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英语长短句

(01) (10-R-1) We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. (49 words)

(02) (10-R-1) “So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,” Newman wrote, “that I am tempted to define …journalism? as …a term of contempt applied by writers w ho are not read to writers who are?.” (43 words)

(03) (10-R-3) For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected, must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. (48 words)

(04) (09-R-3) Progress in both areas is undoubtedly necessary for the social, political, and intellectual development of these and all other societies; however, the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong. (46 words)

(05) (09-R-4) Sexual confusion, economic frustrations, and religious hope — all came together in

a decisive moment when he opened the Bible, told his father that the first line he saw would settle his fate, and read the magical words: “Come out from among them, touch no unclean thing, and I will be your God and you shall be my people.” (58 words)

(06) (0-TR) Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc.

(45 words)

(07) (09-TR) Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the worl d?s work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output. (41 words)

(08) (08-R-2) Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. (40 words)

(09) (07-R-1) If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006?s World Cup tournament, you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months. (47 words)

(10) (07-R-3) From the middle-class family perspective, much of this, understandably, looks far less like an opportunity to exercise more financial responsibility, and a good deal more like a frightening acceleration of the wholesale shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders. (41 words)

(11) (07-R-4) Just as bosses and boards have finally sorted out their worst accounting and compliance troubles, and improved their feeble corporation governance, a new problem threatens to earn them — especially in America — the sort of nasty headlines that inevitably lead to heads rolling in the executive suite: data insecurity. (48 words)

(12) (07-R-4) Left, until now, to odd, low-level IT staff to put right, and seen as a concern only of data-rich industries such as banking, telecoms and air travel, information protection is now high on the boss?s agenda in businesses of every variety. (41 words)

(13) (07-R-4) Surely it should be obvious to the dimmest executive that trust, that most valuable of economic assets, is easily destroyed and hugely expensive to restore— and that few things are more likely to destroy trust than a company letting sensitive personal data get into the wrong hands. (47 words)

(14) (07-R-4) Meanwhile, the theft of information about some 40 million credit-card accounts in America, disclosed on June 17th, overshadowed a hugely important decision a day earlier by America?s Federal Trade Commission (FTC) that puts corporate America on notice that regulators will act if firms fail to provide adequate data security. (49 words)

(15) (06-R-1) Rodriguez notes that children in remote villages around the world are fans of superstars like Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks, yet “some Americans fear that immigrants living within the United States remain somehow immune to the nation’s assimilative power.” (40 words)

(16) (05-R-2) Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us

but the doubters insisted that we didn?t know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? (53 words)

(17) (05-R-2) A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to th inking of them as just “mental noise” — the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. (47 words)

(18) (03-R-2) Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should actively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive medical treatment. (42 words)

(19) (03-R-3) If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. (40 words)

(20) (03-TR) Therefore, it is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth. (51 words)

(21) (02-R-2) But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. (42 words)

(22) (02-R-4) Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double effect,” a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects — a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen — is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect. (57 words)

(23) (02-R-4) Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shie ld doctors who “until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient medication to control their pain if that might hasten death.” (40 words)

(24) (02-R-4) The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life.

(45 words)

(25) (02-TR) As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. (40 words)

(26) (01-R-1) Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture.

(40 words)

(27) (01-R-4) I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M & A wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication cost, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers? demands. (44 words)

(28) (01-R-5) I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life” , and making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. (49 words)

(29) (01-R-5) While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline — after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late ?80s — and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class downshifts of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives. (52 words)

(30) (01-R-5) For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the ?80s, downshifting in the mid-?90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life — growing

your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one — as a personal recognition of your limitations. (47 words)

(31) (00-R-3) When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principle may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. (46 words) (32) (00-R-3) But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes

a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river —and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: “Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.”(64 wo rds)

(33) (99-R-4) Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment — although no one had proposed to do so —and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. (67 words)

(34) (99-R-4) Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the “odd balls” among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who “work well with the team.” (50 words)

(35) (97-R-4) “The test of any democratic society,” he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, “lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be. (46 words)

(36) (96-R-3) Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. (47 words)

(37) (96-R-3) Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders? meeting to dictate their orders to the management. (47 words)

(38) (95-R-3) As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.

