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高考英语阅读理解基础训练极品题(14)

2014高考英语阅读理解基础训练极品题(14)及答案

阅读理解------------

SYDNEY—Australia’s economic boom is encouraging a steady stream of unexpected visitors looking for work: Americans.

U.S. citizens are heading to Australia in small but growing numbers as near-10% unemployment at home drives more to look for jobs Down Under, where China’s thirst for iron ore (矿石) and energy is transforming the Pacific nation into an economic powerhouse.

A bricklaying student from Silver Trowel, a leading provider of quality education and training in the building and construction industry, apprentices (当学徒) on a building project in Western Australia, where workers are in short supply.

Daniel Davila, a 23-year-old floorer from Camarillo, California made the 14-hour move across the Pacific two years ago. He had been forced to take a job stocking shelves at a local grocery store for $8.90 an hour when he couldn’t get work fixing floors.

On a good day in Australia, he now makes as much as 50 Australian dollars (US$50.21) an hour—about twice the amount for a typical flooring job in the U.S. He plans to start his own flooring business.

“I can make what I did in a week in the U.S. in less than a day here,” said Mr. Davila, who lives near a mining boom town in Western Australia.

Australian government figures show just under 7,000 Americans currently working on long-term visas, an 80% jump over the past five years. U.S. citizens are now the third-largest group applying for so-called 457 work visas, after British and Indian nationals. Americans with degrees in areas such as accounting or mine engineering, as well as other skilled workers, can obtain a nonrenewable(不可续期的) permit for as much as a three-year stay. After that, they can apply for the renewable 457, which allows up to a four-year stay.

The need for workers is particularly pressing in Western Australia. The mining state’s unemployment rate was 4.5% in Nov ember, below the national average of 5.2%.

Drivers of heavy trucks can pull in six-figure salaries while experienced crane (起重机) operators can earn hundreds of thousands a year. Attracting skilled workers is a shift for Australia, which historically sent many of its most highly educated to the U.S. and Europe, according to migration data.

8. _____, a growing number of Americans go to work in Australia.

A. As a result of the encouragement of Australia

B. As a result of high unemployment in the U.S.

C. Out of their ambition of finding valuable resources

D. Out of their determination to realize their dreams

9. It can be inferred from the passage that 457 work visas are _____.

A. for skilled workers in some fields

B. for students on the building project

C. especially for American workers

D. especially for those out of work

10. It is implied in the passage that _____.

A. foreigners have to give up their original professional jobs when working in Australia

B. it is possible for foreigners to earn more money in Australia than in their

own countries

C. there are more U.S. citizens hoping to work in Australia than from other

countries

D. Australians think it fair to exchange their talent with American skilled workers

11. In which of the following cities are workers probably most needed?

【参考答案】8—11、BAB D

阅读理解-----B

(2013·哈尔滨市质检,B)

Bursting into the classroom from recess (课间休息), 15 children take their seats and face the woman they know as Ms. Yang.

“What day is it today?” she asks, in Mandarin Chinese (普通话).

“Confucius' birthday!” the fifth graders shout in Mandarin.

“Why do we celebrate Confucius' birthday?”

“Because he's the greatest teacher in the history of China!” exclaims a brown-haired girl. She is speaking Mandarin.

English is rarely heard in Lisa Yang's class at the Chinese American International School (CAIS), despite the fact that few students are native speakers of Mandarin.

The United States is actively trying to increase the group of students in “critical languages” such as Mandarin. The stu dents at CAIS are way ahead in such a trend.

Founded 25 years ago, this small private school in San Francisco, USA, does what few other American schools do: It produces fully fluent speakers of Mandarin Chinese, by far the most commonly spoken language in the world.

Mandarin Chinese is suddenly hot in American schools. As China becomes the world's leading economy sometimes this century, schools in the U. S. are scrambling to add Mandarin to their list of foreign languages or expand Chinese programs already in place.

“It really is almost unprecedented (无前例的). People are looking at China as a force to be reckoned with... And to ensure that the U. S. has the ability to conduct trade, and to work with the Chinese, certainly having an understanding of Chinese language and culture is an advantage,” said Marty Abbott of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages(ACTFL).

