what are people going to die of? We will have to start setting some sort of rule-that you live to 100 and then get a lethal shot from the doctor.”

The Age-1 gene was uncovered during experiments on caenorhabditis elegans, a microscopic earthworm. Worms with a mutation of the gene were found to live up to 65% longer.

The scientists established that Age-1regulated the worms’ ability to repair their cells, and that those carrying the mutation displayed remarkable resistance to wear and tear caused by environmental toxins, extremes of heat and cold and ultraviolet radiation. They believe that within 10 years the human equivalent of Age-1will be understood. Work will then begin to develop “gene therapy” based on the find.

Such therapies could reduce the impact of debilitating illnesses such as Alzheimer’s by

repairing damaged cells. People with a family history of a disease such as breast cancer may be able to seek treatment to protect themselves.

If advanced therapy extended the human life span by the 65% seen in worms, a man would live 16 years longer, dying at 118 instead of today’s average of 72. A woman who would survive to 78 on average today could live to 128.

Lithgow plans to join a team at Manchester University, which will analyse blood from centenarians in a search for genes that control the regeneration of cells. Tom Kirkwood, professor of biological gerontology at Manchester, said: “I hope we will be able to use this knowledge to postpone the diseases of old age with the aim of improving the quality of later life.”

Lithgow has no doubts that the human equivalents of Age-1 will be used to lengthen lives. “The answers are just down the tunnel and society will have to decide how to use them,” he said. “Although countries would go bankrupt overnight if life span was radically lengthened, I am sure this knowledge will be used to do just that.”

21.According to Lithgow’s research, the cause of ageing is ________________.

A. illness

B. the deterioration of cells

C. environmental toxins

D. genetics

22.Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage? ________________.

A. the Age-1 gene could help human beings live for good

B. longevity would also be a problem to human beings

C. we spend a lot of money on elderly people

D. “Gene therapy” would prevent genetic diseases

23. “debilitate” in Paragraph 9 means ________________.

A. improve

B. alleviate

C. enhance

D. worsen

24.Lithgow firmly believes ________________.

A. the human equivalent of Age-1 will definitely be used to prolong human life

B. human beings will be able to live as long as they wish in future

C. all diseases will be cured in future

D. human beings will extend the human life span by 65%

25.The passage implies that ____________________.

A. the isolation of the gene in human tissue is as easy as that of Age-1

B. the isolation of the gene in human tissue is much more difficult than that of Age-1

C. the isolation of the gene in human tissue seems to be out of the question

D. the isolation of the gene in human tissue is under way

Text F

With its common interest in lawbreaking but its immense range of subject-matter and widely-varying methods of treatment, the crime novel could make a legitimate claim to be regarded as a separate branch of literature, or, at least, as a distinct, even though a slightly disreputable, offshoot of the traditional novel.

The detective story is probably the most respectable (at any rate in the narrow sense of the world) of the crime species. Its creation is often the relaxation of University dons, literary economists, scientists or even poets. Fatalities may occur more frequently and mysteriously than

might be expected in polite society, but the world in which they happen, the village, seaside resort, college or studio, is familiar to us, if not from our won experience, at least in the newspaper or the lives of friends. The characters, though normally realized superficially, are as recognizably human and consistent as our less intimate associates. A story set in a more remote environment, African jungle or Australian bush, ancient China or gaslit London, appeals to our interest in geography or history, and most detective story writers are conscientious in providing a reasonably authentic background. The elaborate, carefully-assembled plot, despised by the modern intellectual critics and creators of ‘significant’ novels, has found refuge in the murder mystery, with its sprinkling of clues, its spicing with apparent impossibilities, all with appropriate solutions and explanations at the end. With the guilt of escapism from Real Life nagging gently, we secretly revel in the unmasking of evil by a vaguely superhuman sleuth, who sees through and dispels the cloud of suspicion which has hovered so unjustly over the innocent.

Though its villain also receives his rightful deserts, the thriller presents a less conformtable and credible world. The sequence of fist fights, revolver duels, car crashes and escapes from gas-filled cellars exhausts the reader for more than the hero, who, suffering from at least two broken ribs, on e black eye, uncountable bruises and a hangover, can still chase and overpower an armed villain with the physique of a wrestler. He moves dangerously through a world of ruthless gangs, brutality, a vicious lust for power and money and, in contrast to the detective tale, with a near-omniscient arch-criminal whose defeat seems almost accidental. Perhaps we miss in the thriller the security of being safely led by our imperturbable investigator past a score of red herrings and blind avenues to a final gathering of suspects when an unchallengeable elucidation of all that as bewildered us is given and justice and goodness prevail. All that we vainly hope for from life is granted vicariously.

