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信息技术与图书馆外文翻译

毕业设计(论文)外文资料翻译

系(院):电子与电气工程学院

专业:测控技术与仪器

姓名:

学号:

外文出处:网络资料

(用外文写)

Library Web Design

for Persons with Disabilities

附件: 1.外文资料翻译译文;2.外文原文。

指导教师评语:

所选内容与课题相关,密切程度较好,有一定的参考价值,翻译难度适中,工作量适中,译文基本正确,语句通顺,但存在部分错误。总体评价:中。

签名:

2012 年 3 月15 日注:请将该封面与附件装订成册。

附件1:外文资料翻译译文

信息技术与图书馆:

为残疾人图书馆网页设计

摘要:近五分之一的美国人有某种形式的残疾,对他们来说,适应图书馆的指导方针和达到标准是复杂、不清楚、难以实现,所以了解残疾人如何访问网页的内容是无障碍设计中至关重要的。最近的研究表明使用一个数据库可以驱动新型图书馆网站的发展。现有技术所提供的各种工具满足了残疾顾客的需要,这些顾客主动为辅助技术的改进更新和调整,馆员提供技术支持。

由于互联网的设计标准是不断变化极快,很难建立最先进的网站。

本文网页设计评估充满挑战,因为它涉及到残疾人,探讨当前的标准,研究人口是至关重要的,因为根据美国人口调查局,美国公众包括约51200000个非制度化的人生活的残疾人,其中32500000个是严重残疾。这意味着,近五分之一的美国公众面临的一些物理,心理,感觉,或其他功能性障碍。因为一个图书馆的任务是使其资源提供给大家的,重要的是参加的面临的特殊挑战士惠顾和提供适当的服务,这些特殊需要记住的。

网页制作准则:

根据相关准则“基于网络的企业内部网和互联网信息和应用,“这是直接为我们的设计提供了准则。以下是详细审查这些标准的例子来帮助理解和实施:(一)等同文本的文本应提供每一元素。辅助技术还不能说明什么照片与其他图像看起来像;他们需要有意义的文本信息。如果图像指示用户做某事,相关的文字必须解释的目的和意义。这样,一个人不能看屏幕,可以成功地了解和浏览网页。

(二)等效替代任何多媒体演示将同步与介绍。这意味着,字幕的视频必须实时、同步。

(三)页的设计应使所有通过颜色传达的信息也没有颜色,例如从上下文或标记。而颜色可以使用,它不能是唯一的来源或指标信息。想象一个教育网站提供故事的问题中提出的黑色和绿色打印,和问题的答案可以破译只使用绿色字母。这将是无法给学生一定的形式没有种族偏见,以及那些谁使用screen-reader软件。

(四)文件组织方式应使其可读性无需关联的样式表。采用层叠样式表(样式)可以改善无障碍环境因为他们允许分离的表现内容。然而,并不是所有的浏览器完全支持,所以网页设计的需要,因此任何浏览器可以准确。内容需要组织,因此它可以阅读和理解的格式关闭。

(五)多余的文本链接将提供每个活动区的一个服务器端图像地图。

(六)应该提供客户端图像映射而不是服务器端图像映射,除非区域不能使用可用的几何图形来定义。图像映射可以被认为是一个几何定义和设置组的其他内容的链接的网站上。点击地图上的美国五十个州的一个例子是功能影像地图。服务器端图像地图会出现屏幕阅读器只能作为一个坐标,而client side地图可以包括信息的链接通过“变身”文本。最好的做法是只使用客户端图像地图和确保“变身”的文字描述是有意义的。