(42 words)

(39) (94-R-1) Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers,

coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it. (44 words)

(40) (93-R-2) The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human-relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he does not wholeheartedly participate in his work and that he is bored with it. (48 words)

(41) (93-R-2) I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities — those of love and of reason — are the aims of all social arrangements. (47 words)

(42) (93-TR) There is no more difference, but there is just the same kind of difference, between the mental operations of a man of science and those of an ordinary person, as there is between the operations and methods of a baker or of a butcher weighing out his goods in common scales, and the operations of a chemist in performing a difficult and complex analysis by means of his balance and finely graded weights. (73 words)

(43) (92-TR) No one is in the least interested in the marks a little child gets on his test; what we are interested in is whether we can conclude from his mark on the test that the child will do better or worse than other children of his age at tasks which we think require …general intelligence?. (55 words)

(44) (92-TR) On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the others with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed. (56 words)

(01) (10-R-1)

【译文】我们甚至感到陌生的是:从20世纪初期到第二次世界大战之前,这一期间的英国报纸评论内容不拘一格。那时候报纸非常便宜,而且人们认为发表时尚的人文批评可以给刊登评论的出版物增加色彩。

分解】句子的主干为:“We are …removed from …reviews (句子主干部分)…at a time (时间状语)…”。细化分析:“published”过去分词短语修饰“reviews”,其后紧接“in England”与“between …”地点和时间状语。之后,“at a time”与“between”之间相互解释,“time”之后的“when”引导修饰其的时间定语从句。

(02) (10-R-1)

【译文】纽曼说,“具有才智或文学天赋让自己在新闻从业中面对困难坚持不懈的作家如此之少,以至于我总想把新闻业定义成一个“受贬低的术语”,即“不受读者喜爱作家对受读者喜爱作者的称呼”。

【分解】句子的主干为:“So few …have …(主句主干部分)…that (引导结果状语从句)I am tempted to (从句部分的主谓)…”。细化分析:整个句子只要理顺了“so …that”的倒装结构(前半部分是倒装的)就不难理解了。主句中,“to keep …journalism”不定式修饰“brains or gift”部分。从句中有“define …as”介词短语。最后,“of contempt”修饰“a term”,“applied …(to)…”也修饰“a term”。

(03) (10-R-3)

【译文】然而,如果要发生社会流行现象,每个人在受到影响之后定会去影响自己的熟人,熟人再去影响他们的熟人,如此循环往复。有多少其他人关注这些处于传播网络的人群,与最初那个有影响力的源头关系不大

【分解】句子的主干为:“…each person …must …influence …acquaintances …(第1个分句的主干部分);(分号引出另一个分句)how many others pay attention …has …”。细化分析:在第1个分句中,“For …to occur”作目的状语,“however”插入语表达作者评价,“so affected”修饰“each person”,“who”引导非限制性定语从句修饰“acquaintances”。在第2个分句中,主语是一个由“how”引导的主语从句。

(04) (09-R-3)

【译文】毫无疑问,对于这些国家和其他社会的社会、政治以及知识的发展,正规教育和经济发展的进步都非常必要。然而,传统的观点认为,为了促进贫困国家的经济迅猛发展,最优先考虑的应该是教育,这种观点是错误的。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Progress …is …(第1个分句);(分号连接了前后两个分句)…view …is wrong…(第2个分句)”。细化分析:在第1个分句中,有“necessary for …”介词搭配结构。在第2个分句中,“view”之后有一个由“that”引导的同位语从句。

(05) (09-R-4)

【译文】他打开《圣经》,告诉父亲说,他读到的第一行可能决定命运,读出了神秘的字句:“从中走出,不碰不洁之物,我将成为你的上帝,你将成为我的子民。”就在这决定性的一

刻,对性的困惑、经济窘迫和宗教希望——全都交融在一起了。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…, all came together (主干的主谓成分)….”。细化分析:在句首主干之前,破折号之前内容与“all”为同位语关系。从“when …”至“…my people”这一部分充当名词“moment”的定语从句。该定语从句的主语为“he”,三个谓语动词为“opened”和“told”和“read”(其中told之后有一个that引导的宾语从句,在该宾语从句中he saw做定语从句修饰the first line)。冒号之后为“words”的具体内容。

