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专题07 冲关真题训练


Passage 1(2017·新课标II卷,D)


When a leafy plant is under attack, it doesn’t sit quietly. Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. These chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant and seem to be an alarm. What the plants pump through the air is a mixture of chemicals known as volatile organic compounds, VOCs for short.

Scientists have found that all kinds of plants give out VOCs when being attacked .It’s a plant’s way of crying out. But is anyone listening? Apparently. Because we can watch the neighbours react.

Some plants pump out smelly chemicals to keep insects away. But others do double duty. They pump out perfumes designed to attract different insects who are natural enemies to the attackers. Once they arrive, the tables are turned. The attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch.

In study after study, it appears that these chemical conversations help the neighbors .The damage is usually more serious on the first plant, but the neighbors, relatively speaking, stay safer because they heard the alarm and knew what to do.

Does this mean that plants talk to each other? Scientists don’t know. Maybe the first plant just made a cry of pain or was sending a message to its own branches, and so, in effect, was talking to itself. Perhaps the neighbors just happened to “overhear” the cry. So information was exchanged, but it wasn’t a true, intentional back and forth.

Charles Darwin, over 150 years ago, imagined a world far busier, noisier and more intimate(亲密的)

than the world we can see and hear. Our senses are weak. There’s a whole lot going on.

32. What does a plant do when it is under attack?

A. It makes noises.

B. It gets help from other plants.

C. It stands quietly

D. It sends out certain chemicals.

33. What does the author mean by “the tables are turn ed” in paragraph 3?

A. The attackers get attacked.

B. The insects gather under the table.

C. The plants get ready to fight back.

D. The perfumes attract natural enemies.

34.Scientists find from their studies that plants can .

A. predict natural disasters

B. protect themselves against insects

C. talk to one another intentionally

D. help their neighbors when necessary

35.what can we infer from the last paragraph?

A. The world is changing faster than ever.

B. People have stronger senses than before

C. The world is more complex than it seems

D. People in Darwin’s time were imaginative.


32.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据“reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular

smell that neighboring plants can get. These chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant and seem to be an alarm”可知,当植物受到伤害时,会分泌一种特殊的化学物质。学科*网

33.A 【解析】词义推测题。根据“Once they arrive,the tables are turned.The attacker who was lunching now

becomes lunch”,一旦它们到达这里,这些攻击者就会受到植物的攻击,故选A。


35.C 【解析】推理判断题。根据“imagined a world far busier, noisier and more intimate(亲密的) than the world

we can see and hear. Our senses are weak. There’s a whole lot going on”可知,这个世界远比我们看到或听到的更热闹、更亲密,我们认知能力有限,有很多事仍在继续发生,远比我们想象的要复杂。故选C。

Passage 2(2017·新课标卷III,C)


After years of heated debate, gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Fourteen wolves were caught in Canada and transported to the park. By last year, the Yellowstone wolf population had grown to more than 170 wolves.

Gray wolves once were seen here and there in the Yellowstone area and much of the continental United States, but they were gradually displaced by human development. By the 1920s, wolves had practically disappeared from the Yellowstone area. They went farther north into the deep forests of Canada, where there were fewer humans around.

The disappearance of the wolves had many unexpected results. Deer and elk populations —major food sources (来源) for the wolf — grew rapidly. These animals consumed large amounts of vegetation (植被), which reduced plant diversity in the park. In the absence of wolves, coyote populations also grew quickly. The coyotes killed a large percentage of the park’s red foxes, and completely drove away the park’s beavers.

As early as 1966, biologists asked the government to consider reintroducing wolves to Yellowstone Park. They hoped that wolves would be able to control the elk and coyote problems. Many farmers opposed the plan because they feared that wolves would kill their farm animals or pets.

