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(英语)英语阅读理解练习题20篇及解析

(英语)英语阅读理解练习题20篇及解析

一、高中英语阅读理解

1.阅读理解

Many people have long dreamed of being able to fly around as simply as riding a bicycle. Yet the safety and strength of a flying bike was always a big problem. Over the past 10 years, developments in technology have moved the dream of personal flying vehicles closer to reality. Now, two groups of inventors say such vehicles may be available soon.

The British company Malloy Aeronautics has developed a prototype (原型) of its flying bicycle. Grant Stapleton, marketing sales director of Malloy Aeronautics, says the Hoverbike is able to get in and out of small spaces very quickly. It can be moved across continents very quickly because it can be folded and packed, he adds.

Mr. Stapleton says safety was the company's main concern. He says the designers solved the safety issue by using overlapping rotors ( 交叠式旋翼 )to power the vehicle.

The company is testing a full-size prototype of the Hoverbike, which will most likely be used first by the police and emergency rescue teams.

In New Zealand, the Martin Aircraft Company is also testing a full-size prototype of its personal flying device, called the Jetpack. It can fly for more than 30 minutes, up to 1,000 meters high and reach a speed of 74 kilometers per hour.

Peter Coker is the CEO of Martin Aircraft Company. He said the Jetpack “is built around safety from the start. In his words, reliability is the most important element of it. We have safety built into the actual structure itself, very similar to a Formula One racing car.”

The Jetpack uses a gasoline-powered engine that produces two powerful jet streams. Mr. Coker says it also has a parachute (降落伞) that can be used should there be an emergency. “It starts to work at very low altitude and actually saves both the aircraft and the pilot,” he adds. Mr. Coker says the Jetpack will be ready for sale soon.

(1)We can learn from the passage that the Hoverbike .

A. can hardly get in and out of small spaces quickly

B. can fly for over 30 minutes, up to 1,000 meters high

C. has been used by the police and emergency rescue teams

D. can be transported quickly after being folded and packed

(2)The writer uses the example of For One racing car to show that .

A. the Jetpack is very safe and reliable

B. the engine of the Jetpack is powerful

C. the actual structure of the Jetpack is unique

D. the Jetpack can reach a great speed and height

(3)The underlined word “it” in the last paragraph refer s to.

A. the jet stream

B. the engine

C. the Jetpack

D. the parachute (4)What is the authors main purpose of writing the passage?

A. To describe the problems of inventing flying vehicles.

B. To introduce the latest development of flying vehicles.

C. To show the differences between two flying vehicles.

D. To advertise the two personal

flying vehicles.

【答案】(1)D

(2)A

(3)D

(4)A

【解析】【分析】本文为说明文,主要讲述一种个人飞行工具很快就会应用于现实。然而安全性和强度一直是个大问题。文中介绍了两家飞器公司都关注安全性问题。

(1)细节理解题。第五段最后一句可知,the Jetpack.可飞行30分钟,高达1000米,而不是Hoverbike,故B错误,根据第四段可知C项说有将可能首先应用于由警察和应急救援队,而不是已用于,故C错误。根据第二段最后the Hoverbike is able to get in and out of small spaces very quickly. It can be moved across continents very quickly because it can be folded and packed, 可知,Hoverbike能够很快地进出小空间。它可快速地在大陆上移动,因为它可以折叠和包装。分析选项可知,A说不能快速进入小空间,故错误。D项说在折叠和包装后可以快速运输。即D正确。故选D。

(2)推理判断题。第六段Peter Coker说Jetpack从一开始就围绕安全进行的。安全可靠性是最重要的因素。我们在车的现行结构中植入了了安全性,非常类似于Formula One赛车。分析选可知A项(Jetpack安全可靠)符合题意,故答案选A。

(3)猜测词义题。根据最后一段Mr. Coker says it also has a parachute (降落伞) that can be used should there be an emergency. “It starts to work at very low altitude …., Coker先生说Jetpack上也有降落伞,可以在紧急情况下使用。“在海拔非常低的情况下开始用它…”。由此可知,Jetpack上的降落伞(它)是在海拔低时才用。由此可知it指的是parachute (降落伞) 故答案选D。

(4)主旨大意题。根据第一段可知,许多人一直梦想能像骑自行车一样飞来飞去,科技的发展让这个梦想很快实现。然而飞行自行车的安全性和强度一直是个大问题。接着下面叙述了这种飞行器的问题最重要的是安全问题。分析选项,可知A项描述发明飞行器的问题,符合题意,故答案选A。

【点评】阅读理解细节题解题技巧:

1)语义转换题--跳读查找法:根据题干内容从原文中找到相关的句子,然后进行比较和分析,便可确定最佳答案。

2)生活应用题--常识理解法:在读懂文章的基础上结合一定的生活常识进行判断。

3)细节排序题--首尾定位法:根据动作发生的先后顺序和句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生的正确顺序。

4)寻找信息题--题干定位法:寻找信息题一般为功能阅读题,主要形式有广告、公告、演出信息、航班时间表等。

2.阅读理解

Plastic sludge(污泥)and garbage is a disaster for the world's oceans. A film crew traveled the globe to document the rubbish. And Julie Andersen of the Plastic Oceans Foundation says what we see is just the tip of the problem. “Half of the waste actually sinks to the bottom, and that

remains on the surface actually breaks down. ”