To develop Chineselanguage programs has not been smooth. A shortage of trained teachers has made it difficult for some schools to join the race. When schools do get teachers, they often hire them straight from China, and the teachers usually suffer culture shock when they come to the U. S.

Robert Liu remembers his first two years in an American classroom. It was not an easy adjustment. “In China, students respect their teachers,” he said. Liu found that American students, however, expect an active teaching style. He had to use games to engage them rather than lectures.

To avoid many of the problems with foreign teaching styles, the CAIS has been working with the Chinese government to improve training of teachers who are sent to the U. S.

文章大意:本文为一篇说明文。随着中国经济地位的增长,美国的很多学校掀起了学习

汉语的热潮。

5.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

A.Understanding Chinese language and culture is helpful to work with Chinese.

B.Chineselanguage programs have met trouble during the development.

C.Many other American schools do the same as CAIS, founded 25 years ago.

D.A lack of trained Mandarin Chinese teachers is a problem for the programs.

答案:C 推理判断题。根据文章第八段第一句“Founded 25 years ago, t his small private school in San Francisco, USA, does what few other American schools do...”可知,C项中“Many other American schools”表述错误。故答案选C。

6.What kind of problem is the most difficult to adjust in teaching Chinese in America?

A.To adapt themselves to the American life styles.

B.To communicate with the American students.

C.To get along well with the American students.

D.To be fit for the cultural differences in teaching styles.

答案:D 推理判断题。根据倒数第三段最后一句中的“the teachers usually suffer culture shock when they come to the U. S.”和倒数第二段内容可知,中国老师到美国任教时,遭遇到的最大问题就是文化冲击,由于教学风格的不同,老师们需要做出很大的调整。故答案选D。

7.The meaning of the underlined word “scrambling” is similar to ________.

A.climbing B.rushing

C.changing D.beating

答案:B 词义猜测题。根据第九段画线词上下句内容可知,画线词所在句的句意为:由于中国将会成为本世纪领先的经济体,很多美国学校正在加紧将普通话列入他们的外语名单当中或扩大现在已有的汉语项目。因此,画线词应为“加速,加紧”之意,故答案选B。

8.It can be learned from the passage that ________.

A.the students in Lisa Yang's class usually speak Chinese

B.there are few American students in Lisa Yang's class

C.we celebrate Confucius' birthday because he's the greatest history teacher D.in America the students don't respect their teachers

答案:A 细节理解题。根据第六段中“English is rarely heard in Lisa Yang's class...”可知,在杨老师的课堂上很少用英语。A项表述正确。故答案选A。根据第五段的内容可知,C项错误;B、D两项在原文中没有涉及。故排除。

阅读理解---C

(2013·哈尔滨市质检,C)

Your name made you do it, though unconsciously, suggests new research that finds your name can negatively make you achieve less. Psychologists at Yale and the University of California, San Diego studying the unconscious influence of names say a preference for our own names and initials—the “nameletter effect”—can have some negative consequences.

Students whose names begin with C or D get lower grades than those whose names begin with A or B; major league baseball players whose first or last names began with K are significantly more likely to strike out.

Assistant professors Leif Nelson of UCSD and Joseph Simmons of Yale have conducted five studies over five years using information from thousands of individuals.

“The conscious process is that baseball players want to get a hit and students want to get A's,” Nelson says. “So if you get a change in performance in agreement with the nameletter effect, it clearly shows there must be some unconscious desire operating in the other direction.”

The researchers' work supports a series of studies published since 2002 that have found the “nameletter effect” causes people to make life choices based on names that resemble (类似) their own. Those studies by Brett Pelham, an associate professor at SUNY University, have found that people are disproportionately (不定比例地) likely to live in states or cities resembling their names, have careers that resemble their names and even marry those whose surnames begin with the same letter as their own.

The twist, says, is that he has believed the nameletter effect would apply only to positive outcomes. Nelson and Simmons, he says, are “showing it applies more so to negative things than positive things.”

The researchers say the effect is definitely more of a coincidence (巧合) than a fact. “I know plenty of Chrises and Davids who have done very well in school,”Pelham says.

文章大意:本文为一篇议论文。加州和耶鲁大学的心理学家通过研究发现,名字与成功之间存在着“姓名-字母效应”,而对此结果,有些研究人员则表示否定,认为这不过是巧合而已。

9.The new research is mainly about the relationship between one's ________.