(七)的行和列标题应为数据表标识。

(八)应当使用标记关联数据单元格和标题单元格数据表中有2个或多个逻辑层次的行或列标题,编码是至关重要的正确的表,框架是一个废弃的特征,其使用应避免有利于布局。

(十)页的设计应避免使屏幕闪烁频率大于2赫兹和低于55赫兹。灯闪烁率在此范围内可诱发癫痫发作。闪烁或闪烁的内容网页上应避免到浏览器有能力提供用户控制闪烁。

(十一)纯文字网页,等效应提供信息或功能,使网站遵守规定,这一部分,当遵守无法实现任何其他方式。纯文字网页内容应随时更新主网页。复杂的内容,完全是视觉性质可能需要一个单独的纯文字网页,如页面显示的英文字母在美国手语。这一要求,也可作为应急措施,对现有的网站需要重新获得。最后,一个纯文本版本增加工作量的网络开发人员,使他们更昂贵的建立一个单一的,完全可访问的网站在首位。

(十二)当页面使用脚本语言来显示内容,或者创建界面元素,由脚本提供的信息应确定可以读取辅助技术的文本。脚本语言脚本允许更多的互动页面上的内容的同时减少了多次的计算机屏幕需要刷新。如果功能文本不可用,屏幕阅读器试图读取脚本的代码,输出为一个无意义的混乱的字符。使用多余的文字链接,避免这一结果。

(十三)一个网页时,需要一个小程序,插件,或其他应用程序在客户端系统解释网页内容,网页必须提供一个链接到一个插件或小程序。网页开发人员需要确定是否一个特定的插件或小程序访问之前需要他们的网页的访问者使用它。当使用的应用,如Quick Time或软体,重要的是提供了一个方便的链接在同一页上,将允许用户需要安装插件。

(十四)当电子表单设计完成在线的形式,将允许人们使用辅助技术来获取信息,领域的元素,以及所需要的功能,完成并提交表单,包括所有的说明和提示。如果脚本用于完成形式无法替代的方法,完成表格必须立即可用。

(十五)必须提供方法,以允许用户跳过重复的导航链接。使用屏幕阅读器软件通常浏览网页使用标签的关键,听作为课文朗读。网站通常的标志在每一页的顶部,使这个图形链接到该网站的主页。许多网站也使用线图形图像下方这标志的每一页作为一个导航栏。避免听这一名单通过链接的每个网页上刚刚获得的网页的内容,“相关内容”链接作为第一选择在每一页的顶部提供了一个简单的解决这个问题。

标准制定组织的工作

一个组织,旨在推动互联网技术超越了基本的508部分是无障碍网页倡议(围)的万维网联盟(标准)。使命的围是发展

*准则被广泛视为国际标准的网页易读性;

*支持材料帮助理解和实现网络无障碍;

*资源通过国际collaboration.10

该组织公布了第一个网页内容可访问性指南(网站内容可访问性1)可在1999网上内容访问密码。由以下这些指导方针,开发人员创建的网页内容,随时提供给每个用户不论这样的访问。围提供十个快速秘诀改善无障碍网站设计:*图像和动画。使用“备选”属性描述每个功能视觉。

*图像地图。使用客户端的地图和文字热点。

*多媒体。提供字幕和记录的音频,视频和描述。

*超文本。使用文本有意义当读出的背景。例如,避免“点击这里”。

*页面组织。使用标题,列出,并一致结构。使用在可能的布局和风格。

*图形和图表。总结或使用属性。

*脚本,程序,和插件。提供其他内容的情况下积极的特点是无法或不支持。

*框架,使用“无框架”元素和有意义的标题。

*表,进行逐行阅读感知

*提供文字选择非文本内容。

*提供字幕和替代品的多媒体。

*使信息的适应性和可用的辅助技术。

*使用足够的对比使事情容易看到和听到。

可操作的

*所有功能,可通过键盘。

*用户给予足够的时间阅读和使用的内容。

*不要使用内容已知会导致癫痫。

*帮助用户浏览和查找内容。

可以理解的

*文本的可读性和理解。

*作的内容出现,在可预见的方式。

*帮助用户避免和改正错误。

建议

图书馆今天一般提供三种类型的网络资源:(1)接入互联网,(2)访问订阅数据库,(3)一个图书馆的网页,所有这些都需要访问密码。图书馆要遵守508条要求“提供辅助器材和服务时,必须确保有效的沟通。”有一些可供选择的图书馆的紧缩预算。第一组包括内置到每个计算机的操作系统和软件。一些用户的视觉障碍,扩大文字的字体大小和屏幕上的图像将使电子内容更容易。两个苹果和系统软件的通用接入能力建设,包括阅读能力的文字,是在屏幕上使用合成语音。陆委会朗读工具称为语音;窗户朗读工具是所谓的叙述者。这两个系统允许屏幕放大。探索和学习这些系统的能力,提高无障碍是一个自由和简单的第一步,任何图书馆的技术产品,不管资金限制。