The filmmakers found rubbish in ocean gyres, the circulating currents that trap large concentrations of pollution in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacifc Oceans, home of what some have plastic. What we found was a plastic smog that spread throughout all the water. And in some parts of the oceans, scientists have fo und more plastic than plant. ”

The pieces of the plastic garbage infect the food chain, sometimes visibly, and more so at the microscopic level, where the plastic particles interact with other pollutants. “There are heavy metals, medicines, industrial waste in the sea, while it acts like magnets(磁铁). These poisonous substances absorb on the plastic, and then when seafood absorbs the plastics, those poisonous substances enter the fatty tissues. ”To be consumed by other sea life and by people at last. China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam are the worst plastic polluters. The United States, although a leader in recycling, is one of the world's 20 since it produces and consumes so much plastic. There are efforts around the world to address the problem, including at this newly opened recycling center in Lebanon(黎巴嫩). But Andersen says there is more that people can do. “Cut back on single-use plastics, straws, plastic cups, plastic water bottles, plastic bags and find alternatives like reusable materials.” S he says healthy oceans are essential to our survival.

(1)What can we learn from the passage?

A. There's all island full of plastic rubbish in the Pacific.

B. The bad effect of plastic pollution can't be seen by eyes.

C. The United States is the least plastic polluters.

D. The plastic pollution to oceans is more serious than what we can see.

(2)What does the underlined word “it” refer to in paragraph 3?

A. Pollutants like heavy metals and medicines.

B. The plastic particles.

C. Seafood.

D. Fatty tissues.

(3)What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A. All Asian countries have the most serious problem of plastic pollution.

B. The plastic problem hasn't attracted the world's attention.

C. Andersen is not satisfied with what has been done to solve the plastic problem,

D. People should stop using plastic products immediately.

(4)Which may be the title of the passage?

A. Plastic pollution in the World.

B. Plastic pollution—Oceans'Disaster.

C. Ways to solve the problem of plastic pollution to oceans.

D. Plastic pollution and our health.

【答案】(1)D

(2)B

(3)C

(4)B

【解析】【分析】这是一篇说明文。主要讲述了塑料污染对海洋导致的影响。

(1)细节理解题。根据第一段第三句:And Julie Andersen of the Plastic Oceans Foundation

says what we see is just the tip of the problem. 可知,塑料海洋基金会的朱莉·安德森说,我们看到的只是问题的冰山一角。故可推测塑料对海洋的污染比我们所看到的更严重,故选D。

(2)词义猜测题。根据The pieces of the plastic garbage infect the food chain,sometimes visibly,and more so at the microscopic level,where the plastic particles interact with other pollutants. "There are heavy metals,medicines,industrial waste in the sea,while it acts like magnets(磁铁). 可知,塑料垃圾碎片在微观层面感染食物链,有时是明显的,塑料颗粒与其他污染物相互作用. 海洋中有重金属,药物,工业废物,使其像磁铁一样. it指代的是塑料颗粒。故选B。

(3)推理判断题。根据But Andersen says there is more that people can do. "Cut back on single-use plastics,straws,plastic cups,plastic water bottles,plastic bags and find alternatives like reusable materials. "She says healthy oceans are essential to our survival. 可知,安德森说人们还可以做更多事情来预防污染,可推测出安德森对于目前解决塑料问题所做的工作不满意。故选C。

(4)主旨大意题。阅读全文,根据文章内容可知,本文主要讲述了塑料污染海洋灾害。故选B。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解,词义猜测,推理判断和主旨大意四个题型的考查,是一篇说明类阅读,要求考生先从问题中抓住关键性词语(题眼),然后以此为线索,运用略读及查读的技巧快速在文章中寻找与此问题相关的:段落、语句,仔细品味,同时根据上下文进行分析,推理,概括和归纳,从而选出正确答案。

3.阅读理解

The past ages of man have all been carefully labeled by anthropologists (人类学家). Descriptions like "Palaeolithic (旧石器时代的) Man". "Neolithic (新石器时代的) Man",etc. neatly sum up whole periods. When the time comes for anthropologists to turn their attention to the twentieth century, they will surely choose the label "Legless Man". Histories of the time will go something like this: "in the twentieth century, people forgot how to use their legs. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains from a very early age. There were lifts in all large buildings to prevent people from walking. And the surprising thing is that they didn't use their legs even when they went on holiday."

The future history books might also record that we were deprived (剥夺) of the use of our eyes. In our hurry to get from one place to another, we failed to see anything on the way. Air travel gives you a bird's-eye view of the world. When you travel by car or train, an unclear picture of the countryside constantly smears the windows. Car drivers, especially, are mixed with the urge to go on and on: they never want to stop. The typical twentieth-century traveler is the man who always says "I've been there." You mention the remotest, and someone is bound to say "I've been there"-meaning, "I drove through it at100 miles an hour on the way to somewhere else."

When you travel at high speeds, the present means nothing: you live mainly in the future because you spend most of your time looking forward to arriving at some other place. But actual arrival, when it is achieved, is meaningless. You want to move on again. By traveling like this, you

suspend all experience. The traveler on foot, on the other hand, lives constantly in the present. For him traveling and arriving are one and the same thing: he arrives somewhere with every step he makes. He experiences the present moment with his eyes, his ears and the whole of his body. At the end of his journey he feels a delicious physical tiredness. He knows that sound, satisfying sleep will be his: the just reward of all true travelers.