26.The detective novel may be considered respectable in the sense that _______________.

A. people need not feel ashamed of reading one

B. there are often some well-drawn characters in it

C. it deals with conventional people and scenes

D. it is written by people of culture and intelligence

27.The passage suggests that intellectuals write detective stories because ______________.

A. the stories are often in fact very instructive

B. they enjoy writing these stories

C. the creation of these stories demands considerable intelligence

D. detective stories are an accepted branch of literature

28.Which feature of the detective story is said to disqualify it from respectful consideration by

intellectual critics?

A. the many seemingly impossible events

B. the fact that the guilty are always found out and the innocent cleared

C. the existence of a neat closely-knit story

D. the lack of interest in genuine character revelations

29.Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as one of the similarities between the

detective story and the thriller?

A. both have involved plots

B. both are condemned by modern critics

C. both are forms of escapist fiction

D. both demonstrate the triumph of right over wrong

30.In what way are the detective story and the thriller unlike?

A. in introducing violence

B. in providing excitement and suspense

C. in appealing to the intellectual curiosity of the reader

D. in ensuring that everything comes right in the end

广东外语外贸大学2003年研究生入学考试

英语专业水平考试试题

I. Error correction (30%)

The following passage contains FIFTEEN errors. Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case, only one word is involved. You should correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank

provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “A” sign and write the

word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of

the line.

For an unnecessary word, cross out the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in

the blank provided at the end of the line.

Example

When A art museum wants a new exhibit, [1] an

It never buys things in finished form and hangs them on the wall. [2] never When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it. [3] exhibit

Memory processes by that people and other organisms encode, store, and retrieve[1] ___ information. Encoding refers to the initial perception and registration of information.

Storage is the retention of encoded information over time. Retrieval refers to the pro-

cesses involved using stored information. Whenever people successfully recall a [2]

former experience, they must have encoded, stored, and retrieved information about the [3]______ experience. Conversely, memory failure for example, forgetting an important fact reflects a breakdown in one of these stages of memory.

Memory is critical to humans and all living organisms. Practically all of our daily[4]_______ activities talking, understanding, reading, socializing depend on our having learned and stored information about our environments. Memory allows us to retrieve events

from the distant past or from moments before. It enables us to learn new skills and to [5]

form habits. Without the ability to access past experiences or information, we would be unable to comprehend language, recognize our friends and family members, find our way to home, or even tie a shoe. Life would be a series of disconnected experiences, [6]

each one new and unfamiliar. Without any sort of memory, humans will quickly perish.[7]_______

Philosophers, psychologists, writers, and other thinkers have long been fascinated by memory. The following are among their questions: How does the brain store memories?

Why do people remember some bits of information but not others? Can people improve

their memories? What is the capacity for memory? Memory also is frequently a subject [8]______ of controversy because of questions about its accuracy. An eyewitness’s memory of a

crime can play a crucial role in determining a suspect’s guilt or innocence. However, psychologists agree that people do not always recall events like they actually happened,[9]______ and sometimes people mistakingly recall events that never happened. [10]

Memory and learning are close related, and the terms often describe roughly the same[11] processes. The term learning is often used to refer to processes involved in the initial acquisition or encoding of information, but the term memory more often refers to [12]

later storage and retrieval of information. Therefore, this distinction is not hard and fast.[13] Above all, information is learned only when it can be retrieved later, and retrieval cannot[14] occur unless information was learned. Thus, psychologists often refer to the learning/

memory process a means of incorporating all facets of encoding, storage, and retrieval.[15]

1. by-are

2. involved-involving

3. former-past

4. all other

5. before-ago

6. shoe-shoelace

7. will-would

8. for-of

9. like-as 10. mistakignly-mistakenly

11. close-closely 12. but-while 13. this-the 14. when-if 15. process as

. Cloze (40%)

Fill in each blank with the words given in the box. Each word can be used only once.

degree while verge over Even

such ready as majored efficiency

when once whom full which

held that than growing because

Zhang Ling recently attended a Beijing job fair 1 of optimism. She was sure she could find a teaching job at a college, particularly at a time 2 education is the last choice for many university graduates. But Zhang, who holds a master’s 3 from Beijing Normal University, was greeted by so many recruiters saying “we only want men” 4 she went to a corner at the bustling fair, angry and frustrated and on the 5 of tears.

Zhang is not the only female who feels frozen out of job markets 6 for college seniors. More 7 half of the posts at the exchanges read “men only.” Even occupations 8 are traditionally reserved for women, 9 as secretaries and teachers, are being taken by men.