图书馆更实质性的技术预算有多种硬件和软件的选择选择从满足需要密码。顾客视觉障碍,一些软件包可阅读内容的网站或其他电子文档使用合成语音。自由科学windoweyes于毛重微两家最著名的软件包,并包括能够输出1点字显示器

(这两家公司也销售)。库兹韦尔3000是一个面向软件包,不仅读取屏幕文本朗读,但有丰富的额外的工具来帮助学习有困难的学生,如多动症或阅读障碍。它的目的是整合任何教育方案以及帮助学生的主要语言不是英语。低视力者需要屏幕放大超越功能窗口提供可看魔术自由科学或zoom text我方。其中的一些软件公司提供的免费试用版本,有在线演示,或两者。因为价格为相关的软件和设备可以很高,先检查与顾客视觉障碍和专业领域您的购买决策之前是审慎的。

订阅数据库可以访问密码的显示搜索结果和相应的信息。三个最常见的形式的结果是网页文本,网页文本与图形,和文件。文件是无法使用屏幕阅读器。而公司方面取得了重大进展,在渲染PDF文件访问,许多数据库包含许多文件中创建版本的Ado beAcrobat5以前的版本(在2001),这是不正确的标记为屏幕阅读器。更新的文件只可作为标记允许。杂志的文章收到出版商可能或可能不正确的标记,所以数据库公司不能保证其内容是完全可以的。一个供应商,是避免这个陷阱是指引。利用光学字符识别(光学字符识别)软件,JS TOR提供图像嵌入文本文件的内容提供给屏幕readers.19员必须坚持,封装数据库访问和与之配套的形式的辅助技术最常使用的顾客,内部和网上。

一个工具,用于评估数据库(或其他产品)无障碍是自愿性产品获取模板(vpat)。建立在伙伴之间的信息技术产业(种植)理事会和美国总务管理局(总代理)2001,它提供了一个简单的基于互联网的工具,协助联邦合同和采购官员在履行新的市场研究的要求包含在508节的实施条例。”20vpat是自愿披露形式排列一系列的表列出了标准的有关第508节讨论以前。空白单元格提供允许公司的代表说明其产品的配套功能,符合标准和提供更多的详细信息。图书馆人员可以要求供应商填写此表格文件,第508节他们的产品满足,以及如何。是最有用的形式,需要完成由公司的代表都清楚地了解508和其技术细节和深入了解他们的产品。知识库,鼓励员工以验证质量和准确性的信息提供购买前。

如数据库,图书馆的网站需要获得顾客的各种需要。根据卡斯特城堡,访问的网站是百分之35人更容易使用,更容易被发现的互联网搜索engines.21完全访问的网站是简单的维护和平均小于百分之五十,这意味着他们下载更快,使他们更容易use.22建立一个基本的网站,目前最好的做法是呈现的内容在网页或的设计布局使用CSS。这样,如果发现该网站的网页是不完全的访问,一个简单的改变需

要更新所有网页,节省时间和精力的现场经理。最后,创建一个访问的网站从开始大大更容易比改造旧。

一个完整的重建一个图书馆网站是一个机会,改善无障碍环境。雷诺兹的文章创建一个以用户为中心的网站为约翰逊县(州图书馆。)提供了一个例子,如何图书馆可以申请基本信息体系结构的设计原理上的预算。约翰逊县集中在简单的,低成本的可用性研究涉及顾客在选择站点导航类,设计布局,并测试所产生的用户界面。让普通用户在这个过程中,这个库能够实现大幅度改善网站的可用性。之前,重新设计,可用性测试确定,百分之四十二的用户是不成功的找到信息的图书馆的旧网站。经过重新设计,“只有4%的顾客是没有找到core-task信息上的第一次尝试。”即便如此,快速测试的网站与网络可达性评价工具表明,它仍然不完全符合508节的要求。有图书馆的工作人员包括密码的过程中,表现出改善的程度可能会让他们达到并可能超过这个标准。