(1)Anthropologists label man nowadays "Legless Man" because _____.

A. people prefer cars, buses and trains

B. people use their legs less and less

C. lifts prevent people from walking

D. people travel without using legs

(2)According to the passage, what might make people lose the right of using their eyes?

A. the modern means of transportation.

B. A bird's-eye view of the world.

C. The unclear sight from the vehicles.

D. The fast-paced life style.

(3)From the passage, we know traveling at high speeds means _______.

A. appreciating beautiful scenery

B. experiencing life skills

C. focusing on the next destination

D. feeling physical tiredness

(4)What does the author intend to tell us?

A. Modern transportation devices have replaced legs.

B. Traveling makes the world a small place.

C. Human's history develops very fast.

D. The best way to travel is on foot.

【答案】(1)B

(2)D

(3)C

(4)D

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,由于种种现代化交通设施,人们不需用脚走路,甚至也不需要用眼看风景,出门就坐汽车、公交车、地铁、飞机……汽车、飞机速度飞快,外边的景物难以看清,最终导致人们忘记用脚、用眼,成为“无脚之人”,一切都经历不到。作者建议最佳的旅游方法是徒步——经历现实。

(1)考查推理判断。根据第一段中的“When the time comes for anthropologists to turn their attention to the twentieth century, they will surely choose the label‘Legless Man’. Histories of the time will go something like this:"in the twentieth century, people forgot how to use their legs. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains from a very early age. There were lifts in all large buildings to prevent people from walking. And the surprising thing is that they didn't use their legs even when they went on holiday."可知,人类学家给人类贴上了“无腿人”的标签,因为人们使用腿越来越少了。故选B。

(2)考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“The future history books might also record that we were deprived (剥夺) of the use of our eyes. In our hurry to get from one place to another, we failed to see anything on the way. Air travel gives you a bird's-eye view of the world.” 可知,根据这篇文章,快节奏的生活方式会让人们失去使用眼睛的权利。故选D。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“When you travel at high speeds, the present means nothing: you live mainly in the future because you spend most of your time looking forward to arriving at some other place.”可知,我们知道高速旅行意味着关注下一个目的地。故选C。

(4)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“The traveler on foot, on the other hand, lives constantly in the present. For him traveling and arriving are one and the same thing: he arrives somewhere with every step he makes. He experiences the present moment with his eyes, his ears and the whole of his body. At the end of his journey he feels a delicious physical tiredness. He knows that sound, satisfying sleep will be his: the just reward of all t rue travelers.”可知,旅行的最好方法是步行。故选D。

【点评】本题考点涉及推理判断题型的考查,是一篇生活类阅读,要求考生根据上下文的逻辑关系,进行分析,推理,从而选出正确答案。

4.阅读理解

When my sister Mertie told me she had put out tomato plants last summer, I was quite impressed.

Since she was a garden-beginner, Mertie researched exactly how far apart to space her tomato plants; what kind of fertilizer to use; how to keep away the bugs, etc. Once they were planted, she took care of them daily, anxiously awaiting the juicy tomatoes to appear. But, day after day, her plants were tomato-less while all of her neighbors who had also put out tomato plants were already enjoying the fruit of their labor.

Frustrated, Mertie gave in and went to the market to search fresh tomatoes. While paying, Mertie told the farmer her troubles. The farmer paused to think for a moment and then asked, "Well, what kind of tomatoes did you plant?"

"I think they were called Big Boy," Mertie remembered.

"Well there's your problem," the farmer explained. "Big Boy and Better Boy tomatoes have a 95-da y growing period whereas regular tomato plants produce fruit in as few as 70 days…you just have to wait a little longer for the Big Boys."

With that new knowledge, Mertie went home with excitement, knowing they would be worth the wait.

Thinking about my sister's gardening experience, I had to smile. She just didn't know that Big Boy tomatoes took longer--neither did I — but once she discovered that information, she was no longer discouraged and upset about the lack of tomatoes on her plants. Instead, she was encouraged and excited to see them a few weeks later.

It makes me wonder how many of us have "Big Boy" dreams in our hearts, yet we just don't realize that they are of the "Big Boy" variety so we are discouraged and worn out with the waiting process. Instead of waiting with excitement, we give up on our dreams and figure we must have done something wrong to stop them from coming to pass. Frustrated, we see other people's dreams coming true, and we wonder why ours haven't yet been achieved.

(1)What is not mentioned in the passage when growing tomato plants?

A. Using suitable fertilizer.

B. Keeping them well apart.

C. Watering them regularly.

D. Controlling pests on them.

(2)Why did Mertie's tomato plants fail to produce at the expected time?

A. Because they were destroyed by her neighbors.

B. Because she grew the wrong kind of tomatoes.

C. Because she didn't manage the garden well.

D. Because they required more time to produce.

(3)What does the author compare tomatoes to in the text?