(06) (09-TR)

【译文】例如,各种宗教交往的初衷是祈求神灵的庇护,抵御邪恶影响。家庭生活的初衷是满足欲望和传宗接代。最初开始有组织的劳动,重要的原因是受制于人。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…;…;….”。(有分号连接的三个分句)细化分析:在第1个分句中,主语为“associations”,谓语为“began”;之后“to secure …and to ward off”不定式充当定语。在第2个分句中,主语为“family life”,谓语为“began”(相同的省略)。在第3个分句中,主语为“labor”,谓语为“began”相同省略。

(07) (09-TR)

【译文】即使今日,在工业化生活中,与其他的物质产出相比,某些勤俭的价值观以及各种人们交往的知识和情感反应几乎没有受到关注,而在这些交往之中世人的活动才得以延续。【分解】句子的主干为:“…,…reaction …receives little attention, …”。细化分析:句首有“apart from”引导的短语,与主语部分关联。在主语“reaction”后有“which”引导的定语从句。最后,有“as compared with”引出的状语。

(08) (08-R-2)

【译文】此外,存在由这三种模式结合的其它模式,例如延迟开放获取模式,即期刊仅允许订阅者阅读,期限六个月,然后就公之于众,所有人都可以免费使用。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Other models exist (主干的主语谓语部分)…”。细化分析:在谓语动词“exist”之后,有“that”引导定语从句修饰“models”。介词“such as”之后引出“models”的具体分析;之中,连词“where”引导“delayed open access”。最后一个“before …it”中,“making it”中的“it”为形式宾语,而“to see it”中的“it”指代“a paper”。

(09) (07-R-1)

【译文】仔细探究2006年世界杯联赛每个足球运动员的出生证明,我们很可能会发现一个值得注意的怪现象:精英足球运动员大都出生在上半年,而不是在下半年。

【分解】句子的主干为:“If …, you would …: …players are …”。细化分析:冒号之后为上文含义的解释。“If …, would …”为一个虚拟语气句型结构。

(10) (07-R-3)

【译文】从中产阶级家庭的角度来看,其中的重要意义看起来远远不像是一个行使更多经济职责的机会,而更像是在金融风险全盘转移时,以令人担心速度给已经负担过重的肩膀上再

施加压力。这种看法是可以理解的。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…,much of this …looks (句子主干主谓部分)far less than …. and a good deal more like ….”。细化分析:在主句主谓之间的“understandably”为插入结构,表达作者的态度。在连词“and”之前的部分中不定式短语“to exercise …”从当定语修饰“opportunity”。在连词“and”之后的部分中,“shift of …onto …”。

(11) (07-R-4)

【译文】正当老板和董事们最终清理完毕最乱的帐目和规章问题并加强其薄弱的公司管理之后,一个新的麻烦又给他们带来威胁——尤其在美国;麻烦就是令人厌恶的大字标题不可避免地引起执行层中人头涌动的场面:数据危险。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Just as …(从句部分), a …problem threatens …(主句部分).…”。细化分析:在从句部分中,有两个由“and”连接的谓语动词“have sorted”和“improved”。在主句部分中,“to earn …. insecurity”的分析为:不定式短语“to earn …”带两个宾语成分,即“them”和“the sort of nasty headlines”。在“headlines”之后有由“that”引导的定语从句。

(12) (07-R-4)

【译文】在这之前,信息保护通常留给古怪而层次较低的信息技术人员处理,可现已经提到各个行业老板的议事日程的重要位置。人们普遍认为只有数据丰富的行业如银行、电信、航空旅游业等才关心信息保护问题。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Left …and seen …(两个过去分词作状语), …protection (主语)is (谓语)….”。细化分析:第1个过去分词结构主干为“Left to staff to put …”;而第2个过去分词结构主干为“Seen as a concern of …”。谓语动词之后有“on”引导介词短语作状语。

(13) (07-R-4)

