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中考英语主谓一致复习

主谓一致

【考点聚焦】主谓一致是初中阶段的重要语法项目之一,从近年来中考的试题来看,对主谓一致的考查主要集中在以下内容:

1、以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语为复数时,谓语用复数。

2、由and或both……and连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

但并列主语如果指的是同一人、同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数。例如:The poet and writer has come.

3、由and连接的并列单数主语之前如果分别由each, every, no修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

4、主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有but ,except, besides, with ,as well as ,together with along with,like 等引导的介词短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。例如:The women with two children is my aunt .

注意:主语和谓语之间插入了分词短语,谓语要与主语保持一致。

Mr Smith , followed by his wife and three children , has just arrived.

5、一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。

6、集体名词family, class, team, group 等看作整体时,谓语动词用单数;看作每一个成员时,谓语动词用复数。

7、当表示国家,城市,人名,书名,报纸,杂志,及组织机构等的专有名词做主语时,作为整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

The New York Times is reading all over the United States . 《纽约时报》

8、news ,maths,physics ,politics等词貌似复数,实为单数,其谓语动词用单数.

9、“the+形容词”(如the poor ,the rich ,the young,the old ,the dead ,the sick,

the brave等)作主语,谓语动词往往用复数

10、由each, some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用单数。

11、有两部分构成的物体的名词,如glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

注意:如果这类名词前用了a pair of等,则谓语动词的单复数形式往往取决于pair的单复数形式。例如:Here are some new pairs of shoes.

My new pair of socks is on the bed.

12、表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。

13、不定代词由all, most, more, some, any, none作主语时,也要依这些代词表示的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果代词代表复数可数名词,谓语动词用复数;如果代词代表单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。

All of the work has been finished.

All of the people have gone.

14、疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种情况:主语表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数;主语表示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。

Who is your brother?

Who are League members?

15、分数(百分数)+of+名词做主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于of后面的名词的数。但要注意population 一词,用作整体时,谓语动词用单数,用其部分做主语时,谓语动词形式用复数。

Part of the work has been done by us .

Ten percent of the apples were bad .

The population of China is 13.6 billion and 70%of the population are peasants .

16、half, the rest等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数意义,动词用复数;如

果所指为单数意义,动词用单数。例如:

17、由what 引出的从句作主语时,通常谓语动词用单数形式。但如果所指内容为复数意义时,谓语动词用复数形式。

18、由连词not……but……, or,either……or, neither……nor, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致。

19、There be句型、以here开头的句子谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。

20、a number of后面加复数名词或代词,其动词用复数形式;但the number of后面加复数名词或代词时,其谓语用单数。

21、“one or two +复数名词”做主语,谓语动词用复数。

22、many a +单数名词 (许多……) ;more than one +单数名词(不止一……)作主语,尽管意思是复数,但谓语动词还是用单数。注意:“more than +基数词+复数名词”结构或“more +复数名词+than one做主语时,谓语用复数。

Many a ship has been damaged in the storm.

More than twenty students are playing football on the playground.

More members than one are against your plan.

23、this kind of book=a book of this kind(这种书),作主语,谓语用单数;this kind of men=men of this kind=these kind of men(这类人,口语中用),但this kind of men的谓语用单数,men of this kind=these kind of men的谓语用复数。all kinds of后跟复数名词,谓语用复数。

This kind of men is dangerous.

Men of this kind are dangerous.

24、在定语从句中主语是关系代词who , that , which , 谓语动词的数应与先行词的数一致。注意:在“one of +复数名词+ who/that/which”引导的定语从句中,从句谓语的单复数取决于one前是否有the (only)、the very。如果有,从句的谓语动词用单数,如没有the only,就用复数形式。

This is one of the most interesting questions that have been asked.

He was the only one of the students who was late for school.

【技巧点拨】中考主谓一致方面的考题主要考知识的记忆情况。考查主谓一致的常见题型有单项选择,完型填空,翻译句子,单句改错,短文改错、同义句转换,时态填空等。做这类题时,必须找出句子的真正主语,然后根据记忆的知识作出判断。同时,要遵循三个原则:语法一致、意义一致和就近原则。

【考例剖析】

例1:Each of the students______ a dictionary.(2004资阳)

A. have

B. is

C. are

D. has

剖析:此题意思是“每个学生都有一本字典”,所以先排除B、C 。句中of students 作each的定语,真正的主语是each,故又排除A 。

答案:D

例2:How time flies! Ten years ________ passed. (2004天津)

A. have

B. has

C. is

D. are

剖析:Ten years通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

答案:B

例3:Not only his parents but also his brother ________to the Summer Palace. They haven’t been back. (2004南通)

A. have been

B. have gone

C. has been

D. has gone

剖析:由not only…but also连接两个并列主语,其谓语动词根据就近原则同相邻的主语保持一致,谓语动词应用单数形式。又因为他们还都没有回来,所以用has gone而不用has been。