了解残疾人网络环境,可以帮助我们走向改善无障碍环境。最近的一项研究在英国追踪眼球运动强健的计算机用户都在努力回答这些问题。研究人员要求十八人正常或矫正视力寻找答案版本的英国广播公司网站的标准图形网页和纯文本版本。受试者的眼睛往往飞镖围绕标准页”作为他们试图找到出现视力是下一个最可能的位置答案。但在寻找纯文字网页,科目去行,较小的跳跃在每一页。研究人员发现,网页布局作为一种形式的外部存储器,提供视觉线索的结构,其内容和如何驾驭它。如果互联网是一个信息高速公路,那么一个布局标准网页作为边界和方向标志浏览。

在网络上寻找信息是一个复杂的过程,需要“交换的能力,并协调多个信息寻求战略”等浏览,查询的搜索,扫描,并on.25如果网页浏览器可以转化成音频格式和介绍针对视障人士的要求,利用互联网将是一个更令人满意经验的用户。然而,这样的网络编程需要更多的研究和发展年。同时,网络管理员必须努力建立网站,是干净的,分层,和所有可用的人遵循的标准和准则目前可用。

一种方式来提高无障碍网站是按照一个数据库驱动的网站开发模型。除了使用邓拉普建议,内容存储在一个关系数据库,如与一个编码语言,如用于创建动态网页。首先,它可以创造“一个灵活的网站设计风格生活在一个单一的,易于修改文件控制介绍每个网页的网站。它需要更少的时间维护,使工作人员花时间

确保可同时容纳变化的网络技术。这种模式可以由数据库供应商确保其服务无缝集成与图书馆的在线内容。

总结

馆员负责网页设计和技术管理工作在一个不断变化的环境。法律规定明确的期望,为各种需要士惠顾。在实际使用中,,巨大的挑战和缺点仍然存在。技术员的挑战是要积极跟上技术的进步,实验和努力学习,并不断更新,为各类顾客提供网页或超媒体信息和服务。

附件2:外文原文(复印件)

Library Web Design for Persons with Disabilities

Information Technology and Libraries

Abstract:Nearly one-fifth of Americans have some form of disability, and accessibility guidelines and standards that apply to libraries are complicated, unclear, and difficult to achieve. Understanding how persons with disabilities access Web-based content is critical to accessible design. Recent research supports the use of a database-driven model for library Web development. Existing technologies offer a variety of tools to meet disabled patrons' needs,and Librarians in charge of technology can best serve these patrons by proactively updating and adapting services as assistive technologies improve.

Because the Internet and its design standards are evolving at a dizzying rate, it is difficult to create websites that are both cutting-edge and standards-compliant.

This paper evaluates the challenge of Web design as it relates to individuals with disabilities, exploring current standards, and offering recommendations for accessible development. Examining the provision of LT for this demographic is vital because according to the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. public includes about 51.2 million people living with disabilities, 32.5 million of which are severely disabled. This means that nearly one-fifth of the U.S. public faces some physical, mental, sensory, or other functional impairment. Because a library's mandate is to make its resources accessible to everyone, it is important to attend to the special challenges faced by patrons with disabilities and to offer appropriate services with those special needs in mind.

Webpage making standards

The Access Board further specifies guidelines for "Web-based intranet and internet information and applications," which are directly relevant to the provision of such services in libraries. What follows is a detailed examination of these standards with examples to assist in understanding and implementation.