【译文】当然,信任作为经济资产中最有价值的部分是很容易被摧毁的,而且修复起来代价极大,而没有什么比一个公司让敏感的个人机密数据落入不道德人之手更容易摧毁信任,这对于最迟钝的管理者也应该是显而易见的。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…it should be obvious …to the executive that trust …—and that few …(由“and”连接的两个“that”引导的主语从句)….”。细化分析:在第1个主语从句中,主语为“trust”,谓语为“is …”,之间的“that most valuable …”为“trust”的同位语。在破折号之后的第2个主语从句中,主谓成分为“…things are …”,其中有一个“more …than”的比较状语从句。

(14) (07-R-4)

【译文】同时,6月17日曝光的美国四千万信用卡账号信息被窃取的事件也给一天前美国联邦商业委员会做出的重要决定蒙上了阴影。该决定通告美国,如果企业无法提供适当的数据安全,执法者将采取行动。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…theft ….overshadowed …decision …(主句的主谓宾结构)”。

细化分析:在主语部分中,有由“disclosed”的过去分词短语充当定语修饰“theft”。在宾语部分中,有由介词“by”引导的后置定语修饰“decision”,而且“that”引导的定语从句也修饰“decision”。

(15) (06-R-1)

【译文】Rodriguez指出,住在世界偏远村落的孩子们都是阿诺德·史瓦辛格和加思·布鲁克斯之类超级巨星的追星族,但是“有些美国人担心,美国的同化作用对住在美国的许多移民不知怎的一直都不起作用。”

【分解】句子的主干为:“Rodriguez notes that …, yet some Americans fear that …(‘yet’连接两个独立的分句结构)”。细化分析:“yet”之前分句中,“children …are …”为“notes”的宾语从句。“yet”之后分句中,“immigrants …remain …”为“fear”的宾语从句。

(16) (05-R-2)

【译文】你可否记得那些年月?当时科学家们提出吸烟会让我们丧命,可持怀疑态度者却坚持认为我们尚无定论。他们坚持认为证据不确定,科学就不确定。他们坚持认为对反对吸烟的劝导一心想毁掉我们自己的生活方式,且政府不应介入此事。许多美国人相信了这些谬论;在30多年里,约一千万吸烟者早早地躺入了坟墓。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Do you remember all those years when (句子主干主语谓语宾语)….”。细化分析:整个句子的主干部分为“Do you remember all these years”,其后的“when”引导时间定语从句修饰“all those years”。在“when”之后主要有“but”引导的两个并列分句,分别是“scientists argued that”和“the doubters insisted that”。最大的难点在于“the doubters insisted that”之后,有3个以“that”引导的分开的宾语从句——其一、“we didn’t know for sure”;其二、“that the evidence was …?”;其三、“That the antismoking lobby was …”。将三个从句分开写目的是为了避免歧义。

(17) (05-R-3)

【译文】在一百年以前,弗洛伊德系统地阐述了他那突破性的理论,认为梦是掩盖的阴影,反映了潜意识中的渴望和恐惧。到二十世纪七十年代末,神经病学家却转而认为梦仅仅是“精神噪音”——在睡眠期间神经进行的修复工作的随意附带产物。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…; (分号前后为两个独立分句)….”。细化分析:在分号之前,分句主干成分为“…Freud formulated …theory …”,其中有“that”引导同位语从句修饰“theory”。在分号之后,分句主干成分为“neurologists had switched to …”(其中有“thinking …. of as”短语)。之后的破折号为细节性的补充说明,解释上文的“mental noise”。

(18) (03-R-2)

【译文】具体的说,资金的最终管理者是病人,所以健康研究团体应积极扩大队伍、发展事业,不仅吸收像“Stephen Cooper”那样的知名人士(他本人已经发表了有关动物研究价值的大胆言论),而且招收接受医学治疗的人。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…, community (句子主干主语)…should …recruit (句子主干谓语)…. not only personalities (句子主干宾语1)…but all (句子主干宾语2)….”。

细化分析:在句子开头有“because”引导的状语从句。在主语中,困难的部分在于“recruit to its cause”:“to its cause”(介词短语作状语)本来在正常情况下应该放在句子的末尾构成“recruit …not only …personalities but all …to its cause”。此外,在主干宾语1“personalities”后有“such as”作后置定语(其中有由“who”引导的定语从句)。在主干宾语2“all”后有“who”引导的定语从句。

