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自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

绝密★考试结束前

全国2014年4月高等教育自学考试

英语阅读(一)试题

课程代码:00595

请考生按规定用笔将所有试题的答案涂、写在答题纸上。

选择题部分

注意事项:

1.答题前,考生务必将自己的考试课程名称、姓名、准考证号用黑色字迹的签字笔或钢笔填写在答题纸规定的位置上。

2.每小题选出答案后,用2 B铅笔把答题纸上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。不能答在试题卷上。

I. CAREFUL READING

Read the following passages carefully. Decide on the best answer and blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points, 2 points each)

Passage 1

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.

The passengers on the bus watched sympathetically as the young woman with the white cane made her way cautiously up the steps. She paid the driver and then, using her hands to feel the location of the seats, settled into one. She placed her briefcase on her lap and rested her cane against her leg.

It had been a year since Susan, thirty-four, became blind. As the result of a medical accident she was sightless, suddenly thrown into a world of darkness, anger,

frustration and self-pity. All she could cling to was her husband Mark.

Mark was an Air Force officer and he loved Susan with all his heart. When she first lost her sight, he watched her sink into despair and he became determined to use every means to help his wife.

Finally, Susan felt ready to return to her job, but how would she get there? She used to take the bus, but she was now too frightened to get around the city by herself. Mark volunteered to ride the bus with Susan each morning and evening until she got the hang of (摸清情况) it. And that was exactly what happened.

For two weeks, Mark, military uniform and all, accompanied Susan to and from work each day. He taught her how to rely on her other senses, specifically her hearing, to determine where she was and how to adapt to her new environment. He helped her befriend the bus drivers who could watch out for her, and save her a seat.

Each morning they made the journey together, and Mark would take a taxi back to his office. Although the routine of going back and forth was costly, Mark knew it was only a matter of time before Susan would be able to ride the bus on her own.

Finally, Susan decided that she was ready to try the trip on her own. Monday morning arrived. Before she left, she embraced her husband tightly. Her eyes filled with tears of gratitude for his loyalty, his patience, and his love. She said good-bye and, for the first time, they went their separate ways. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday... Each day on her own went perfectly, and a wild gaiety (快乐) took hold of Susan. She was doing it! She was going to work all by herself!.

1. When Susan got on the bus, the passengers ______.

A. admired her

B. stared curiously at her

C. ignored her

D. felt sorry for her

2. Which of the following is true of Mark?

A. He kept confidence in Susan.

B. He felt confused with Susan.

C. He depended more on Susan.

D. He was tired of Susan.

3. At the beginning of her sightless life, Susan was seized by anger, self-pity and ______.

A. irritation

B. hesitation

C. hopelessness

D. indifference

4. Which of the following is true?

A. Mark realized it would take a long time for Susan to recover her sight.

B. Mark knew that Susan would get to work by herself sooner or later.

C. Mark hated to leave poor Susan alone even for one minute.

D. Mark loved the routine of accompanying Susan to work.

5. The passage can be used as an example of ______.

A. honesty

B. sympathy

C. diligence

D. determination

Passage 2

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage.

Most people claim that we should judge others on the basis of how they act, not how they look. However, the reality is quite opposite. Appearance is especially important in the early stages of a relationship.

The influence of physical attractiveness begins early in life. Infants as young as six months prefer images of attractive faces to less appealing ones. From age five on, overweight boys are viewed by peers as less attractive; tall, thin ones are judged as uncommunicative and nervous; and muscular and athletic youngsters are seen as outgoing, active, and popular. The same principle continues into adult life. Handsome men and beautiful women are seen as more sensitive, kind, interesting, strong, calm, modest, sociable, outgoing, and exciting than their less attractive counterparts. Adults are more likely to interact with strangers who they

view as attractive. Senior citizens also rate good-looking people as more desirable than those who are less attractive.

Although we might assume that attractive people are radically different from those who are less attractive, the truth is that we view the familiar as beautiful. Langlois and Roggman presented students with two types of photos: some were images of people from North European, Asian, and Latino backgrounds, while others were computer-generated images that combined the characteristics of several individuals. Surprisingly, the students consistently preferred the composite photos of both men and women. When the features of eight or more individuals were combined into one image, the students rated the picture as more attractive than the features of a single person or of a smaller combination of people. Thus, we seem to be drawn to people who represent the most attractive qualities of ourselves and those people aren't different from the rest of us.

Even if your appearance isn't beautiful by social standards, consider these encouraging facts: first, ordinary-looking people with pleasing personalities are likely to be judged as being attractive; second, physical factors b ecome less important as a relationship progress. As Hamachek puts it, “Attractive features may open doors, but apparently, it takes more than physical beauty to keep them open.”

6. “The same principle” (Para. 2) refers to the principle that ______.

