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初中英语语法

初中英语语法——句子成分

一、句子成分精讲

句子成分:主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补语等。

主要成分:主语和谓语

1、主语

一个句子中需要加以说明或描述的对象。主语的位置:

一般位于句首,由名词、代词、数词或相当于名词的词、短语等充当。

The school is far from here.

名词做主语

She goes to school by bike.

代词做主语

Eight is a lucky number.

数词做主语

The blind need more help.

名词化的形容词做主语

There is a pen on the desk.

名词做主语

Predicting the future is interesting.

动名词做主语

To be a doctor is my dream.

不定式短语做主语

2谓语

表示人或事物(主语)的动作和存在的状态. 英语中由动词be、动词have和行为动词来充当谓语动词

句子的时态和语态是通过谓语表现出来。谓语动词往往由一个或一个以上的助动词或情态动词加上主要动词构成。

分析句子的主语和谓语

Mr. Li teaches English.

He can play the piano.

My parents and I are having dinner.

3、表语

用来说明主语的身份、特征、性质、状态。

表语的位置用在动词be和系动词的后面。

名词、代词、数词、介词短语、副词等都可以和连系动词一起构成复合谓语。

Your pen is on the desk.

He got very angry.

My dream is to have a robot.

常见的系动词

1. be动词

2. 与感觉有关的动词look, sound, smell, taste, feel 等

3. 表示状态变化的动词,意为“变得” “变成” 如get, grow, turn等上述两类词作连系动词时要用形容词作表语,千万不能用副词。

4、宾语

是动作的对象或承受者。

及物动词必须跟宾语.

及物动词:直接接宾语的谓语动词.

不及物动词:不能直接带宾语的谓语动词. 宾语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、从句构成.

I saw a plane in the sky just now.名词做宾语

I want three.数词做宾语

I like going shopping.动名词做宾语

We think predicting the future is hard.宾语从句

5、宾语补足语(宾补)

有些及物动词除了要有一个宾语之外, 还须加上一个补足语。如果没有补足语(宾补), 有时候句子的意思就不完整。

充当宾补的有:

1. 形容词作宾语补足语The sun keeps us warm.

2. 介词短语作宾语补足语: I found her in the room.

3. 副词作宾语补足语。

Please let him in.

4. 名词作宾语补足语。

We made him monitor of the class.

5. 动词不定式和分词也能用作宾语补足语。

I asked him to come.

6、定语

定语修饰名词或代词(即在汉语里的……的)

1. 形容词作定语

(一般放在被修饰语之前,修饰不定代词时放在后面) They have a clever son.

I have something important to tell you.

2.名词作定语:

Is it a color film?

名词作定语一般用单数形式, 如:school bus,ticket office, paper flowers 但也有例外,如: sports meeting, clothes shop man 和woman

修饰的名词如果是复数,它们总以复数的形式作定语,如: men drivers , women doctors

3. 代词作定语: This song is better than that one.

4. 数词作定语: There are only thirty students in our class. 带有数字的复合形容词.当复合形容词用连字号连接时,其中的名词要用单数形式.

a two-day holiday

a three-year-old boy

5. 副词作定语(放在被修饰词之后): Do you know the young man over there?

6. 介词短语作定语(放在被修饰词之后): The students in our class like swimming.

7、状语

修饰动词,形容词或副词,有的修饰全句, 用以说明地点, 时间, 方式, 程度, 原因, 目的, 结果, 条件, 让步等.

1. 副词作状语: The old man is walking slowly.

表方式

The boy is very clever.

表程度

2. 介词短语作状语:

I have lived in Shanghai for five years.

表时间

3. 不定式作状语

I come here to see you.

表目的

4. 现在分词作状语

The teacher came in, holding a book in his hand.

表方式

5. 状语从句

We’ll go shopping if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

状语的位置

1. 在一般情况下,用于句末。

We like our school very much.

2.为了强调状语,可以把它放在句首. I usually get up at six, but this morning I got up at eight.

3. 表频度的副词通常用于句中, 如always, usually, often, hardly, never,

用于行为动词前,be动词、助动词和情态动词后

I usually get up early.

He is often late.

一些副词, 如already, once, just, soon, yet, still, nearly, almost, really, suddenly, certainly等用法相似sometimes, now可以位于句首,句中或句末only 在句中的位置比较灵活, 但位置不同, 意义也不同.

The actor only sang a song.

Only the actor sang a song.

The actor sang only one song.

两个或多个状语同时修饰时的顺序

1. 地点状语在前, 时间状语在后. We will have a meeting in Room 202 tomorrow.

2. 较小单位的状语在前,由小到大

Mr. Li lives at 88 Chongwen Rd., Suzhou, Jiangsu.

3. 一个句子有几个不同种类的副词作状语, 其顺序大都是: 程度副词,方式副词, 地点副词, 时间副词

She sang very well at the meeting last night.

时间和地点状语也可以位于句首, 表示强调或使上下文更为连贯

Usually I read the newspapers in the morning, but yesterday I read them in the evening.

写出划线部分的句子成分。

1. Lily is cleaning the desk now.

2. Her garden is the best in our town.

3. Liu Ming is thirteen years old.

4. I like this book very much.

5. The girl on the blue bike is Jane’s sister.

6. She didn’t come to my party because she was ill.

7. Wang Ping does his homework carefully.

8. We will go to the Children’s Palace once a week.

9. They are in the classroom.

10. It sounds good.

11. His name is Paul.

12. We always go to school early.

(一) 挑出下列句中的宾语

①My brother doesn't do his homework.

A B C D

②People all over the world speak English.

A B C D

③You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

A B C D

④How many new words do you learn ?

A B C D

⑤Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?

A B C D

二挑出下列句中的表语

1.The old man is feeling very tired.

2.Why is he worried about Jim?

3. The leaves have turned yellow.

4.Soon They all become interested in the subject.

5.She is the first to learn about it.

挑出下列句中的定语

①They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name.

②What is your given name?

③On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3.

④I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor.

⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

挑出下列句中的宾语补足语

①She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room.

②He asks her to take the boy out of school.

③She find it difficult to do the work.

④They call me Lily sometimes.

⑤I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus.

(五) 挑出下列句中的状语

①There is a big smile on her face.

②Every night he heard the noise upstairs.

③He began to learn English when he was eleven.

④The man on the motorbike is travelling to fast.

⑤With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.

(六) 划出句中的直接宾语( )和间接宾语()

①Please tell us a story.

②My father bought a new bike for me last week.

③Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term.

④Here is a pen. Give it to Tom.

⑤Does he leave any message for me?

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