(19) (03-R-3)

【译文】铁路公司提出,按同样的平均费率收取所有顾客的费用,托运人肯定会选择汽车运输或其他种类运输,而不会选择铁运,那么铁运业内成本就只能由其他的铁运托运人来承担。【分解】句子的主干为:“If (引导状语从句)…, shippers …would do so (主句主谓部分), …”。细化分析:在状语从句和主句之间有“they argue”为插入语。在主句的主语和谓语之间有一个由“who”引导的定语从句修饰“shippers”。在主语之后,有一个“leaving”现在分词短语作结果状语。

(20) (03-TR)

【译文】因此,运用冷静和系统的方法对人类的丰富财富与多样存在进行研究,是至关重要的。人们希望通过这些研究获得的知识可以促进人与人之间、以及人类与地球上的所有其他物种更加和谐地共生。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…, it is important to study (句子主干)…, with the hope that …”。细化分析:在状语部分“with the hope that”之后的从句中,“knowledge”为主语,“can lead”为谓语。

(21) (02-R-2)

【译文】但人脑却具有某种能力:扫视一个急剧变化的场面、马上忽略98%的无关信息,同时把精力投到某只呆在一条蜿蜒森林小路的猴子身上,或者投到茫茫人海中的某一张可疑的脸上。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…human mind can glimpse (分句1主干主语谓语)and …disregard (分句2主干主语谓语)….”。细化分析:在分句2中,有由“that”引导的定语从句修饰“98 percent”。应该注意的是在句末有一个由“focusing”引导的分词短语作为伴随状语。

(22) (02-R-4)

【译文】最高法院曾经规定,根据宪法医生没有帮助病人自杀的权利。尽管如此,最高法院实际上曾支持“双重效应”的医学原则——一个存在了几百年的道德原则。根据这个原则,对于一个具有双重效应的行为(有利的一面是有目的的,而不利的一面是可以预见的),如果实施者只着眼有益的一面,是可以允许的。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Although (引导让步状语从句)…, the Court …supported …principle (主句的主语谓语宾语部分)….”。细化分析:在“although”引导的让步状语从句中,有由“that”引导的动词“ruled”的宾语从句。在主句中,“the medical principle”与“a centuries-old principle”为同位语关系,相互解释。在“a centuries-old moral principle”之

后有“holding”分词结构作后置定语;在“holding”之后有由“that”引导的宾语从句;在宾语从句中,主语是“an action”和谓语为“is permissible”——在主谓之间有破折号解释“two effects”的内容。最后“if”引导的从句作宾语从句的条件状语。主要的难点在以“with”引导的伴随状语;其中“that”引导同位语从句修饰“assumption”一词。

(23) (02-R-4)

【译文】Montefiore医学中心的主任Nancy Dubler争辩说,这一原则肯定会庇护某些医生。这些医生“直到最近都相当强烈的坚持认为,如果哪怕有一点加速病人死亡的可能性,医生根本没有可能给病人足够的药剂量以控制病人的痛苦。”

【分解】句子的主干为:“Nancy …contends (句子主干主语谓语)….”。细化分析:在句子主干后有由“that”引导的宾语从句。宾语从句的主语谓语为“…principle”和“will shield”。之后,有由“that”引导修饰“doctors”定语从句。在定语从句中,谓语“insisted”之后有“that”引导的宾语从句。

(24) (02-R-4)

【译文】医疗界正在采取措施,要求医生在晚期病人的收容机构受训、测试有关病痛激进治疗方案的知识、制定有关医院保健的相关规定,以及制订与估评与治疗垂危病人相关的各种新标准。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…profession is taking steps (句子主干主语谓语)….”。细化分析:主要的难点在四个“to require …”、“to test …”、“to develop ….”、“to develop …”不定式短语作状语。

(25) (02-TR)

【译文】人们曾经认为许多影响归因于心态、情感以及个性,然而随着人们逐渐了解有机体与环境之间的相互作用,开始了解到这些影响可归结于某些可以捉摸的条件。因此,行为技术才可能应运而生。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…effects are beginning to be traced ….(第1个分句主谓部分),a technology may become …(第2个分句的主谓部分).”。细化分析:在句首有由“as”引导的“时间状语从句”。在第1个分句中,“assigned to …”为过去分词短语修饰“effects”。