While China’s hot economy is demanding well-educated talent, bosses are 10 to reject qualified female applicants. And the problem is 11 worse this year. One reason is the streamlining of staff in government and enterprises to improve 12 .

Also, some employers are reluctant to hire women 13 they think the women cannot go on business trips alone, cannot serve 14 business representatives abroad and are less career-minded 15 they get married and have children.

Liao Aidong, who 16 in textile engineering, an industry which is not hiring many people this year, said no one responded to her applications, 17 male classmates readily secured jobs in Beijing textile mills. 18 women who graduate with “hot” degrees, such as

computer programming and foreign languages, have to swallow their pride when men who didn’t perform well in school are chosen 19 them by employers.

The Beijing Foreign Studies University has 300 graduates this year, 60 percent of 20 are women.

1. full

2. when

3. degree

4. that

5. verge

6. held

7. than

8. which

9. such 10. ready 11.growing 12. efficiency 13. because 14. as 15. once 16. majored 17. while 18. Even 19. over 20. whom

. Fill in the following blanks with the CORRECT FORM or the CORRESPONDING FORM of the words given according to the MEANING of the sentences. (20%)( )

Example

Prolong, refuse, delay, postpone, lengthen

I hope the of the appointment will not cause you much inconvenience. The key is

postponement.

1. able, capable , competent

GPS (Global Positioning System) has been successful in classical navigation applications, and because its are accessible using small, inexpensive equipment, GPS has also been used in many new applications.

2. scar, scratch, bruise, blister, spot

If you are so careless as to go on long walks in tight-fitting shoes, you must expect to get .

3. decay, rot, decompose, disintegrate

The of the Soviet Union enabled the Bush administration to scale back dramatically the enormous defense buildup of the previous decade.

4. ignorant, illiterate, uneducated, unlearned

After the Russian Revolution the Soviet government virtually eliminated through the establishment of various institutions and extension classes for adults.

5. encourage, motivate, award, stimulate

It’s of great importance that a(n) mechanism should be introduced to bring the initiative of the workers into full play.

6. insist, persist, adhere, persevere

As an intellectual, he bestowed upon the games of golf and bridge all the enthusiasm and

___________ that he withheld from books and ideas.

7. likely, possible, probable, plausible

Such high temperatures restrict the surface to a barren desert wasteland and rule out the

_________ of life on Venus.

8. landscape, scenery, sight, scene, view

This National Geographic article discusses the ,culture, and history that give the French region of Provence such a distinctive character.

9. combine, partner, unite, ally

As a result of their , the three small independent countries felt less afraid of their powerful neighbour.

10. obey, observe, abide, conform

He often forgets to do what he has been told and is scolded for being .

1. capabilities

2. blisters

3. disintegration

4. illiteracy

5. encouraging

6. perseverance

7. possibility 8. landscape 9. alliance 10. disobedient

. Reading Comprehension (60%)

Text A

Hiring of Grads Is Up, But Terms Are Tough

By Shelley Donald Coolidge

With college graduation less than a month away, the topic on many students’ minds is the job market.

The good news for the class of 1996 is that hiring is up slightly for the third straight year and so are salaries. But in today’s lean and mean corporation culture, where the push is to do more with less, employers still have the upper hand. The proof is in several trends emerging on the hiring landscape:

Employers are more seriously scrutinizing the skills of new grads.

Internships are often a prerequisite to landing an interview.

Some firms are starting to hire graduates on a contract basis.

“Employers are generally looking at a few more new college grads than they hired a year ago,” says Patrick Scheetz, director of Michigan State University’s Collegiate Employment Research Institute in East Lansing. “But they’re not aggressively hiring larger numbers at all. They’re pretty much following the economy.”

Hiring will be up 4.7 percent for new graduates, according to the institute’s annual survey, and starting salaries are expected to jump as much as 3 percent. Still, the job market is far from returned to the days of robust hiring back in 1988.

But many schools have seen more employers visiting campus this year. The rise, they say, stems from small to mid-sized companies, not Fortune 500 heavyweights.

On-campus recruiting at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, for example, is up 10 to 15 percent this year, says Larry Simpson, director of career planning. He attributes the increase to smaller firms that aren’t household names.

To many students, however, a name still means a lot, career counsellors say, so students tend to shy away from the smaller firms.

Computer science, business management, accounting, and health care continue to be hot job markets, while the social sciences, such as communications and psychology, are more competitive.