(a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided. Assistive technology cannot yet describe what pictures and other images look like; they require meaningful text-based information associated with each picture. If an image directs the

user to do something, the associated text must explain the purpose and meaning of the image. This way, someone who cannot see the screen can understand and navigate the page successfully.

(b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation. This means that captions for video must be real-time and synchronized with the actions in the video, not contained solely in a separate transcript.

(c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup. While color can be used, it cannot be the sole source or indicator of information. Imagine an educational website offering a story problem presented in black and green print, and the answer to the problem could be deciphered using only the green letters. This would be inaccessible to students who have certain forms of color-blindness as well as those who use screen-reader software.

(d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet. The introduction of cascading style sheets (CSS) can improve accessibility because they allow the separation of presentation from content. However, not all browsers fully support CSS, so web pages need to be designed so any browser can read them accurately. The content needs to be organized so that it can be read and understood with CSS formatting turned off.

(e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.

(f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape. An image map can be thought of as a geometrically defined and arranged group of links to other content on a site. A clickable map of the fifty U.S. states is an example of a functioning image map. A server-side image map would appear to a screen reader only as a set of coordinates, whereas client side maps can include information about where the link leads through "alt" text. The best practice is to only use client-side image maps and make sure the "alt" text is descriptive and meaningful.

(g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables, and

(h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers. Correct table coding is critical.It is best to rely on CSS for page layout, taking into consideration the directions in subparagraph above.

(i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation. Frames are a deprecated feature of HTML, and their use should be avoided in favor of CSS layout.

(j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz. Lights with flicker rates in this range can trigger epileptic seizures. Blinking or flashing elements on a webpage should be avoided until browsers provide the user with the ability to control flickering.

(k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a Web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes. Complex content that is entirely visual in nature may require a separate text-only page, such as a page showing the English alphabet in American Sign Language. This requirement also serves as a stopgap measure for existing sites that require reworking for accessibility. Finally, a text-only version increases the workload of Web development staff, making them more costly than creating a single, fully accessible site in the first place.

(l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with function a text that can be read by assistive technology. Scripting languages such as JavaScript allow for more interactive content on a page while reducing the number of times the computer screen needs to be refreshed. If functional text is not available, the screen reader attempts to read the script's code, which outputs as a meaningless jumble of characters. Using redundant text links avoids this result.

(m) When a Web page requires that an applet, plug-in, or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet. Web developers need to ascertain whether a given plug-in or applet

is accessible before requiring their webpage's visitors to use it. When using applications such as QuickTime or RealAudio, it is important to provide an accessible link on the same page that will allow users to install the necessary plug-in.

(n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues. If scripts used in the completion of the form are inaccessible, an alternative method of completing the form must be made immediately available.

(o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links. Persons using screen reader software typically navigate through pages using the Tab key, listening as the text is read aloud. Websites commonly place their logo at the top of each page and make this graphic a link to the site's homepage. Many sites also use a line of graphic images just beneath this logo on every page to serve as a navigation bar. To avoid having to listen through this same list of links on every page just to get to the page's content, a "skip to content" link as the first option at the top of each page provides a simple solution to this problem.

Standards-setting groups and their work

One organization that seeks to move Internet technology beyond basic Section 508 compliance is the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The mission of the WAI is to develop

* guidelines that are widely regarded as the international standard for Web accessibility;

* support materials to help understand and implement Web accessibility;

* resources through international collaboration.

The W3C published its first Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 1.0) in May of 1999 for making online content accessible to PWD. By following these guidelines, developers create Web content that is readily available to every user regardless of the way it's accessed. The WAI provides ten quick tips for improving accessibility in website design:

* Images and animations. Use the "alt" attribute to describe the function of each

visual.

* Image maps. Use the client-side map and text for hotspots.

* Multimedia. Provide captioning and transcripts of audio, and descriptions of video.

* Hypertext·. Use text that makes sense when read out of context. For example, avoid "click here."

* Page organization. Use headings, lists, and consistent structure. Use CSS for layout and style where possible.

* Graphs and charts. Summarize or use the long attribute.