A. Goals.

B. Experiences.

C. Time.

D. Imagination.(4)What does the text intend to show us?

A. It's better late than never.

B. A bad beginning makes a bad ending.

C. Success sometimes needs a little patience.

D. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.【答案】(1)C

(2)D

(3)A

(4)C

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇记叙文,作者讲述了妹妹种西红柿的故事,告诉读者要实现梦想,有时需要耐心等待。

(1)考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“Mertie researched exactly how far apart to space her tomato plants; what kind of fertilizer to use; how to keep away the bugs, etc.”可知Mertie给她种的西红柿分苗、施肥和控制害虫。没有提到浇水,故选C。

(2)考查细节理解。根据第五段中的“Big Boy and Better Boy tomatoes have a 95-day growing period whereas regular tomato plants produce fruit in as few as 70 days…you just have to wait a little longer for the Big Boys.”可知Mertie 种植的西红柿品种Big Boy比一般西红柿生长需要的时间长,所以还需要一段时间才能成熟。故选D。

(3)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“It makes me wonder how many of us have ‘Big Boy’ dreams in our hearts, ……Instead of waiting with excitement, we give up on our dreams and……we see other people's dreams coming true, ……”可知我们内心有许多梦想,但没有意识到梦想的变化,在等待过程中我们可能遇到挫折后放弃梦想。作者在文中把西红柿比作了梦想和目标,故选A。

(4)考查推理判断。妹妹精心种西红柿,但别人的西红柿成熟时自己的不行,当想放弃时才知道西红柿品种不一样,成熟时间不一样。作者通过这件事告诉我们要实现梦想,有时需要耐心等待。故选C。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解和推理判断两个题型的考查,是一篇故事类阅读,考生需要准确掌握细节信息,并根据上下文进行逻辑推理,从而选出正确答案。

5.阅读理解

Throughout the country there are festivals and special events celebrating winter at its fullest, including hockey and dog sled races, skating events and whatever season-inspired activity draws in the crowds.

Rossland Winter Carnival late January

Rossland, British Columbia (BC)

Recognized as canada's longest-running winter carnival (狂欢), the Rossland Winter Carnival has been a popular event for over 116 years. Popular parts of this event include snow volleyball, a parade, and a kid's carnival.

Ice On Whyte Festival early January to early February

Edmonton, Alberta (AB)

A popular event for more than decade,the Ice on Whyte Festival in Edmonton, is one of the top

10 events and festivals in Edmonton, Alberta. The festival features a wealth of ice carvings and creations along with 10 days of festival fun-from a giant ice slide, games, and ice carving lessons to live music, fashion, food, and culturally themed days and even a marketplace.

Fete des Neiges de Montreal mid January to early February

Montreal, Quebec (QC)

Celebrating more than 30 years as a popular winter event, it offers all sorts of fun involving everything from snow to ice on three nonstop weekends at the beginning of the year. Highlights include 15 snow slopes for breathtaking tube sliding, dog sledding, and even addictive dancing at the disco-themed La Bouletheque.

Winterpride end January to early Februar Whistler,

British Columbia (BC)

The 26th Whistler Pride will be filled with celebration of annual events with adventurous winter activities including ski and snowboard touring, snowmobile trips, and snowshoe adventures, dog-sledding through the Callahan Valley,and back-country ventures, as well as featuring nightlife highlights of drag shows, as well as wine-tastings, fine dining and even comedy shows.

(1)Where will you go if you like art works from ice?

A. Whistler. British Columbia.

B. Montreal, Quebec.

C. Edmonton. Alberta.

D. Rossland. British Columbia.

(2)What is the feature of the event in Montreal?

A. It provides kinds of activities on ice or snow.

B. It takes place three weeks at the start of a year.

C. It offers dog sledding to tourists for nothing.

D. It lasts the longest time of all the events.(3)Which will be chosen for a person who like wine?

A. Rossland Winter Carnival

B. Ice On Whyte Festival

C. Fete des Neiges de Montreal

D. WinterPride

【答案】(1)C

(2)A

(3)D

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇应用文,介绍了加拿大的一些城市在冬季给人们提供的娱乐活动。

(1)考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“ The festival features a wealth of Ice carvings and creations along with10 days of festival fun..”,故选C。

(2)考查细节理解。依据第四段中的“... it offers all sorts of fun involving everything from snow to ice on three nonstop weekends...”可知这活动提供连续三周的冰上或雪上的活动,故选A。

(3)考查细节理解。根据最后一段中的“... as well as wine-tastings,fine dining...”可知,参加WinterPride可以品尝到葡萄酒,故选D。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解题型的考查,是一篇介绍类阅读,要求考生准确捕捉细节信息,结合题目要求,选出正确答案。

6.阅读理解

Home Laundry Automatic Dryer Product

Full Two Year Warranty(保修)

Limited Five Year Warranty on Cabinet(机箱)

Warranty Provides for:

FIRST TWO YEARS Amana will repair or replace any faulty part free of charge.

THIRD THRU FIFTH YEARS Amana will provide a free replacement part for any cabinet which proves faulty due to rust(生锈).

Warranty Limitations:

Warranty begins at date of original purchase.

Applies only to product used within the United States or in Canada if product is approved by Canadian Standards Association when shipped from factory.

Products used on a commercial or rental basis not covered by this warranty.

Service must be performed by an Amana servicer.

Adjustments covered during first year only.