Melissa chin, for example, a senior at Boston University, decided to major in accounting because it was “practical”. Four years later, it’s paid off: She has several job offers.

“Them does seem to be better [job] availability in accounting than other areas,” says Ms.Chin, swinging her backpack over her shoulder.

1. For the class of 1996, the job market is .

A. still the employers’ market where they have upper hand

B. up and robust

C. down slightly for the third straight year

D. up greatly for the third straight year

2. often a prerequisite to landing an interview.

A. Skills of new grads are

B. Internships are

C. Willingness to accept contract basis is

D. Employees’ interest is

3. companies are visiting campus and hiring grads.

A. Heavyweight

B. Fortune 500

C. Small to mid-sized

D. Large

4. The present job market .

A. is expected to reach the rate of hiring as high as that in 1988

B. is expected to jump as much as 3 percent in hiring of new graduates

C. is far from obtaining the rate of hiring in 1988

D. reaches a higher rate of hiring than in 1988

5. is more competitive in the job market.

A. Computer science

B. Business management

C. Psychology

D. Accounting

Text B

More Judges Say “Cut!” to Cameras in Court

By Robert Marquand

The camera may not lie. But an increasing number of jurists from California to Massachusetts now argue television cameras have become an obstruction of justice in the courtroom, and should be removed.

In the electric aftermath of the O.J.Simpson case last November, many lawyers and judges argued that the benefits of cameras in the courtroom, such as civic participation and educational value, have been eclipsed by the potential for unfairness in celebrity trials.

Hours after the Simpson verdict, California Gov.Pete Wilson called for the removal of cameras in the state criminal courts. On Jan.8, a California judicial council the same body that ushered in courtroom cameras in 1984-heard arguments about ending the practice or changing the rules that allow the broadcasts.

“It is time for the judiciary to declare that we are not part of the entertainment industry,” said Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Mary Ann Murphy, speaking on behalf of a group of independent judges.

Courtroom drama that is broadcast live certainly has riveted Americans in celebrity trials such as those of Mr. Simpson and William Kennedy Smith and for bizarre crimes like those of the Menendez brothers, Lorena Bobbit, or New Hampshire teacher Pamela Smart, who conspired with her high-school student-lover to murder her husband.

Currently, 47 states allow cameras in the courts. The anticamera jurists, however, want to limit the broadcasts or disallow them entirely, as is the case in federal courts.

In Massachusetts, fallout from the Simpson trial was felt immediately. An Essex County judge barred Court TV from televising the retrial of a man found guilty of murdering his wife, then stealing a plane and strafing the city of Boston with a handgun.

Currently, lawyers for John Salvi, the man accused of murdering several employees in two abortion clinics in Brookline one year ago, say Mr. Salvi cannot get a fair trial if the same atmosphere surrounds his client as surrounded the Simpson trial. Jurors get distracted, and broadcasters try to out-sensationalized each other, says Mr.Salvi’s lawyer, J.W. Carney.

In the California case, news organizations argued that eliminating cameras would restrict the public’s right to know.

“Flamboyant lawyers like Johnnie Cochrane and F.Lee Bailey behave the same way with or without cameras,” says William Bennett Turner, Lawyer for the Society of Professional Journalists.

Some experts argue the Simpson trial, with its length, its Hollywood locale and its “star” witnesses such as Kato Kaelin, should not be used as a typical example or test case. Of 25 recent studies of the effect of cameras on jurors, judges and witnesses, 24 concluded that the camera did not preset a significant problem.

6. should not be allowed in the courtroom.

A. Television cameras may lie and

B. Jurists don’t like television cameras and say they

C. More and more judges say television cameras influence the trials and

D. A decreasing number of jurists now argue that television cameras

7. courtroom dramas in the United States.

A. Celebrity trials become

B. Pamela Smart and her lover dominated

C. All murder trials become

D. Americans have no interest in

8.Most states in the U.S. .

A. allow cameras in the court

B. want to limit the broadcasts

C. do not broadcast trials

D. disallow cameras entirely in the court

9. argue that the public has the right to know the trials.

A. Lawyers

B. News organizations

C. Jurists

D. Witnesses

10.Studies indicated that cameras problems in trials.

A. presented a big

B. presented no

C. present little

D. might present some

Text C

The Poets and the Housewife

Adapted from Martin Armstrong

Once upon a time, on a summer’s day, two poets, having shut up shop, went out into the country to collect copy, for their stock of this commodity was exhausted.

And as they journeyed, poking about with their walking sticks after the precious substance of

their quest, there gathered over their heads the devil of a storm.