The government spent nearly 30 years coming up with a plan to reintroduce the wolvers. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service carefully monitors and manages the wolf packs in Yellowstone. Today, the debate continues over how well the gray wolf is fitting in at Yellowstone. Elk, deer, and coyote populations are down, while beavers and red foxes have made a comeback. The Yellowstone wolf project has been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well.

28. What is the text mainly about?

A. Wildlife research in the United States.

B. Plant diversity in the Yellowstone area.

C. The conflict between farmers and gray wolves.

D. The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone Park.

29. What does the underlined word "displaced"in paragraph 2 mean?

A. Tested.

B. Separated.

C. Forced out.

D. Tracked down.

30. What did the disappearance of gray wolves bring about?

A. Damage to local ecology.

B. A decline in the park’s income.

C. Preservation of vegetation.

D. An increase in the variety of animals.

31. What is the author’s attitude towards the Yellowstone wolf project?

A. Doubtful.

B. Positive.

C. Disapproving.

D. Uncaring.


28.D 【解析】主旨大意题。文章开门见山地提出黄石公园引进灰狼的举措,然后在下文中详细介绍其原因



30.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据第三段的内容可知,灰狼的减少造成了鹿群的增多,从而植被遭到了破坏;


31.B 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章末段的最后一句可知,作者认为引进灰狼的项目是很有价值的实验,


Passage 3(2017·天津卷)


This month, Germany’s transport minister, Alexander Dobrindt, proposed the first set of rules for autonomous vehicles(自主驾驶车辆). They would define the driver’s role in such cars and govern how such cars perform in crashes where lives might be lost.

The proposal attempts to deal with what some call the “death valley” of autonomous vehicles: the grey area between semi-autonomous and fully driverless cars that could delay the driverless future.

Dobrindt wants three things: that a car always chooses property(财产) damage over personal injury; that it never distinguishes between humans based on age or race; and that if a human removes his or her hands from the

driving wheel — to check email, say — the car’s maker is responsible if there is a crash.

“The change to the road traffic law will permit fully automatic driving,”says Dobrindt. It will put fully driverless cars on an equal legal footing to human drivers, he says.

Who is responsible for the operation of such vehicles is not clear among car makers, consumers and lawyers. “The liability(法律责任) issue is the biggest one of them all,” says Natasha Merat at the University of Leeds, UK.

An assumption behind UK insurance for driverless cars, introduced earlier this year, insists that a human “be watchful and monitoring the road” at every moment.

But that is not what many people have in mind when thinking of driverless cars. “When you say ‘driverless cars’, people expect driverless cars.” Merat says. “You know — no driver.”

Because of the confusion, Merat thinks some car makers will wait until vehicles can be fully automated without operation.

Driverless cars may end up being a form of public transport rather than vehicles you own, says Ryan Calo at Stanford University, California. That is happening in the UK and Singapore, where government-provided driverless vehicles are being launched.

That would go down poorly in the US, however. “The idea that the government would take over driverless cars and treat them as a public good would get absolutely nowhere here,” says Calo.

46. What does the phrase “death valley” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A. A place where cars often break down.

B. A case where passing a law is impossible.

C. An area where no driving is permitted.

D. A situation where drivers’ role is not clear.

47. The proposal put forward by Dobrindt aims to __________.

A. stop people from breaking traffic rules

B. help promote fully automatic driving

C. protect drivers of all ages and races

D. prevent serious property damage

48. What do consumers think of the operation of driverless cars?

A. It should get the attention of insurance companies.

B. It should be the main concern of law makers.

C. It should not cause deadly traffic accidents.

D. It should involve no human responsibility.

49. Driverless vehicles in public transport see no bright future in _________.

A. Singapore

B. the UK

C. the US

D. Germany

50. What could be the best title for the passage?

A. Autonomous Driving: Whose Liability?

B. Fully Automatic Cars: A New Breakthrough

C. Autonomous Vehicles: Driver Removed!

D. Driverless Cars: Root of Road Accidents


46.D 【解析】考查词义猜测。根据第二段的句子the grey area between semi-autonomous and fully driverless cars

that could delay the driverless future可知选D。



49.C 【解析】考查细节理解。根据最后一段That would go down poorly in the US, however. “The idea that the

government would take over driverless cars and treat them as a public good would get absolutely nowhere here,” says Calo.可知选C。