* Scripts, applets, and plug-ins. Provide alternative content in case active features are inaccessible or unsupported.

* Frames. Use the "no frames" element and meaningful titles.

* Tables. Make line-by-line reading sensible. Summarize.

Perceivable

* Provide text alternatives for non-text content.

* Provide captions and alternatives for multimedia.

* Make information adaptable and available to assistive technologies.

* Use sufficient contrast to make things easy to see and hear.

Operable

* Make all functionality keyboard accessible.

* Give users enough time to read and use content.

* Do not use content known to cause seizures.

* Help users navigate and find content.

Understandable

* Make text readable and understandable.

* Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.

* Help users avoid and correct mistakes.

Recommendations

Libraries today typically offer three types of Web-based resources: (1) access to the Internet, (2) access to subscription databases, and (3) a library's own webpage, all

of which need to be accessible to PWD. Libraries trying to comply with Section 508 are required to "furnish auxiliary aids and services when necessary to ensure effective communication. "There are a number of options available to libraries on tight budgets. The first set involves the features built into each computer's operating system and software. For some users with visual impairments, enlarging the font size of text and images on the screen will make electronic content more accessible. Both Macintosh and Windows system software have universal-access capabilities built in, including the ability to read aloud text that is on the screen using synthesized speech. The Mac read-aloud tool is called Voice Over; the Windows read-aloud tool is called Narrator. Both systems allow for screen magnification. Exploring and learning the capabilities of these systems to enhance accessibility is a free and easy first step for any library's technology offerings, regardless of funding restrictions.

Libraries with more substantial technology budgets have a wide variety of hardware and software options to choose from to meet the needs of PWD. For patrons with visual impairments, several software packages are available to read aloud the content of a website or other electronic document using synthesized speech. JAWS by Freedom Scientific and Window Eyes by GW Micro are two of the best-known software packages, and both include the ability to output to a refreshable Braille display (which both companies also sell). 3000 is an education-oriented software package that not only reads on-screen text aloud but has a wealth of additional tools to assist students with learning difficulties such as attention deficit disorder or dyslexia. It is designed to integrate with any education package as well as to assist students whose primary language is not English. Persons with low vision needing screen magnification beyond the features Windows offers may look to Magic by Freedom Scientific or Zoom Text by Ai Squared. Some of these software companies offer free trial versions, have online demonstrations, or both. Because prices for this software and related equipment can be high, it is prudent to first check with patrons with visual impairments and professionals in the field prior to making your purchase.

Subscription databases can be inaccessible to PWD in the display of search results and accompanying information. The three most common forms of results delivery are

HTML full text, HTML full text with graphics, and PDF files. PDF files are notoriously inaccessible to persons using screen readers. While Adobe has made significant strides in rendering PDF accessible, many databases contain numerous PDF documents created in versions of Adobe Acrobat prior to version 5.0 (released in 2001), which are not properly tagged for screen readers. Even newer PDF documents are only as accessible as their tagging allows. Journal articles received from publishers may or may not be properly tagged, so database companies cannot guarantee that their content is fully accessible. One vendor that is avoiding this trap is JSTOR. Using optical character recognition (OCR) software, JSTOR delivers image-based PDFs with embedded text to make their content available to screen readers.19 Librarians must insist that database packages be accessible and compatible with the forms of assistive technology most frequently used by their patrons, both in-house and online.

One tool used to evaluate database (or other product) accessibility is the Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT). Created in partnership between the Information Technology Industry (ITI) Council and the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) in 2001, it provides "a simple, Internet-based tool to assist Federal contracting and procurement officials in fulfilling the new market research requirements contained in the Section 508 implementing regulations."20 VPAT is a voluntary disclosure form arranged in a series of tables listing the criteria of relevant subsections of Section 508 discussed previously. Blank cells are provided to allow company representatives to describe how their product's supporting features meet the criteria and to provide additional detailed information. Library personnel can request that vendors complete this form to document which subsections of Section 508 their products meet, and how. To be most useful, the form needs to be completed by company representatives with both a clear understanding of Section 508 and its technical details and thorough knowledge of their product. Knowledgeable library staff are encouraged to verify the quality and accuracy of the information provided before purchasing.