Warranty Does Not Cover It If:

Product has damage due to product change,connection to an improper electrical supply> shipping and handling, accident, fire, floods, lightning or other conditions beyond the control of Amana.

Product is improperly installed(安装)or applied.

Owner's Responsibilities:

Provide sales receipt.

Normal care and repair.

Having the product reasonably accessible for service.

Pay for service calls related to product installation or usage instructions.

Pay for extra service costs, over normal service charges, if servicer is requested to perform service outside servicer^ normal business hours.

In no event shall Amana be responsible for consequential damages(间接损坏).

This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may have others which vary from state to state For example, some states do not allow the exclusion(排除)or limitation of consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.

(1)According to Warranty Limitations, a product can be under warranty if .

A. used in the U.S.A

B. rented for home use

C. repaired by the user himself

D. shipped from a Canadian factory

(2)According to Owner's Responsibilities, an owner has to pay for .

A. the product installation

B. a servicer's overtime work

C. the loss of the sales receipt

D. a mechanic's transportation

(3)Which of the following is true according to the warranty?

A. Consequential damages are excluded across America.

B. A product damaged in a natural disaster is covered by the warranty.

C. A faulty cabinet due to rust can be replaced free in the second year.

D. Free repair is available for a product used improperly in the first year.

【答案】(1)A

(2)B

(3)C

【解析】【分析】本文这是一张保修单,属于说明文,对家用自动干洗机的保修时限、保修服务范围、购买者所负的责任、不属于保修服务内容以及对结果性损失不负任何责任诸方面进行了详尽说明。

(1)考查细节理解。根据“Warranty Limitations:? Applies only to product used within the United States”可知,根据保修限制,如果在美国使用,产品可以在保修期内。故选A。(2)考查细节理解。根据“Owner's Responsibilities:? Pay for extra service costs, ov er normal service charges”可知,根据业主的责任,业主必须为服务人员的加班工作支付费用。故选B。

(3)考查细节理解。根据“FIRST TWO YEARS Amana will repair or replace any faulty part free of charge.”可知,一个有缺陷的橱柜在第二年就可以被替换掉。故选C。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解题型的考查,是一篇生活类阅读,要求考生准确掌握细节信息,结合题目要求,选出正确答案。

7.阅读理解

Recent summer temperatures in parts of Australia were high enough to melt asphalt. As global warming speeds up the heat and climatic events increase, many plants may be unable to cope. But at least one species of eucalyptus tree can resist extreme heat by continu ing to “sweat” when other essential processes stop, a new study finds.

As plants change sunlight into food, or photosynthesize (光合作用), they absorb carbon dioxide through pores on their leaves. These pores also release water via transpiration(蒸腾), which circulates nutrients through the plant and helps cool it by evaporation(蒸发). But exceptionally high temperatures are known to greatly reduce photosynthesis—and most existing plant models suggest this should also decrease transpiration, leaving trees in danger of fatally overheating. Because it is difficult for scientists to control and vary trees' conditions in their natural environment, little is known about how individual species handle this situation. Ecologist John Drake of the S.U.N.Y. College of Environmental Science and Forestry and his colleagues grew a dozen Parramatta red gum (Eucalyptus parramattensis) trees in large, climate-controlled plastic pods that separated the trees from the surrounding forest for a year in Richmond, Australia. Six of the trees were grown at surrounding air temperatures and six at temperatures three degrees Celsius higher. The researchers withheld (扣留) water from the surface soil of all 12 trees for a month to imitate a mild dry spell, then induced a four-day

“extreme” heat wave: They raised the maximum temperatures in half of the pods(three with surrounding temperatures and three of the warmer ones)— to 44 degrees ℃. Photosynthesis ground to a near halt in the trees facing the artificial heat wave. But to the researchers' surprise, these trees continued to transpire at close-to-normal levels, effectively cooling themselves and their surroundings. The trees grown in warmer conditions coped just as well as the others, and photosynthesis rates bounced back to normal after the heat wave passed, Drake and his colleagues reported online in Global Change Biology.

The researchers think the Parramatta red gums were able to effectively sweat — even without photosynthesis — because they are particularly good at tapping into water deep in the soil. But if a heat wave and a severe drought (干旱) were to hit at the same time and the groundwater was exhausted, the trees may not be so lucky, Drake says.

Other scientists call the finding encouraging. “It's definitely good news,” says Trevor Keenan, an ecologist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laborat ory, who was not part of the study. “It would be very interesting to know how this translates to other species,” he adds. Drake hopes to conduct similar experiments with trees common in North America.

(1)How does one species of eucalyptus tree cope with extreme heat waves?

A. By releasing water.

B. By blocking sunlight.

C. By absorbing groundwater.

D. By reducing photosynthesis.

(2)What did the researchers do during their study?

A. They grew all the trees in artificial temperatures.

B. They induced a heat wave in a dozen pods of trees.

C. They created climate-controlled surroundings for trees.

D. They varied trees' conditions in their natural environment.

(3)The underlined phrase “ground to a near halt” in Paragraph 4 means “________”. A. continued B. substituted C. strengthened D. ceased

(4)What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs?