And at the proper moment the storm burst and the rain came down and the poets left off seeking copy and huddled under a hawthorn tree. And they appeared as two proud exotic birds, lighted down from the Lord knows where.

And there was a lodge near the hawthom tree, and the lodgekeeper’s wife looked out and, seeing the two, she exclaimed: “Lord, look what the wet brings out!” And the rain increased fearfully.

And after a while she looked out again and the poets were changed, for their bloom was impaired, the rain had clotted their hair, and the scarlet cravat of the one had become crimson from saturation. And rain dripped from all their extremities.

And the woman was grieved for them and called out: “Young men, will you not come in? Why play the heron who stands lugubrious with his feet in cold water when it is open to you to become as sparrows twittering with gladness beneath the eaves?”

But they bowed politely and replied: “Thanks awfully, ma’am, but we are poets and we like it.”

And she was riled and sneered at them,remarking:“They have certainly had a drop too much.” But they, smiling deprecatingly upon her, responded: “Madam you are pleased to be dry.” “And you,” quoth she, “are please to be wet.” And she slammed-to the window, casting up her eyes and inquiring rhetorically, “Did you ever?” and “What next?”

And the rain came down like hell, leaping a foot high and sousing all things.

And after another while, the woman looked out again, and the two had gathered closer about the trunk of the hawthorn-tree, and their beaks were down and they were unbelievably disheveled.

And she shouted to them again, for she was a charitable woman, saying: “O miserable gentlemen, in the name of civilization and commonsense, come inside.”

But they dared not turn their faces to her, lest the water should run down their necks: so, revolving themselves all of a piece, they replied: “Renewed thanks, ma’am, but we are very well, for we are acquiring copy.” And they cowered under the deluge with great earnestness of purpose.

But the lodgekeeper’s wife did not understand the word copy, so that she was amazed beyond measure and the power of comment was taken from her.

And the storm, having stormed itself out, abated: and the place was bathed in delicious smells of breathing leaves, and the warm sweetness of hawthorn perfumed the air.

And the woman looked out from the window a fourth and last time, and the poets were in the act of departure. And the tragedy of their appearance was beyond all comparing. For the scarlet of the cravat of one had run down into the bosom of his shirt, so that he was, as it were, a robin-redbreast. And both were soaked to the uttermost.

And when those poets were returned home, the one found that he had lost a shirt and the other that he had gained a cold. Therefore the one went out and bought a new shirt at seven and six and dear at that, and the other got himself a shilling bottle of Ammoniated Quinine which was tolerably cheap considering.

And the one wrote an ode called Midsummer Storm for which he obtained five guineas, so that (deducting fourpence for stamps and seven and six for the shirt) his net profit was nineteen and eightpence.

But the other could only manage a one-guinea sonnet called Rain Among Leaves, so that (deducting fourpence for stamps and a shilling for the quinine) his net profit was four pounds

seventeen and twopence.

Thus the two acquired great store of copy (more , indeed, than they bargained for) and the sum of five pounds sixteen shillings and tenpence thrown in.

But the wife of the lodgekeeper knew nothing of all this, so that she still believes, like many another ill-informed person, that poets are nothing more than unpractical dreamers.

11.The meaning of the word copy is _____________________.

A. poetic book

B. poetic material

C. poetic addition

D. poetic copy

12.The phrase poking about in the third paragraph means_____________________.

A. digging about

B. touching about

C. finding about

D. idling about

13.In the sentence “Why play the heron who stands lugubrious with his feet in cold water when it is open to you to become as sparrows twittering with gladness beneath the eaves?” the woman uses _____________________.

A. similes

B. metaphors

C. symbols

D. hyperbole

14.This story reveals that the two poets are _____________________.

A. practical

B. unpractical

C. clever

D. abnormal

15.In the story, the implied author’s tone is _____________________.

A. ironical

B. sympathetic

C. indifferent

D. straightforward

Text D

Certain gases in the atmosphere allow visible light to pass through, but they block much of the heat reflected from Earth’s surface-in the same fashion as the glass windows in a green house. Without this greenhouse effect, worldwide temperatures would be lower by 35 degrees Celsius, most of the oceans would freeze, and life would cease or be totally altered. According to the theory of global warming, an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will produce unacceptable temperature increases. A doubling of the volume of gases, for example, would cause temperatures to go up by 1.5 degrees centigrade or more, a phenomenal change by historical standards.

The most dramatic consequence of the warming would be a rise in sea level from the melting of polar ice caps, a rise that the Environmental Protection Agency projects to be 20 feet as early as the year 2300-sufficient to submerge large parts of coastal cities. Global warming would result in