文档库

最新最全的文档下载
当前位置:文档库 > 1 第二讲 科技史概要

1 第二讲 科技史概要

第二讲科技史概要

吴国林教授/博士生导师

一、古代自然观

1、古希腊(Ancient Greek):世界的本原/基质/始基问题

泰勒斯(Thales,约公元前624~公元前547)认为万物本原是水;

Everything is made of water.

阿那克西曼德(Anaximander公元前610~公元前546):无限定/无限/阿派朗apeiron

阿那克西米尼(Anaximenes, 公元前585~公元前525)认为万物本原是气;air.

赫拉克利特(Heraclitus,公元前540~公元前470)认为火是万物本原;Fire is the primordial element. Perpetual change was he believed in.

“You cannot step twice into the same river; for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you.”

“The sun is new every day.”

留基伯(Leucippus, 约公元前500~公元前440)和他的学生德谟克利特(Democritus, 约公元前460~公元前370)最早提出了原子论(Atomism)观点,认为物质结构是不连续的,由为数极多的原子构成。古希腊后期的伊壁鸠鲁和古罗马时期卢克莱修继承并发展了原子论思想。

A tom

恩培多克勒:(Empedocles)四元素说(four elements火法),土earth、水water、气air、火fire。

亚里士多德(Aristotle,公元前384~公元前322)认为火、气、水、土四元素是自然界原始物质;

5 phases

求知乃人之本性。

毕达哥拉斯(Pythagoras,公元前570~公元前500则认为数是万物的本原。All things are numbers.

Some of rules of the Pythagoras order were:

Not to eat the heart;

Not to pick up what has fallen;

To abstain from beans.

数的和谐:harmonic mean

勾股定理:right-angled triangles: the sum of the squares on the sides adjoining the right angle is equal to the square on the remaining side.

电子是什么?

怀疑主义:皮罗(Pyrrho,365-275,BC)

A . 怀疑论的基本目的:心灵的宁静

可以用一个三段式来表达逻辑结构:

(1)以“心灵宁静”为目的;

(2)以“结束独断”为达到“心灵宁静”的最佳途径;

(3)以不可知论为达到“结束独断”的理论基础。

皮罗的最终目标是寻求幸福。

B. 基本方法:反对理论

悬搁一切判断。

2、古中国

“五行说” (5 phases)(把金、木、水、火、土五种物质看作是构成自然界万物元素,来说明自然界万物的起源和多样性的统一),有阴阳(yin and yang)两种力量two-force theory

“元气说”(把“元气”看作是构成天地万物的原始物质)等。

墨子:端Duan

老子:道Dao

Daoists studied man’s inner life and his relation to nature.

宇宙生成论:

3、古印度

4大元素说:非正统哲学——顺世论提出:地、水、火、风,一切事物都是自然而然的,存在什么创造者。

第二,提出了物质结构问题。

第三,提出了生命起源和生物进化的问题。例如古希腊阿那克西曼德(公元前610~公元前546)认为生命起源于泥泽,并认为人是由鱼变来的。此外还提出如天体结构、人体生理结构和功能等问题,其中包含着某些合理成分伯然哲学这一古代科学形态虽然有一定观测事实为依据,但还没有进步到对自然界分析和解剖的地步,对自然联系也没有从细节上加以证明,主要还是靠想象和猜测。

二、古希腊自然科学的贡献

古代理论自然科学知识形态。恩格斯指出:“精确的自然研究只是在亚历山大里亚时期的希腊人那里才开始的。”

一. 亚里士多德Aristotle’s syllogism, Term logic

大前提

小前提

结论

All men are mortal (Major premiss).

Socrates is a man(Minor premiss).

Therefore: Socrates is mortal(Conclusion).

1 第二讲  科技史概要

“Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is the truth.”----Aristotle

哈佛大学校训的原文,是用拉丁文写的,

Amicus Plato, Amicus Aristotle, sed Amicus VERITAS,意为“以柏拉图为友,以亚里士多德为友,更要以真理为友”。

哈佛大学的历任校长坚持3A原则,即学术自由、学术自治和学术中立。

1 第二讲  科技史概要

The five elements

Main article: Classical element

?Fire, which is hot and dry.