答案:D

例4:Look! There _______ playing with the tourists on Dahe Square.(2004包头)

A. are a number of deer

B. are a number of deers

C. is a number of deer

D. is a number of deers

剖析:句子的主语a number of deer。当a number of + 名词作主语时,谓语用复数。因此首先排除C、D,而deer单复数相同,所以B也不正确。

答案:A

例5:The Smiths ______ sending e-mails _______ letters.because it is faster.(2005云南) A.prefer, to writing B.prefer,to write

C.prefers,to writing D.prefers,to write

剖析:姓氏名词用复数且前面加上定冠词时,表示一家人或一对夫妇。作主语时,谓语用复数。再如:The zhous live upstairs.(姓周的那家住在楼上)。此题答案应在A、B中选,而短语prefer…to…中的to是一个介词,故又排除B。

答案:A

例6:Everyone except Bill and Jim ______there when the meeting began.(2005黑龙江)

A. was

B. is

C. are

D. were

剖析:根据主、从复合句时态一般要一致的原则,本题首先可排除B、C,而主句主语含有except等时,其谓语的单复数取决于except前边的名词的单复数,所以D答案也不正确。

答案:A

例7:Either Jane or Steven _____ watching TV now.(2005重庆)

A.were B.is C.are D. was

剖析:根据就近原则,应排除A、C,而题中单词now表明现在,所以D也不正确。

答案:B

例8:Since 2000, Nanchang has become a new city. Everything ______.(2005江西)

A. are changed

B. was changed

C. has changed

D. had changed

剖析:根据“不定代词作主语,谓语往往用单数”这一点,首先可以排除A答案。又由于change属于不可数名词,它没有被动语态,所以B也不正确。由since引出的一个含具体过去时间的句子,主句用现在完成时。

答案:C

【实地演练】

I.改错:

1. Both paper and ink is used up.

2. Eating too much are bad for your health.

3.This pair of shoes are my brother's.

4. Each of the boys have a dictionary.

5 Every one of the students in Class Two have two books .

6.I think maths are very difficult to learn.

7. A large number of students has gone to work in Xingjiang.

8.The mother with two children often go to the town.

II.用所给动词的适当形式填空

9. _____ (be) everything OK?

10. Nobody _______ (know) the answer to the question.

11. Ten divided by two _______ (be) five.

12. Most of the drinking water ______ (be) from the Black River.

13. Not only she but also I _______ (do) morning exercises every day.

14. Either you or she _____ (have) made a wrong decision.

15. The family _____(be) spending the weekend together.

16. Bread and butter ______ (be) her daily breakfast.

17. The police _____ (be) trying to catch the thief.

18. The number of people invited _____ fifty, but a number of them ____ absent for different

reasons.

Ⅲ.选择填空。

()19.There _____ many new words in Lesson One. It is very easy.

A. is

B. aren’t

C. isn’t

D. are

()20. ---These bananas look different and they are sweet.

---Right. They ______ here from Taiwan yesterday.

A. was brought

B. were brought

C. bring

D. are brought

( ) 21. The Olympic Games _______ held every______ years.

A. is,four

B. are,four

C. is,five

D. are,five

( ) 22. Look, here come some _______.

A. dog

B. horse

C. deer

D. cow

( ) 23. The injured in the tsunami _____ good care of by some medical teams.

A. is taken

B. are being taken

C. are taking

D. is being taken

( ) 24. It is not J. K. Rowling but her works that _____ us excited.

A. makes

B. is made

C. make

D. are made

( ) 25. On the closet _____ a pair of trousers his parents bought for his birthday.

A. lying

B. lies

C. lie

D. is laid

( ) 26. Each man and each woman _____ asked to help when the fire broke out.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

( ) 27. About 60 percent of the students _____ from the south; the rest of them _____ from the north and foreign countries.

A. are; is

B. is; is

C. is; are

D. are; are

( ) 28. They said the eighteenth and last lesson _______ quite easy.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

( ) 29. ---When are you going to Kumming for your holidays?

---I haven’t decided. ______ this Sunday ______ next Sunday is OK.

A. Both; and

B. Either; or

C. Neither; nor

D. Not only; but also

( ) 30.______ Helen ______ Joan speaks beautiful Chinese after they came to China.

A. Neither; nor

B. Not only; but also

C. Both; and

D. A and B

( ) 31.The paper for books and new papers ______ made of wood.

A. are

B. is

C. has

D. have

( ) 32. Not only my brother but also I______ good at painting. Both of us ______good painters.

A. are...are

B. am...are

C. is...is

D. are...is

( ) 33. _______ of them has his own opinion.

A. Both

B. Some

C. Every

D. Each

( ) 34. Are there any _______ on the farm?