A. Photosynthesis is necessary for the trees to sweat.

B. No further experiments will be done other species.

C. Other species will be transplanted to North America.

D. Groundwater helps the trees survive the extreme heat.

【答案】(1)A

(2)C

(3)D

(4)D

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,联合国环境科学与林业学院的生态学家John Drake 和他的同事们通过对红桉树做实验,得出结论:在极度的高温中,红桉树仍然可以通过释放水分来抵抗热浪,获得生存。

(1)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“But at least one species of eucalyptus tree can resist extreme heat by continuing to 'sweat’”可知,桉树通过“流汗”,即释放水分来抵抗极度的热,故选A。

(2)考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“Ecologist John Drake… and his colleagues grew a dozen

Parramatta red gum … trees in large, climate-controlled plastic pods that separated the trees from the surrounding forest for a year in Richmond, Australi a.”可知,研究者们将12棵红桉树种植在巨大的,气候受控制的塑料舱里,这种塑料仓将这些树和周围的森林分离开来。可知,研究者们为这些树创造了一个气候受控制的生长环境,故选C。

(3)考查词义猜测。根据第二段中的“But exceptionally high temperatures are known to greatly reduce photosynthesis”可知,极度的高温会减少光合作用。由第四段后面的内容可知,令研究者们惊讶的是,面对着人工制造出来的热浪,这些树继续以接近正常的水平蒸发,有效地使自己和周围的环境凉爽下来。结合这两点可以推知,面对人工制造出来的热浪,光合作用应该是大大减少,但这并没有影响树木的蒸发。划线部分意思应当接近于“大大减少,降低”这一类的意思cease意为“停止”,故选D。

(4)考查推理判断。根据倒数第二段中的“The researchers think the Parramatta red gums were able to effectively sweat — even without photosynthesis — because they are particularly good at tapping into water deep in the soil. But if a heat wave and a severe drought (干旱)were to hit at the same time and the groundwater was exhausted, the trees may not be so lucky, Drake says.”可知,这些树擅长吸取地下水,如果热浪干旱同时发生,地下水枯竭的话,那么这些树生存的可能性就比较小了。由此可以推知,地下水帮助这些树存活下来。故选D。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解,词义猜测和推理判断三个题型的考查,是一篇科普类阅读,考生需要准确捕捉细节信息,并根据上下文的逻辑关系,进行分析,推理,从而选出正确答案。

8.阅读理解

The Mokoko tribe (部落) lived on the wrong side of the island of two faces. The two sides, separated by a great cliff (悬崖), were like night and day. The good side was watered by rivers and was filled with trees and abundant food, while on the wrong side there was hardly any water or plants, and wild beasts crowded together. The Mokoko had the misfortune of having always lived there, with no way to cross to the other side. Their life was hard and they lived in permanent terror of the beasts.

Along the edge of the cliff separating the two sides, a skinny but strong tree grew, with which they could build two poles. There was no doubt that the tribe would choose the great chief and doctor to use the poles. But when the two of them were given their chance to make the jump, they didn't dare to. They thought that the pole could break or it would not be long enough. They put so much energy into these thoughts that they gave in.

But into that tribe were born Nam and Ariki, a pair of young hearts. One day, they decided to take up the poles. Nobody stopped them, but everyone did try to discourage them, trying to present how dangerous the jumping was, using a thousand explanations.

"And what if what they say is true?" wondered the young Naru.

"Don't worry. I am a bit scared too, but it doesn't look so difficult," replied Ariki, ever determined.

"But if it goes wrong, it will be a terrible end," continued Naru, undecided.

"Perhaps the jump will go badly. But staying forever on this side of the island surely won't work out well either."

"You're right. Let's do it tomorrow."

And on the next day, Naru and Ariki jumped to the good side of the island. When taking up the poles, while feeling their desire, the fear hardly allowed them to breathe. And while flying through the air, helpless and without support, they felt that something must have gone wrong and death awaited them. But when they landed on the other side, they thought the jump really hadn't been so bad after all.

(1)What situation were the Mokoko faced with?

A. They lived a difficult life without fearing the beasts.

B. They suffered a lot due to the terrible environment.

C. They had easy access to the good side.

D. They were surrounded by trees and rivers.

(2)How did the chief and doctor feel when they were chosen?

A. Frightened.

B. Energetic.

C. Desperate.

D. Satisfied.

(3)What's the tribe members' reaction when Nam and Ariki decided to take up the poles?

A. The members desired to follow their steps.

B. The members tried to prevent the behaviour.

C. The members convinced them of the danger.

D. The members encouraged them to have a try.

(4)What can we infer about Naru and Ariki?

A. They overcame difficulty with courage and determination.

B. They felt relaxed in the whole process of making the jump.

C. They never doubted the difficulty in making the jump.

D. They hesitated to make the jump over and over again.

【答案】(1)B

(2)A

(3)C

(4)A

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇记叙文,一个岛被大的悬崖分成完全不同的两部分,好的一面有水有树食物充足而另一面几乎没水没植物,野兽聚集。这个部落正好位于条件很恶劣的一面。讲述了Nam 和Ariki不畏艰险用勇气和决心克服了困难来到了岛的好的一面。(1)考查推理判断。根据第一段中的“The Mokoko tribe (部落) lived on the wrong side of the island of two faces. The two sides, separated by a great cliff (悬崖), were like night and day. ---The Mokoko had the misfortune of having always lived there, with no way to cross to the other side. Their life was hard and they lived in permanent terror of the beasts.”可知,由于可怕的环境他们遭受了很多。故选B。