(26) (01-R-1)

【译文】难怪在19世纪地方性地质学的研究代表了有价值的科研。但是到了20世纪,地方性的研究只有从更为广阔的视野考虑问题,考虑更多的问题,才愈来愈为专业人士所接受。【分解】句子的主干为:“…studies represented research(分句1的主语谓语宾语)…but local studies have …become(分句2的主语谓语)….”。细化分析:主要的难点在以“but”之后的分句中,有一个由“only if”引导的条件状语从句,该从句有两个谓语动词(“incorporate”和“reflect on”)。注意解读中介词搭配关系的识别,如“in their own right”、“in …century”、“acceptable to”、“reflect on”等。

(27) (01-R-4)

【译文】我认为推动这种巨大聚合浪潮的最重要的力量与推动全球化进程的潜在力量是一样的——即不断下降的交通和通讯的成本、更少的贸易和投资障碍、以及扩大的市场(这一切要求能够满足消费者需求的扩大经营。

【分解】句子的主干为:“I believe (主句主干主谓,其后为宾语从句)….”。细化分析:从“…forces …”至“…globalization process”部分为宾语从句,其中有一个由“that”引导的定语从句修饰“the same”。破折号后面的内容为上文部分的同谓语部分——三个成分为“cost”、“barriers”和“markets”,连词“that”作为定语从句修饰前面三个部分。

(28) (01-R-5)

【译文】我已经发现了放弃“兼职”的理念,下一个举动是“辞职”。这样做所带来的回报远远不止是经济收入和社会地位。也许,Kelsey在压力变得沉重之后,在媒体的关注之中辞去了该杂志的主编职务后也会有同感。

【分解】该句子的结构较复杂,有多重结构。第一重结构是主句的主干“I have discovered …that …,”其中“that”引导宾语从句:“abandoning…and making…brings with it far greater rewards”,其中主语由并列的动名词结构构成;第二重结构是:“that”前的插入语是个省略倒转句,“as”代替主句的谓语“discover”,其正常顺序应是“perhaps Kelsey will discover after…”; “that”后宾语从句中含有一个比较结构“…brings greater rewards than….”。

(29) (01-R-5)

【译文】在美国这种趋势最初的起因是经济的衰落——在80年代晚期由于经济萎缩造成大量失业。在英国这种趋势至少与我所知道的中产阶级“辞职”过程中实施的节俭方针有关。尽管如此,我们完全有其他许多理由使我们的生活变得简单。

【分解】该句子的特点是“while”引导两个分句形成对照,前一分句的主干是“in America the trend started as a reaction and is still linked to the politics”;后一分句的主干是“in Britain we have different reasons”;破折号之间的插入语是前一分句的之间状语;逗号间的插入语“at least among…”是后置分句的状语。主句为“we have different reasons for …”。

(30) (01-R-5)

【译文】对于我们这一代女性来说,80年代号召我们始终兼职,90年代中期我们“辞职”,与其说是为了寻求虚无的生活(自己种植蔬菜或者尝试成为有机蔬菜一样的人),不如说是认识到了自己的能力是有限的。

【分解】该句子的主干中含有一个具有比较意义的结构“downshifting is not so much a search…as a personal recognition(与其说是追求,不如说是个人认识)”。句首介词结构“For the women…”做句子的状语,表示“对于…来说”,两个破折号之间的并列的动名词短语“growing…and risking…”是对前面名词“the mythical good life”的解释。

(31) (00-R-3)

【译文】当某种艺术的新动态形成某种潮流时,最好要弄清其鼓吹者的目的是什么。原因是

不管他们的原则在今天看来是多么牵强附会、荒诞不经,可这些年间,这些原则可能已被视为正常的。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…, it is advisable to find out (句子主干主语谓语)….”。细化分析:在句首,有由“when”引导的时间状语从句。主句谓语动词后有由“find out”引导的宾语从句“what its advocates are aiming at”。从连词“for”至“normal”为原因状语从句,其中“however …today”为插入语成分(一个以“however”引导的状语从句)。

(32) (00-R-3)

【译文】显然,他们对于战争的描述是令人费解的。他们在某行诗中描述了一场打斗场面,根据其对这行诗的注解,我们了解到诗歌说的是一个土耳其军官和一个保加利亚军官在桥上打斗,结果两人都掉落桥下。这一注解颇有些让人摸不着头脑,因为原诗歌里面只有他们掉到水里的声音和他们的体重:“扑通!扑通!185公斤!”