50.A 【解析】通读全文可以知道,本文主要讲述了谁来对无人驾驶的机动车辆负责。故选A。

Passage 4(2017·江苏卷)


Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother’s voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning (胎教), birds could rule the roost. As recently reported in The Auk: Ornithological Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch (孵化). New-born chicks can then imitate their mom’s call within a few days of entering the world.

This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia, and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and

over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched, the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers—a sound that served as their regular "feed me!"call.

To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red-backed fairy wren, another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks, ranking them by similarity.

It turns out that baby red-backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies’ begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom’s voice were rewarded with the most food.

This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological (神经系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. "As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need?"Kleindorfer asks. "Our results suggest that they might be going for quality."

58.The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means"____________".

A. be the worst

B. be the best

C. be the as bad

D. be just as good

59. What are Kleindorfer’s findings based on?

A. Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks.

B. The observation of fairy wrens across Australia.

C. The data collected from Queensland’s locals.

D. Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds.

60. Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which ____________.

A. can receive quality signals

B. are in need of training

C. fit the environment better

D. make the loudest call


58.B【解析】根据第二段"when the errs were hatched, the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers"可



60.C【解析】根据倒数第二段中的"the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom’s voice were rewarded

with the most food"和最后一段"Our results suggest that they might be going for quality."可知,模仿母鸟模仿得最好的雏鸟得到最多的食物,研究结果表明,母亲会选择质量好的雏鸟。由此可知,胎教帮助母鸟辨别出那些适应环境较好的孩子。




Five years ago, when I taught art at a school in Seattle, I used Tinkertoys as a test at the beginning of a term to find out something about my students. I put a small set of Tinkertoys in front of each student, and said: "Make something out of the Tinkertoys. You have 45 minutes today — and 45 minutes each day for the rest of the week."

A few students hesitated to start. They waited to see what the rest of the class would do. Several others checked the instructions and made something according to one of the model plans provide. Another group built something out of their own imaginations.

Once I had a boy who worked experimentally with Tinkertoys in his free time. His constructions filled a shelf in the art classroom and a good part of his bedroom at home. I was delighted at the presence of such a student. Here was an exceptionally creative mind at work. His presence meant that I had an unexpected teaching assistant in class whose creativity would infect(感染)other students.

Encouraging this kind of thinking has a downside. I ran the risk of losing those students who had a different style of thinking. Without fail one would declare, "But I’m just not creative."

"Do you dream at night when you’re asleep?"

"Oh, sure."

"So tell me one of your most interesting dreams."The student would tell something wildly imaginative. Flying in the sky or in a time machine or growing three heads. "That’s pretty creative. Who does that for you?""Nobody. I do it."

"Really —at night, when you’re asleep?"


"Try doing it in the daytime, in class, okay?"

25. The teacher used Tinkertoys in class in order to ________.

A. know more about the students

B. make the lessons more exciting

C. raise the students’ interest in art

D. teach the students about toy design

26. What do we know about the boy mentioned in Paragraph 3?

A. He liked to help his teacher.

B. He preferred to study alone.

C. He was active in class.

D. He was imaginative.

27. What does the underlined word "downside"in Paragraph 4 probably mean?

A. Mistake.

B. Drawback.

C. Difficulty.

D. Burden.

28. Why did the teacher ask the students to talk about their dreams?

A. To help them to see their creativity.

B. To find out about their sleeping habits.

C. To help them to improve their memory.

D. To find out about their ways of thinking.


25. A【解析】考查细节理解。根据文章第一段的"to find out something about my students"可知,作者使用



27. B【解析】考查词义猜测。根据下文的"I ran the risk of losing those students who had a different style of


28. A【解析】考查推理判断。根据第四段中的"Without fail one would declare, ‘But I’m just not creative.’"


Passage 2(2016·四川卷)


If you could have one superpower, what would it be?