(2)考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“There was no doubt that the tribe would choose the great chief and doctor to use the poles. But when the two of them were given their chance to make the jump, they didn't dare to”可知,首领和医生被选上时他们感到害怕。故选A。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“They thought that the pole could break or it would not

be long enough. They put so much energy into these thoughts that they ga ve in.”可知,成员确信他们是危险的。故选C。

(4)考查推理判断。根据两个人的的对话“ And what if what they say is true?" wondered the young Naru. Don't worry I am a bit scared too, but it doesn't look so difficult, replied ariki, ever determined. "Perhaps the jump will go badly. But staying forever on this side of the island surely won't work out well either. "You're right. Let's do it tomorrow."和文章最后一句 But when they landed on the other side, they thought the jump really hadn't been so bad after all”可知,他们用勇气和决心克服了困难。故选A。

【点评】本题考点涉及推理判断题型的考查,是一篇故事类阅读,要求考生准确捕捉细节信息,并结合题目要求,从而选出正确答案。

9.阅读理解

Watching wooden dolls come to life may not be one of the most popular forms of entertainment today, but with over twenty years' experience, talented puppeteer (木偶表演者) Peter Roberts has earned himself the tit le “master puppeteer” because of his great ability to turn puppets into believable, almost living characters. “People are quite often surprised to hear what I do for living and have little appreciation of puppy as a form of entertainment. But while the exact origins of puppet theatre are unknown, it has been popular in many cultures and may have been the very first kind of theatre,” he explains.

Roberts' shows are highly original. “A puppet show can involve anything from clowning(傻逗) to storytelling,” he says, Equally diverse are the audiences he performs for. “Some are attracted by the puppets themselves, while others enjoy the dialogue.” Roberts believes that this form of entertainment can be appreciated by people of all ages and cultures.

Roberts' interest in puppets started when he received some beautiful glove puppets one Christmas. He started putting on shows with these for family and friends and then moved on to handmade Chinese string puppets. Learning mostly from books and personal experience, he explains, “I was already spending most of my free time carving puppets and putting on shows, so I hardly noticed the change from students to full-time professional puppeteer.”

The puppets are designed specifically for each show, which is extremely time consuming. According to Roberts, “Sometimes what you expect and what you actually create in the end are two very different things. I've made some of my best puppets 'accidentally'.”

When most people hear the word “puppetry”, they more than likely think of a way of keeping children entertained at birthday parties. Certainly the subject matter will be expected to be light-hearted rather than serious. However, Roberts wants to point out that puppets come serious messages sometimes.” he says.

(1)What do we know about puppetry in the first paragraph?

A. It is a most popular form of entertainment.

B. It cannot give people pleasure any more.

C. It was first brought to life by Peter Roberts.

D. Its value as an art form is not fully recognized.

(2)In Roberts' eyes, his puppet shows .

A. usually attract people full of humor

B. are most something for old aged audience

C. display something meaningful for different people

D. involve hard work and great intelligence

(3)Roberts developed an interest in puppets because of .

A. the puppet show books

B. his university major

C. a Christmas gift

D. some Chinese string puppets

(4)What does Roberts want people to think of puppet theatre?

A. It is just a kind of entertainment for kids.

B. It can be educational as well as entertaining.

C. It is only a kind of serious art form.

D. It should be kept light-hearted.

【答案】(1)D

(2)C

(3)B

(4)C

【解析】【分析】本文为夹叙夹议。本文讲述了虽然木偶表演栩栩如生,但已不是当今一种最流行的娱乐形式。享用盛名的木偶大师罗伯特却让自己的木偶表演极具独创性。他让木偶表演不仅具有观赏性也有一定的教育意义。

(2)细节理解题。根据第一段“People are quite often surprised to hear what I do for living and h ave little appreciation of puppy as a form of entertainment”可知,人们很少把木偶表演看作是一种娱乐形式来欣赏。分析选项可知D项(它作为一种艺术形式没有被充分认可)符合题意,故答案选D项。

(3)推理判断题。第二段内容说罗伯特的木偶戏涉及任何东西,从扮小丑逗乐到到讲故事,”他给各种各样不同的观众表演。“有些人被木偶本身吸引,而另一些人喜欢木偶表演中的对话。”罗伯特认为这种形式的娱乐可以被各个年龄段和文化的人所欣赏。由此可判断,罗伯特的木偶戏为不同的人展示一些有意义的东西。分析选项可知C项符合题意,故答案选C项。

(3)推理判断题。根据最后一段最后两句“Certainly the subject matter will be expected to be light-hearted rather than serious. However, Roberts wants to point out that puppets come serious messages sometimes.”木偶表演的主题更多的是轻松愉快的而不是严肃的。然而,罗伯特指出木偶表演有时也传递一些严肃的东西。由此可推断出,木偶表演既是一种娱乐也有一定的教育性。故答案选B。

(4)此题属于细节理解中的一一对应型。答案与题目在表达形式和意义上直接吻合,一一对应,一目了然。根据第三段第一句“Roberts' interest in puppets started when he received some beautiful glove puppets one Christmas.” 罗伯特对木偶的兴趣始于圣诞节时他收到了一些漂亮的手套木偶。故选C。

【点评】夹叙夹议阅读理解:(1)先叙述自己的某一个生活经历或见闻,然后真对这一事件发表自己对生活的看法,或揭示生活的真理。(2)作者先提出一种观点或看法。然后围绕这一观点或看法用具体的事例加以说明,有时也可能用几个事例从不同的侧面来说明。(3)提出一种观点或见解,然后用某一事例来阐述这一观点,最后再进一步的总结和升华。抓住作者要说明的观点或要阐述的生活哲理是做好这一类型题目的关键,而作者叙述所发生的事件或生活经历只是为表达其思想服务的。

10.阅读理解

Rich countries are racing to dematerialise payments. They need to do more to prepare for the side-effects.