?Earth, which is cold and dry.

?Air, which is hot and wet.

?Water, which is cold and wet.

?Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).

二. 欧几里得平面几何学。

欧几里得(Euclid, 前450-前380),Euclidean geometry

Euclid's Elements of Geometry

The Elements consists of thirteen books. Book 1outlines the fundamental propositions of plane geometry.

The Elements consists of thirteen books. Book 1 outlines the fundamental propositions of plane geometry, including the three cases in which triangles are congruent, various theorems involving parallel lines, the theorem regarding the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the Pythagorean theorem. Book 2 is commonly said to deal with ``geometric algebra'', since most of the theorems contained within it have simple algebraic interpretations. Book 3 investigates circles and their properties, and includes theorems on tangents and inscribed angles. Book 4 is concerned with regular polygons inscribed in, and circumscribed around, circles. Book 5develops the arithmetic theory of proportion. Book 6 applies the theory of proportion to plane geometry, and contains theorems on similar figures. Book 7deals with elementary number theory: e.g., prime numbers, greatest common denominators, etc.Book 8 is concerned with geometric series. Book 9 contains various applications of results in the previous two books, and includes theorems on the infinitude of prime numbers, as well as the sum of a geometric series. Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (i.e., irrational) magnitudes using the so-called ``method of exhaustion'', an ancient precursor to integration. Book 11deals with the fundamental propositions of three-dimensional geometry. Book 12 calculates the relative volumes of cones, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres using the method of exhaustion. Finally, Book 13investigates the five so-called Platonic solids.

Definitions(Book 1)

1. A point is that of which there is no part.

2. And a line is a length without breadth.

3. And the extremities of a line are points.

4. A straight-line is (any) one which lies evenly with

points on itself.

5. And a surface is that which has length and breadth

only

6. And the extremities of a surface are lines.

7. A plane surface is (any) one which lies evenly with

the straight-lines on itself.

8. And a plane angle is the inclination of the lines to

one another, when two lines in a plane meet one another,

and are not lying in a straight-line.

9. And when the lines containing the angle are

straight then the angle is called rectilinear.

10. And when a straight-line stood upon (another)

straight-line makes adjacent angles (which are) equal to

one another, each of the equal angles is a right-angle, and

the former straight-line is called a perpendicular to that

upon which it stands.

Five Postulates

1. Let it have been postulated to draw a straight-line from any point to any point.

2. And to produce a finite straight-line continuously in a straight-line.

3. And to draw a circle with any center and radius.

4. And that all right-angles are equal to one another.

5. And that if a straight-line falling across two (other) straight-lines makes internal angles on the same side (of itself whose sum is) less than two right-angles, then the two (other) straight-lines, being produced to infinity, meet on that side (of the original straight-line) that the (sum of the internal angles) is less than two right-angles (and do not meet on the other side).

Common Notions

1. Things equal to the same thing are also equal to one another.

2. And if equal things are added to equal things then the wholes are equal.

3. And if equal things are subtracted from equal things then the remainders are equal.

4. And things coinciding with one another are equal to one another.

5. And the whole [is] greater than the part.

公理化体系

Father of Geometry

1 第二讲  科技史概要

公理axiom: 不证自明

5条公理

第五条:

欧几里得(公元前330~公元前275)《几何原本》,总结了几个世纪以来几何学发展成果,从35个原始定义、5条公设和5条公理出发逻辑地证明几何学中的467个定理,建立了几何学的公理化体系。

以上古希腊三门科学的成就表明,科学已从哲学中分离出来,有自己独立的研究对象,而且注意严密的逻辑推理和数学论证,建立理论体系,显示出理论自然科学的特点。

三是托勒密天文学。

地心说

托勒密(Ptolemy, 约90~168)是古希腊天文学的集大成者.

1 第二讲  科技史概要

Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until an equally systematic presentation of a heliocentric geometrical model by Nicolaus Copernicus.