【分解】句子的主干为:“…it is …upsetting (句子主干主语谓语)to read (不定式短语1解释“it”内容)…and then to find (不定式短语2解释“it”内容)….”。细化分析:由两个不定式短语由“and then”连接解释“it”的内容。在第1个不定式结构中,“that”引导动词“read”的宾语从句,“which”引导定语从句修饰“bridge”。在第2个不定式结构中(破折号之后),“that”引导动词“find”的宾语从句。注意解读中介词搭配关系,如“in …notes”、“fight between …and …”、“on a bridge”、“off a bridge”、“fall into”、“consist of”等。

(33) (99-R-4)

【译文】(克林顿总统)宣布自己反对使用这种异常的动物繁殖技术来克隆人类。他下令禁止联邦基金用于此类实验上(尽管还没人建议这样做),并要求一个有普林斯顿主席Harold Shapiro领导的独立专家委员会90天内向白宫提交一份报告,为制定有关克隆人的国家政策提出建议。

【分解】全句的主干为“Declaring that(分词结构)…, he ordered that (宾语从句)…and asked …”。两个谓语动词之间破折号内为“although”引导的让步状语从句作插入语。在“asked”分句中:“chaired”为过去分词短语修饰“Shapiro”;“asked …to report back”为搭配;“with”介词短语充当动词“report back”的伴随状语。

(34) (99-R-4)

【译文】如果科学家认为,墨守于某一标准模式和论文反映的情况同样地可取,那么管理部门哪怕由于青眯那些“能与团队协作”的具有传统思维方式的研究人员,歧视那些“奇思异想”的研究人员,当然也就不应该受到责备。

【分解】该句的主干是:一个否定提前的倒装句“nor …is management to be blamed(商业人士不应被责备)”;否定词“nor”和谓语“is”之间插入了一个“if”引导的条件从句。主句中含有“who”引导的定语从句修饰“conventional thinkers”。

(35) (97-R-4)

【译文】他在华尔街期刊的一个栏目中写到,“检验民主社会的标准,不在于该社会控制言

论的能力,而是在于其是否能允许最大限度的思想和言行的自由,无论结果有时会是多么有争议性或令人恼火的。”

【分解】句子的主干为:“The test …lies ….”。细化分析:在“lies in”之后,有两个宾语从句“how well …but whether …”。最后“however”(无论如何)引导让步状语从句。

(36) (96-R-3)

【译文】这样庞大、缺乏人性的操作资本和企业,极大增加了股东的数量和权重。股东是一个阶层,在民生中起到重要作用,所代表的财富没有责任并与地主的土地和职责相脱离,与企业有责任的管理相脱离。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…manipulation …increased the numbers and importance ….”。细化分析:“an element”与上文“a class”为同位语关系;其后的“in national life”和“representing irresponsible wealth”(分词短语)共同修饰“an element”。最后,“detached …”和“and almost detached from …”为过去分词,共同修饰“wealth”。

(37) (96-R-3)

【译文】于是像Bournmouth和Eastbourne这样的城镇就涌现出来,居民是大批“有闲”阶层。这个阶层带着收入赋闲在家,除了提取红利和偶尔参加一次股东大会以向管理层下达他们的命令之外,他们与公司的其他部分没有任何联系。

【分解】句子的主干为:“Towns …sprang up to house ….”。细化分析:“classes”之后又两个定语从句:“who …”和“who had …”。介词短语“except that …”修饰“relation”,其中“no …except”为搭配关系。“that of”后是两个动名词短语:“drawing …”和“attending …”。

(38) (95-R-3)