For the past 3,000 years, when people thought of money they thought of cash. Over the past decade, however, digital payments have taken off— tapping your plastic on a terminal or swiping a smartphone has become normal. Now this revolution is about to turn cash into an endangered species in some rich economies. That will make the economy more efficient—but it also causes new problems that could hold back the transition(转型).

Countries are removing cash at varying speeds. In Sweden the number of retail cash transaction per person has fallen by 80% in the past ten years. America is perhaps a decade behind. Outside the rich world, cash is still king. But even there its leading role is being challenged. In China digital payments rose from 4% of all payments in 2012 to 34% in 2017.

Cash is dying out because of two forces. One is demand— younger consumers want payment systems that plug easily into their digital lives. But equally important is that suppliers such as banks and tech firms (in developed markets) and telecoms companies (in emerging ones) are developing fast, easy-to-use payment technologies from which they can pull data and pocket fees. There is a high cost to running the infrastructure behind the cash economy—ATMs, vans carrying notes, tellers who accept coins. Most financial firms are keen to abandon it, or discourage old-fashioned customers with heavy fees.

In the main, the prospect of a cashless economy is excellent news. Cash is inefficient. When payments dematerialise, people and shops are less open to theft. It also creates a credit history, helping consumers borrow.

Yet set against these benefits are a couple of worries. Electronic payment systems may risk technical failures, power failure and cyber-attacks. In a cashless economy the poor, the elderly and country folk may be left behind. And a digital system could let governments watch over people's shopping habits and private multinationals exploit their personal data.

(1)Some rich countries are trying to .

A. dematerialize money

B. get rid of the side-effects of cash

C. make the economy more efficient by protecting endangered species

D. promote payment without paper money or coins

(2)In paragraph 3, several countries are mentioned to show .

A. the differences between developed and developing countries

B. that cash is still king across the world

C. digital payments are becoming a trend that cannot be stopped

D. China is developing faster that those developed countries in digital payment

(3)Cash is disappearing largely because .

A. younger consumers are short of money to live their digital lives

B. suppliers are trying to reduce costs and obtain money and data

C. the infrastructure is developing at a high speed in developed markets

D. financial firms want to abandon old-fashioned customers

(4)The author's attitude towards digitalized payment is .

A. favorable

B. negative

C. objective

D. indifferent

【答案】(1)D

(2)C

(3)B

(4)C

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,富裕国家正在减少现金支付,现金正在因为需求等原因消失。总的来说,无现金经济的未来是个好消息,但是对于电子支付人们也有一些担忧。(1)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“Rich countries are racing to dematerialise payments.”可知, 富裕国家正竞相将支付非物质化;再根据第三段中的“In Sweden the number of retail cash transaction per person has fallen by 80% in the past ten years.”在过去的十年中,瑞典的人均零售现金交易数量下降了80%。结合上下文,可知某些富裕国家比如瑞典正在减少现金支付,推广不用纸币或硬币的支付方式,也就是电子支付方式。故选D。

(2)考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“In Sweden the number of retai l cash transaction per person has fallen by 80% in the past ten years.”可知在过去的十年中,瑞典的人均零售现金交易数量下降了80%;再根据“In China digital payments rose from 4% of all payments in 2012 to 34% in 2017.”可知在中国,数字支付从2012年占所有支付的4%上升到2017年的34%。瑞典和中国的共同点是现金支付减少,电子支付比例上升,由此可推断作者提到瑞典和中国是为了说明数字支付正成为一种不可阻挡的趋势。故选C。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第四段中的“But equally important is that suppliers such as banks and tech firms (in developed markets)... Most financial firms are keen to abandon it, or discourage old-fashioned customers with heavy fees.”可知现金消失的一个重要原因就是诸如银行和科技公司(在发达市场)和电信公司(在新兴市场)之类的供应商正在开发快速,易于使用的支付技术,他们可以从中提取数据和小费。运行现金经济背后的基础架构需要付出高昂的成本,这些基础设施包括自动取款机,载有纸币的货车,接受硬币的出纳员。大多数金融公司都渴望放弃它,或者以高昂的费用劝阻老式客户。也就是供应商为了减少成本,获取数据和小费,开发了更便捷的支付方式,导致现金支付的减少。故选B。

(4)考查推理判断。纵观全文可知,,作者提到无现金支付即电子支付的好处,也提到电子支付引起的担忧,对待电子支付是客观的,故选C。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解和推理判断两个题型的考查,是一篇科技类阅读,考生需要准确捕捉细节信息,并根据上下文进行逻辑推理,从而选出正确答案。