like databases, a library's website needs to be accessible to patrons with a variety of needs. According to Muncaster, accessible sites are 35 percent easier for everyone

to use and are more likely to be found by Internet search engines.21 Fully accessible websites are simpler to maintain and are on average 50 percent smaller than inaccessible ones, which means they download faster, making them easier to use.22 In creating a basic site, current best practice has been to render the content in HTML or XHTML and design the layout using CSS. This way, if it is discovered the site's pages are not fully accessible, a simple change to the CSS updates all pages, saving the site manager time and effort. Finally, creating an accessible site from the beginning is substantially easier than retrofitting an old one.

A complete rebuild of a library website is an opportunity to improve accessibility. Reynolds' article on creating a user-centered website for the Johnson County (Kans.) Library offers an example of how libraries can apply basic information architecture design principles on a budget. Johnson County focused on simple, low-budget usability studies involving patrons in the selection of site navigation categories, designing the layout, and testing the resulting user interface. By involving average users in this process, this library was able to achieve substantial improvements in the site's usability. Prior to the redesign, usability testing determined that 42 percent of users were not successful in finding information on the library's old site. After the redesign, "only 4% of patrons were unsuccessful in finding core-task information on the first attempt."23 Even so, a quick test of the site with the online accessibility evaluation tool Cynthia Says indicates that it still does not fully meet the requirements of Section 508. Had the library's staff included PWD in their process, the demonstrated degree of improvement might have allowed them to meet and possibly exceed this standard.

An understanding of how a person with disabilities experiences the online environment can help point the way toward improved accessibility. A recent study in the United Kingdom tracked the eye movements of able bodied computer users in an effort to answer these questions. Researchers asked eighteen people with normal or corrected vision to search for answers on two versions of a BBC website - the standard graphical page and the text only version. Subjects' eyes tended to dart around the standard page "as they attempt to locate what appears visually to be the next most likely location"24 for the answer. But in searching the text-only page, subjects went

line-by-line, making smaller jumps across each page. Researchers determined that the webpage and its layout serve as a form of external memory, providing visual cues to the structure of its content and how to navigate it. If the Internet is an information superhighway, then the layout of a standard webpage serves as the borders and directional signs for browsing.

Information seeking on the Web is a complex process requiring "the ability to switch and coordinate among multiple information-seeking strategies" such as browsing, scanning, query-based searching, and so on.25 If Web browsers could translate formatting and presentation into audio tailored to the needs of the visually impaired, the use of the Internet would be a far more satisfying experience for those users. However, such Web programming would require years of additional research and development. In the meantime, Web librarians must strive to build sites that are clean, hierarchical, and usable by all persons by following to the standards and guidelines currently available.

One way to enhance the accessibility of sites is to follow a database-driven Web development model. In addition to using XHTML and CSS, Dunlap recommends that content be stored in a relational database such as My SQL and that a coding language such as PHP be used to create pages dynamically. This approach has two advantages. First, it allows for the creation of "a flexible website design style that lives in a single, easily modified file that controls the presentation of every Web page of the site."26 Second, it requires far less time for site maintenance, freeing staff to devote time to assuring accessibility while accommodating changes in Web technology. Such a model can be used by database vendors to ensure that their services can seamlessly integrate with the library's online content.

Summary

librarians with responsibility for Web design and technology management operate in an evolving environment. Legal requirements make clear the expectation to serve the wide variety of needs of patrons with disabilities. Yet the guidelines and standards available to assist in this venture range from complex to vague and insufficient. Assistive technologies continue to improve with many traditional vendors confident

that their products are accessible. In actual use, however, substantial challenges and shortcomings remain. The challenge for technology librarians is to be proactive in keeping abreast of technological advances, to experiment and learn from their efforts, and to continually update and adapt to provide Web or hypermedia information and services to patrons of all kinds.