【译文】当人们离开他们长期居住的社区、多年的朋友和大家庭时,非正式的信息流通渠道被切断了。随之,人们的信念也被切断了——人们相信,在需要的时候可以得到信息,信息是值得相信的、可靠的。

【分解】句子的主干为:“As …, (引导时间状语从句),…flow …is cut off, (第1个分句的主谓),and with it (it指代前面分句意义)the confidence (第2个分句主语)(is cut off) (第2个分句谓语被省略了)that (引导了confidence的同位语从句) ….”。细化分析:在以“that”引导的同位语从句中,主语为“information”,谓语为“will be available”和“will be trustworthy and reliable”。

(39) (94-R-1)

【译文】因此,在美国的经济体制中,正是个体消费者的需求,商人们利润最大化的愿望以及个人收入最大化的愿望,这一切决定了产品种类以及生产中使用资源的方式。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…, it is …that together (主干主谓部分,为强调句型)….”。细化分析:在被强调部分中,“coupled with”连接“demand”与“desire …and desire …”。动词“determine”之后有两个宾语从句:“what …”和“how …”。

(40) (93-R-2)

【译文】润滑手段有心理学家和“人类关系”专家使用的高工资、通风条件好的工厂和工作背景音乐。然而,所有的这些润滑都没有改变这样的事实:人类变得无能,不能全身心投入工作,而且对工作感到厌烦。

【分解】句子的主干为:“The oiling is done (第1个分句的主谓部分)…; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact (第2个分句的主谓部分)….”。细化分析:在第1个分句中,“with …”和“by …”为分词短语作状语。在第2个分句中,“the fact”之后又三个以“that”引导的同位语从句。

(41) (93-R-3)

【译文】我提议:将我们的社会制度从官僚主义统治的工业主义转变为人文工业主义。前者以产量和消费最大化为目的,而在后者中所有社会活动都以人类和其潜力——爱和理性——的充分发展为目。

【分解】句子的主干为:“I suggest (主句的主干部分)transforming …from …into ….”。细化分析:在介词“from”之后,“in which”引导定语从句修饰“…managed industrialism”;在介词“into”之后,“in which”在第1个分句中,“in which”引导定语从句修饰“humanist industrialism”。

(42) (93-TR)

【译文】(两者)差不多。但是,也就是这一点差别:面包师或卖肉的使用普通的称称量货物的操作和方法有别于化学家使用天平和精确剂量仪器进行困难和复杂的分析活动。同样的道理,科学家的思维活动有别于普通人的思维活动。

【分解】句子的主干为:“There is no more difference (第1个分句主谓部分), but there is just the same kind of difference (第2个分句主谓部分)….”。细化分析:在第2个分句中,有“the same …as”搭配结构。在“the same kind of difference”之后,“between …and …”修饰“difference”。在连词“as”之后,“there is (difference被省略)”,其后有“between …and …”修饰结构。

(43) (92-TR)

【译文】没有人会对一个小孩在测验中取得的分数发生任何兴趣。我们所关心的是我们能否从他的测验分数中得出结论:他在我们认为需要一般智力的各项所干的事情中比他同龄的孩子干得好还是差。

【分解】句子的主干为:“No one is …on his test(第1个分句主谓部分);(之后为第2个分句)what we are …in (主语从句作主语)is (谓语) whether …(表语从句)….”。细化分析:在“whether”引导的表语从句中,“we conclude”为主谓,“that the child …”中的“that”引导“conclude”的宾语从句。最后“which”引导定语从句修饰“tasks”。(44) (92-TR)

【译文】总的来说,得出这种结论是有一定程度把握的,但是必须具备两个条件:能够假定这个孩子对测试的态度和与他比较的另一个孩子的态度相同;他也没有因为缺乏别的孩子所具有的有关知识而受影响。

【分解】句子的主干为:“…conclusion can be drawn …(第1个分句主谓部分),but(之后为第2个分句)(conclusion can be drawn)…主谓部分与第1个分句相同被省略了。细化分析:在第2个分句中,有两个“only if …and only if …”条件状语从句。在第1个“only if”分句中,有“the same …as”结构;在第2个“only if”分句中,“which”引导定语从句修饰“information”。