Dreaming about whether you would want to read minds, see through walls, or have superhuman strength may sound silly, but it actually gets to the heart of what really matters in your life.

Every day in our work, we are inspired by the people we meet doing extraordinary things to improve the world.

They have a different kind of superpower that all of us possess: the power to make a difference in the lives of others.

We’re not saying that everyone needs to contribute their lives to the poor. Your lives are busy enough doing homework, playing sports, making friends, seeking after your dreams. But we do think that you can live a more powerful life when you devote some of your time and energy to something much larger than yourself. Find an issue you are interested in and learn more. V olunteer or, if you can, contribute a little money to a cause. Whatever you do, don’t be a bystander. Get involved. You may have the opportunity to make your biggest difference when you’re older. But why not start now?

Our own experience working together on health, development, and energy the last twenty years has been one of the most rewarding parts of our lives. It has changed who we are and continues to fuel our optimism about how much the lives of the poorest people will improve in the years ahead.

24. What does the underlined part in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A. Your life style.

B. Your life value.

C. Your trouble in life.

D. Your life experience.

25. Why does the author say they are inspired every day?

A. They possess different kinds of superpowers.

B. They have got the power to change the world.

C. Some people around them are making the world better.

D. There are many powerful people in their life and work.

26. What does the author stress in Paragraph 5?

A. Learning more and contributing more to a cause.

B. Rising above self and acting to help others.

C. Working hard to get a bigger opportunity.

D. Trying your best to help the poor.

27. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A. The author believes the lives of the poorest will get better.

B. Much more progress will be made in the near future.

C. The work on health is the most valuable experience.

D. People’s efforts have been materially rewarded.


24.B 【解析】词义猜测题。此处是说,梦想着能读懂别人心思,看穿墙,或者拥有超能力,这些可能听起



26.B 【解析】推理判断题。综合第五段内容可知,作者想要告诉我们,提升自己,行动起来帮助别人。故


27.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据最后一段最后一句可知,它已经改变了我们是谁,并将在以后的这些年里


Passage 3(2016·新课标全国卷III)


If you are a fruit grower — or would like to become one —take advantage of Apple Day to see what’s around. It’s called Apple Day but in practice it’s more like Apple Month. The day itself is on Oct ober 21, but since it has caught on, events now spread out over most of October around Britain.

Visiting an apple event is a good chance to see, and often taste, a wide variety of apples. To people who are used to the limited choice of apples such as Golden Delicious and Royal Gala in supermarkets, it can be quite an eye opener to see the range of classical apples still in existence, such as Decio which was grown by the Romans. Although it doesn’t taste of anything special, it’s still worth a try, as is the knobbly(多疙瘩的) Cat’s Head which is more of a curiosity than anything else.

There are also varieties developed to suit specific local conditions. One of the very best varieties for eating quality is Orleans Reinette, but you’ll need a warm, sheltered place with perfect soil to grow it, so it’s a pipe dream for most apple lovers who fall for it.

At the events, you can meet expert growers and discuss which ones will best suit your conditions, and because these are family affairs, children are well catered for with apple-themed fun and games.

Apple Days are being held at all sorts of places with an interest in fruit, including stately gardens and commercial orchards(果园). If you want to have a real orchard experience, try visiting the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale, near Faversham in Kent.