著有《天文大全(Almagest)》,他依据大量大文观测资料,提出符合人们感官印象的地球中心说的天文理论,用本轮和均轮的几何模型来解释月球、太阳和当时已知的行星的运动规律,并且用这一模型来推算和预测各天体以后运动的位置,并能相当精确地为事后的天文观测证实。由此看来尽管他把地球看作太阳系的中心是错误的,但他并不是单纯的观测经验的描述或单纯幻想,而是有一定合理成分的理论性知识。

80

1 第二讲  科技史概要

33

1 第二讲  科技史概要

哥白尼

四是阿基米德(Archimedes)的静力学。阿基米德(公元前287~公元前212)是静力和流体静力学的创始人,他将数学演绎方法与实用技术经验方法结合起来,在数学、力学等方面取得了惊人成就。他在《论平板的平衡》和《论杠杆》论文中,从五条公理出发,推导出杠杆定律;他在《论浮力》论文中用两个公设为前提推导出浮力定理。

五、科学规范(Scientific Norms)

1、柏拉图的“完全形式推理法”,或几何学规范

2、亚里士多德的“因果律规范”,或因果律传统。Causality, The Four Causes

Main article: Four causes

Material cause(质料因) describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel.

Formal cause(形式因) is a concept used by Aristotle, and originates from the idea of the form by Plato and Socrates.

The formal cause according to which a statue is made is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter. Formal cause could only refer to the essential quality of causation. A deeper contemplation reveals a formal cause as the ever existing truth of

capacity. Thus, the capacity of the human genome to accompany the existence of a human being presumes that the capacity to be a human being pre-exists the human being. That pre-existence consists of the essential capacity of the specific genome to co-exist with the human in a very significant and specific way. The dog genome does not cause a human though elements of dog genome may coexist with the human genome.

A more simple example of the formal cause is the blueprint or plan that one has before making or causing a human made object to exist. Plato would say that a perfect circle exists, or the form of a perfect circle exists and that all other circles are an imperfect copy of the formal cause.

The efficient cause(动力因) is the agent which brings something about. For example, in the case of a statue, it is the person chiseling away, and the act of chiseling, that causes the statue. This answers the question, how does it happen? It is the sort of answer we usually expect when we ask about cause; the thing which happened to bring about certain results.

Final cause(目的因)or telos, is one of Aristotle's four forms of causation. It is defined as the purpose, the good, or the end of something. For example, the final cause of a pen is decent writing. Telos is often used among many ethicists today as it reflects the ancient meaning.

由此要求,任何一种科学的认识,必须清楚地阐明事物存在和演化的质料因、形式因、动力因与目的因。因果关系不明确地不能算作科学的认识。形式因、动力因与目的因统称为形式因。四因就归结为两因。

例如:建造房屋,砖瓦是质料因,它的图样是形式因,建筑师是动力因,房屋的用途是目的因。

与古代科学技术状况相适应,在自然观方面古代自然现达到了对自然界自发的唯物主义和朴素的辩证法的理解,这种自然观坚持从自然界本身来寻求对自然现象的解释;把自然界看作是有机的整体,并处于不断变化发展之中,猜测到自然界发展变化的源泉:对立面的斗争和统一。

其缺陷是:缺乏科学的基础,它是直视观测和思辩、猜测的产物,没有解剖分析,没有细节的说明,表现出直观性、猜测思辨性、神秘性和整体性。在方法论方面,或者是以经验描述方法为主,或者是以直观观测和思辩猜测为主,只是到了古希腊后期,以演绎为主的逻辑方法体系才达到相对完备的程度。

三、中世纪科学技术状况

黑暗的中世纪Dark middle age.

The Science in China:

Why did Chinese Science fall behind European science in 17th-18th centuries?

----Small agricultural economic views.

----Feudal institution which became super-stable structures

----Chinese characters/Words.

----Chinese simple dialectic thinking.

----Chinese pay attention to speculative thinking not practice.

李约瑟

1 第二讲  科技史概要

China European Countries

李约瑟

西罗马

政教合一,文艺复兴运动Renaissance

中国:天元术

白马非马。

----Chinese lacked the idea of a divine lawmaker and so never realized that nature has laws.

----Enormous bureaucracy with Confucian ethos frustrated scientific innovation.