A.name and unconsciousness

B.name and characteristics

C.name and success

D.sports and school achievements

答案:C 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第一句“... new research that finds your name can negatively make you achieve less.”可知,这项研究发现,尽管是无意识的,但你的名字会对你的成功有一些消极影响。因此可推断出,这项研究主要是研究姓名与成功之间的关系。故答案选C。

10.Who may serve as an example to show the “nameletter effect”?

A.Miss Smith working as a lawyer.

B.Mr. Watt living in Washington.

C.Charles Brown married to Sue Rogers.

D.Paula Snow fond of the color white.

答案:B 推理判断题。根据第五段第一句中的“... ‘name letter effect’ causes people to make life choices based on names that resemble (类似) their own”可知,“姓名-字母效应”使得人们选择与自己姓名字母相似的城市去生活。因此B项“Mr. Watt living Washington”是个很好的例子,因为他的名字的开头字母与城市的开头字母是“W”。故答案选B。

11.The last paragraph mainly tells us that the “nameletter effect” ________.

A.isn't believed in by many people

B.doesn't work with certain names

C.does not really exist

D.is often too little to show

答案:D 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段内容可知,Pelham认为这项研究的结果纯属巧合,据他所知,很多以C或D为开头字母姓名的人成绩就很好。因此,他认为这种“姓名-字母效应”的研究结果没什么作用。故答案选D。

阅读理解-----------D

高考英语阅读理解基础训练极品题(14)

高考英语阅读理解基础训练极品题(14)

高考英语阅读理解基础训练极品题(14)

高考英语阅读理解基础训练极品题(14)

Scientists have long understood the key role that oceans play in regulating the Earth’s climate. Oceans

cover 70 percent of the globe and store a thousand times

more heat than the atmos phere does. What’s newer is the understanding of how this key component of our climate system responds to global warming.

A brake on global warming —for now

One of the ocean’s most important climate functions is absorbing heat and carbon dioxide (CO 2), one of the gases that cause global warming. Acting as a heat sponge (海绵), the oceans have absorbed huge amounts of heat and CO 2 in the last forty years.

Fujita explains that “the oceans are saving us from faster climate change—they are a big flywheel that delays rapid overheating of the earth, putting a brake on the climate system.” “That’s the good news,” he adds. “The bad news is that the oceans only slow the atmospheric warming. Once the oceans come to balance with a greenhouse-gas warmed earth, the extreme heat will remain in the atmosphere and things will get much hotter.” But where and how the oceans release this accumulated (积累) heat is uncertain. And as the ocean stores heat, fragile underwater ecosystems are struggling. The most recent scientific report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) also notes with concern that the ocean is acidifying because of increased absorption of atmospheric CO 2, and thus causing a threat for shell-forming species. Sharp increases in carbon dioxide levels will cause further acidification of the ocean. Currents distributing heat Another important role the oceans play is that of distributor. Oceans deliver heat and life-sustaining nutrients around the globe. Just as blood vessels bring oxygen and nutrients to cells in the human body, the ocean’s currents carry oxygen, nutrients and heat throughout the Earth. The ocean distributes 25 to 50 percent of the energy the planet receives from the sun. For example, the Gulf Stream carries

heat across the Atlantic. This warm current gives northwestern Europe a milder climate than it would normally have so far north. A change to the ocean’s circulation (循环) patterns could throw Europe into a colder period, even as the rest of world experiences warmer temperatures.

12. We can infer from the passage that _____.

A. the oceans cause global warming

B. the oceans stop global warming

C. the oceans release nutrients and heat

D. the ocean ecosystems face more dangers

13. From the passage we can learn that the ocean’s currents _____.

A. produce oxygen and nutrients everywhere

B. absorb 25~50% of the energy from the sun

C. distribute heat and nutrients around

D. change the ocean’s circulation patterns

14. Which of the following is NOT the result of the ocean absorbing heat and carbon dioxide?

A. It causes further acidification.

B. It affects shell-forming species.

C. It makes the atmosphere hotter.

D. It regulates the Earth’s climate.

15. This passage mainly talks about ______.

A. the roles of oceans

B. global warming

C. ocean currents

D. carbon dioxide 【参考答案】12—15、DCCA

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