A. horse

B. duck

C. chicken

D. sheep

( )35. One-third of the area _____ covered with green trees. About seventy percent of the trees _____ been planted.

A. are; have

B. is; has

C. is; have

D. are; has

( ) 36. The number of teachers in our college _____ greatly increased last term. A number of teachers in this school _____ from the countryside.

A. was; is

B. was; are

C. were; are

D. were; is

( ) 37. What _____ the population of China? One-third of the population _____ workers here.

A. is; are

B. are; are

C. is; is

D. are; is

( ) 38. Not only he but also we _____ right. He as well as we _____ right.

A. are; are

B. are; is

C. is; is

D. is; are

( )39. What he’d like _____ a digital watch. What he’d like _____ textbooks.

A. are; are

B. is; is

C. is; are

D. are; is

( )40. My shirt _____ white and my trousers _____ blue.

A. are; are

B. are; is

C. is; is

D. is; are

( ) 41.------Two months _______ quite a long time.

------Yes. I’m afraid that he will miss a lot of lessons.

A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

( ) 42.He is one of the boys who _____ here on time. He is the only one of the boys who _____ here on time.

A. has come; have come

B. have come; has come

C. has come; has come

D. have come; have come

( )43. Either you or he _____ interested in playing chess. _____ you or he fond of music at present?

A. are; Are

B. is; Are

C. are; Is

D. is; Is

( )44. Many a professor _____ looking forward to visiting Germany now. Many scientists _____ studied animals and plants in the last two years.

A. is; have

B. is; has

C. are; have

D. is; are

( )45. A knife and a fork _____ on the table. A knife and fork _____ on the table.

A. is; is

B. are; are

C. are; is

D. is; are

( )46. Her family _____ much larger than mine four years ago. Her family _____ dancing and singing when I came in last night.

A. were; was

B. was; were

C. was; was

D. were; were

( )47.The box of rubbers ____ white.

A.is B.are C.be D.were

( )48.____ he or you to come home?

A.Is B.Are C.Will D.Can

( )49.The writer and teacher ____ coming now.

A.is B.are C.has D.have

( )50.The old man has two children but _____ of them lives with him.

A. both

B. none

C. neither

D. all

( )51.Our knowledge of computer _____ growing all the time.

A. be

B. is

C. are

D. were

( )52.How and why Jack came to China _____ not known. When and where to build the new library _____ not been decided.

A. is; has

B. are; has

C. is; have

D. are; have

( )53.Now Tom together with his classmates _____ football on the playground.

A. play

B. are playing

C. plays

D. is playing

( )54.Two hundred and fifty pounds _____ too unreasonable a price for a second-hand car.

A. is

B. are

C. were

D. be

( )55.All but Dick _____ in Class Three this term.

A. are

B. is

C. were

D. was

( )56.Soon after the earthquake, every man, woman and child _____ about it.

A. were talking

B. was talking

C. talk

D. talks

( )57.We each _____ strong points and each of us on the other hand _____ weak points.

A. have; have

B. has; have

C. has; has

D. have; has

( )58.Everyone except Tom and John _____ there when the meeting began.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

( )59.Most of the houses _______ this year.

A. has built

B. have built

C. has been built

D. have been built

( )60.My friend and classmate Paul _____ motorcycles in his spare time.

A. race

B. races

C. is raced

D. is racing

( )61.There _____ a pen, two pencils, and three books on the desk.

A. are

B. is

C. has

D. have

( )62.The factory, including its machines and buildings, _____ burnt last night.

A. is

B. are

C. were

D. was

( )63.Climbing hills _____ of great help to health.

A. is

B. are

C. were

D. be

( )64.There _____ a lot of good news in today’s newspaper.

A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

Ⅳ. 根据中文,完成英语句子。

65.我们两个人都没有看这部电影。

______ of us______ seen the film.

66.我的茶杯里没有水了。

______ is ______ water in my cup.

67.不是他就是我要到哪儿去。

______ he ______ I is going there.

68.学生们和老师都不知道这件事。

______ the students nor the teacher ______this matter.

69.我们家正在一起度周末。

______ family ______ spending the weekend together.

参考答案

I. 1.is改为are 2.are改为is 3.are改为is 4.have改为has

5. have 改为has

6.are改为is

7.has 改为have

8.go 改为goes II.

9. Is 10.knows 11.is 12.is 13.do

14.has 15.are 16.is 17.are 18.was; were

Ⅲ. 19-23 BBBCB 24-28 CBBDB 29-33BDBBD 34-38 DCBAB

39-43 CDABB 44-48 ACBAA 49-53 ACBAD

54-58 AABDB 59-64 DBBDAA

Ⅳ. 65. Neither, has 66. There, no 67. Either, or

68. Neither, knows 69. Our, are