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同位语从句专项讲解及练习含答案

同位语从句。

一. 同位语从句定义。

在复合句中用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。它一般跟在某些名词/先行词后面,用以说明该名词/先行词表示的具体内容。

二. 同位语从句的名词/先行词。

1.可以跟同位语从句的名词/先行词通常有news,idea,fact,promise,question,doubt,thought,hope,message,suggestion,words(消息),possibility等(一般的“抽象”名词都可用)。

例:I’ve come from Mr wang with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon.

我从王先生那里来,他让我告诉你他今天下午不能来看你了。

2. 在某些名词(如demand,wish,suggestion,resolution等)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气

例:There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.

有一项建议是布朗应该离队。

3.有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词/先行词后面,而被别的词隔开。

The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city.

他突然想起可能敌人已经逃出城了。

三. 同位语从句的引导词。

1.连词that引导,引导同位语从句的that不能省略,which不能引导同位语从句。

例:The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong.

你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。

2. 连词whether引导,if不能引导同位语从句。

例:The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.

我们是否请专家由家庭医生来定。

3.其它引导词引导,连接代词what,who,whom,whose,引导同位语从句。

1).I have no idea what size shoes she wears.我不知道她穿几号的鞋。

2).The question who will take his place is still not clear. 问题谁来接替他的位置还不是很明朗。

4. 连接副词when,where,how,why 引导。

例:We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.

到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。

四. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别。

1. 意义的不同。

同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:

We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)

We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)

2.引导词的不同。

what,how,whatever 等可引导同位语从句,但不引导定语从句。Which可引导定语从句但不引导同位语从句。3. 引导词的功能上的不同

that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。如上例that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。

4. 被修饰词语的区别。

同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope,wish,idea,news,fact,promise,opinion,suggestion,truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。另外,when和where 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词the reason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定:

I have no idea when they will come . 我不知道他们什么时候来。(同位语从句)

I’ll never forget the days when I lived there.. 我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)

1. Is there any possibility____you could pick me up at the airport?

A. when

B. that

C. whether

D. what

2. That is _____ he said.

A. all what

B. all which

C. all that

D. all which

3. These are things and persons ___I’ve heard of.

A. who

B. whom

C. which

D. that

7.A child ___parents are dead is called an orphan.

A. which

B. his

C. whose

D. with

8. All ____ is needed is a supply of oil

A. the thing

B. that

C. what

D. which

9. He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten windows, most of _____hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.

A. these

B. those

C. that

D. which

10. His p arents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______family was poor

A. of whom

B. whom

C. of whose

D. whose