----Chinese bureaucracy minimized the influence of the merchants.

Wang Yangming: studied bamboos格竹子

心即宇宙。万物皆一理。

内求法。官本位。

四、第一次科学革命

哥白尼(Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543)日心说heliocentric cosmology, Heliocentrism

1 第二讲  科技史概要

数学简单性

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)

是近代自然科学的开端,《天体运行论》(1543年)的发表是对神学的挑战书,是自然科学的独立宣言,自此自然科学便开始从神学

中解放出来,大踏步地前进。

观测精度

思想解放运动。

观念革命——制度革命——器物革命

学者: 学术精神,对人类社会的发展负责

开普勒(Kepler, 1571-1630)行星三大定律。

第谷:地心说

哲学指导:毕达哥拉斯的数,圣经

1 第二讲  科技史概要

《星空的音乐》

1 第二讲  科技史概要

启示 伽利略(Galileo ,Galileo Galilei, 1564~1642)

Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy ", the "father of modern physics ", the "father of science "

Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical

precision.

A biography by Galileo's pupil Vincenzo Viviani stated that Galileo had dropped balls of the same material, but different masses, from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass freely falling body

开创性地将运动学的研究奠定在精密实验的基础上,将实验方法同数学演绎方法结合起来,建立了加速度的概念,发现了自由落体定律(Law of freely falling body)、惯性定律和抛物体运动规律等,为机械力学的创立奠定了基础。

胡克(Robert Hooke):万有引力定律

莱布尼兹(Leibniz):微积分calculus

牛顿(Isaac Newton,1642~1727)

总结了天体力学和地面上力学的成就,建立了一套经典力学的基本概念,提出了运动三定律(three universal laws of motion)和万有引力定律(law of universal gravitation.),从而使经典力学成为一个完整的理论体系。牛顿的工作完成了近代以来物理科学的第一次理论大综合。

综合集成

格物致知

格致之学

《自然哲学之数学原理》(Philosophi? Naturalis Principia Mathematica), published in 1687

English poet Alexander Pope was moved by

Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:

“Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;

God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.”

Newton himself was rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676.

“If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”

in a memoir later:

“I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.”

为什么是正确的?怎样检验?

牛顿万有引力定律的预见,“证实” 确证

1821年,德国人布瓦尔德发现天王星的轨道不是完美的椭圆。贝塞尔提出可能有一颗未知的星的扰动。1845年,英国亚当斯根据万有引力定律和已知的天王星的轨道计算出了未知的行星的位置。1846年7-8月,法国人勒威耶根据同样的方法也得出了未知行星的位置,柏林天文台台长加勒接到勒威耶的来信后立即进行观察,在计算的位置附近发现了海王星。

牛顿万有引力理论

已知天王星轨道

海王星

与实验比较,找到了,牛顿万有引力理论得到确证。

牛顿万有引力理论

已知水星轨道进动

火神星?

万有引力理论被证伪了。

天王星——————海王星

水星,进动,火神星?

原子论

亚当·斯密Adam Smith《国富论》The Wealth of Nations

◆第一次技术革命:17世纪下半叶——18世纪上半叶

蒸汽机

社会经济原因:资本主义的产生,《专利法》17世纪

第一次产业革命The First Industrial Revolution:英国

《十八世纪产业革命》法国:芒图

industry

modern:近代,现代与价值观有联系

产业的涵义(吴国林)

産:形声字。从生,彦省声。本义:出生,生育。《说文》解释,“産”,生也。

“彦省声”表示“彦”省掉了三撇,为“产”,作为声音的标识。

生:会意。甲骨文字形,上面是初生的草木,下面是地面或土壤。“生”是汉字部首之一。本义:草木从土里生长出来;滋长) 而“彦”并不表义。

“産”就表示生长。

業:象形字。从丵,从巾丛生草。巾象版。本义:古时乐器架子横木上的大版,刻如锯齿状,用来悬挂钟磬。

显见,“业”就是一种人工物,这种人工物还对其他物品进行规范。

它规定了乐器所悬挂的位置,可以引伸为某种规范。

《说文》解释,“業”,大版也。所以覆县钟鼓之栒,捷业如锯齿,