8. What can people do at the apple events?

A. Attend experts’ lectures.

B. Visit fruit-loving families.

C. Plant fruit trees in an orchard.

D. Taste many kinds of apples.

9. What can we learn about Decio?

A. It is a new variety.

B. It has a strange look.

C. It is rarely seen now.

D. It has a special taste.

10. What does the underlined phrase "a pipe dream" in Paragraph 3 mean?

A. A practical idea.

B. A vain hope.

C. A brilliant plan.

D. A selfish desire.

11. Wh at is the author’s purpose in writing the text?

A. To show how to grow apples.

B. To introduce an apple festival.

C. To help people select apples.

D. To promote apple research.


8. D【解析】考查细节理解。从第二段首句"Visiting an apple event...often taste, a wide variety of apples"可直接



10. B【解析】考查词义猜测。根据第三段可知,Orleans Reinette品种虽然口感好,但对种植环境和土壤要求

高,因此对于大多数喜欢它的人来说,大饱口福只是一种脱离实际的愿望,这与B项"A vain hope" (徒劳的希望)一致。

11. B【解析】考查写作意图。通读全文可知,这是一篇介绍英国苹果节的文章。

Passage 4(2016·天津卷)


When John was growing up, other kids felt sorry for him. His parents always had him weeding the garden, carrying out the garbage and delivering newspapers. But when John reached adulthood, he was better off than his childhood playmates. He had more job satisfaction, a better marriage and was healthier. Most of all, he was happier. Far happier.

These are the findings of a 40-year study that followed the lives of 456 teenage boys from Boston. The study showed that those who had worked as boys enjoyed happier and more productive lives than those who had not. "Boys who worked in the home or community gained competence(能力) and came to feel they were worthwhile members of society,"said George Vaillant, the psychologist(心理学家) who made the discovery. "And because they felt good about themselves, others felt good about them."

Vaillant’s study followed these males in great detail. Interviews were repeated at ages 25,31 and 47. Under Vaillant, the re searchers compared the men’s mental-health scores with their boyhood-activity scores. Points were

awarded for part-time jobs, housework, effort in school, and ability to deal with problems.

The link between what the men had done as boys and how they turned out as adults was surprisingly sharp. Those who had done the most boyhood activities were twice as likely to have warm relations with a wide variety of people, five times as likely to be well paid and 16 times less likely to have been unemployed. The researchers also found that IQ and family social and economic class made no real difference in how the boys turned out.

Working — at any age — is important. Childhood activities help a child develop responsibility, independence, confidence and competence — the underpinnings(基础) of emotional health. They also help him understand that people must cooperate and work toward common goals. The most competent adults are those who know how to do this. Yet work isn’t everything. As Tolstoy once said, "One can live magnificently in this world if one knows how to work and how to love, to work for the person one loves and to love one’s work."

46. What do we know about John?

A. He enjoyed his career and marriage.

B. He had few childhood playmates.

C. He received little love from his family.

D. He was envied by others in his childhood.

47. Vaillant’s words in Paragraph 2 serve as.

A. a description of personal values and social values

B. an analysis of how work was related to competence

C. an example for parents’ expectations of their children

D. an explanation why some boys grew into happy men

48. Vaillant’s team obtained their findings by.

A. recording the boys’ effort in school

B. evaluating the men’s mental health

C. comparing different sets of scores

D. measuring the men’s problem solving ability

49. What does the underlined word "sharp"probably mean in Paragraph 4?

A. Quick to react.

B. Having a thin edge.

C. Clear and definite.

D. Sudden and rapid.

50. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/0fc6cf290a1c59eef8c75fbfc77da26924c59664.htmlpetent adults know more about love than work.

B.Emotional health is essential to a wonderful adult life.

C.Love brings more joy to people than work does.

D.Independence is the key to one’s success.


46. A【解析】考查细节理解。根据第一段中的"He had more job satisfaction, a better marriage and was





49.C 【解析】考查词义猜测。根据画线词后面的"Those who had done the most boyhood activities...less likely

to have been unemployed"可知,孩提时代的劳动和长大后的生活之间的联系是显而易见的。

50. B【解析】考查推理判断。根据最后一段的内容可知,孩提时代的劳动能够培养一个人多方面的能力,这