A. children are more attractive than adults

B. attractive people are perceived as desirable

C. the early stages of a relationship are important

D. the influence of appearance begins early in life

7. The third paragraph emphasizes in part the importance of ______.

A. familiarity

B. difference

C. individuality

D. consistency

8. According to the passage, the more composite features people have, ______.

A. the more unique they are

B. the less ordinary they are

C. the more attractive they are

D. the less beautiful they are

9. In his statement, Hamachek is giving emphasis to ______.

A. social standards

B. composite features

C. good character

D. physical attraction

10. The best title for the passage is ______.

A. Beauty and Age

B. Appearance and Relationship

C. Standards of Social Behavior

D. Features of Physical Attractiveness

Passage 3

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.

The public schools of the United States—elementary, secondary, and higher—have a history, and it is the social history of the United States: the decades before the Civil War, in which the elementary or “common schools” were reformed; the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth c entury, in which the secondary schools “welcomed” the “children of the plain people”; and the post-World War II decades, which found the public colleges and universities flooded non-traditional students—those traditionally excluded from higher education by sex, race, and class.

In each of these periods, the quantitative expansion of the student population was matched by a qualitative transformation of the enlarged institutions. The common schools of the mid-1800s were charged with reforming the moral character of the children of failed artisans (工匠) and farmers; the expanded high schools at the turn of the century with preparing their poor, working-class, and immigrant teenagers for future lives in city and factory; the “open-access” public

institutions in the postwar period with moving their students off the unemployment lines and into lower-level white-collar positions.

The common schools, the high schools, the colleges and universities—all in their own times—were expanded and transformed so that they might better maintain social order and increase material productivity. But no matter how enlarged or reformed, they could not do the jobs expected of them: they could not solve the economic, social, and human problems brought about by uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization within the context of the private property system. The schooling reforms succeeded only in shifting the discussion and action from the social and productive system to the people who were now held responsible for not fitting into it.

11. American education in the post-World War II decades focused mostly on ______.

A. early childhood education

B. elementary school education

C. secondary school education

D. college education

12. The turn-of-the-century American education dealt partly with the problem of ______.

A. failed farmers

B. unsuccessful artisans

C. immigrant teenagers

D. lower-level white-collar workers

13. It is implied in the passage that women began to be educated in large numbers ______.

A. after the Civil War

B. at the turn of the 20th century

C. before World War II

D. after World War II

14. One of the purposes for public school reformation is ______.

A. to increase material productivity

B. to impose the quality of education

C. to urbanize rural areas in the United States

D. to promote industrialization in the United States

15. The author believes that public schools ______.

A. changed American political system

B. could not solve American problems

C. led to social problems in the United States

D. could not improve qualitatively in the United States

Passage 4

Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.

Historical periods are dominated by distinct sets of ideas which form the general spirit of a period in history. Greek philosophy, Christianity, Renaissance thought, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment are examples of sets of ideas that dominated their historical periods. The changes from one period to the next are usually rather gradual.; other changes—more abrupt—are often referred to as revolutions. The most far-reaching of all these intellectual changes was the Darwinian revolution. The worldview formed by any thinking person in the Western world after 1859, when On the Origin of Species was published, was by necessity quite different from a worldview formed before 1859. It is almost impossible for a modern person to project back to the early half of the nineteenth century and reconstruct the thinking of this pre-Darwinian period, for the impact of Darwinism on our views has been so great.

The intellectual revolution brought about by Darwin went far beyond the realm of biology, causing the overthrow of some of the most basic beliefs of his age. For example, Darwin rejected the belief in the individual creation of each species, establishing in its place the concept that all of life descended from a common ancestor. By extension, he introduced the idea that humans were not the special products of creation but evolved according to principles that operate everywhere else in the living world. Darwin upset current notions of a perfectly designed natural and gentle world and substituted in their place the concept of a struggle for survival. Victorian notions of progress and perfectibility were seriously weakened by Darwin's demonstration that evolution brings about change and adaptation,

but it does not necessarily lead to progress, and it never leads to perfection.

Darwin would be remembered as an outstanding scientist even if he had never written a word about evolution. Indeed, some peop le believe that Darwin’s most original contribution to biology was not the theory of evolution but his series of books on experimental botany published near the end of his life. This achievement is little known among non-biologists, and the same is true for his equally outstanding work on the adaptation of flowers and on animal psychology, as well as his imaginative work on earthworms. Darwin also attacked important problems with extraordinary originality, thereby becoming the founder of several now well-recognized separate disciplines. Darwin was the first person to work out a sound theory of classification, which is still used by most experts today.

16. The author considers the change caused by Darwin’s On the Origin of Species ______.

A. gradual

B. abrupt

C. religious

D. philosophical

17. The influence of Darwinism has been so strong that it is difficult to ______.

A. know how people looked at the world before 1859

B. imagine people’s worldview after 1859

C. disregard the implications of his theory

D. know what Victorian society was like

18. Darwin believed that all species in the world ______.

A. were created individually

B. sprang from the same origin

C. became increasingly better

D. shared the same pace of progress

19. It can be concluded from the passage that Darwin was ______.

A. a modest scholar

B. a born thinker

C. an original scientist

D. a practical theorist

20. The author intends to say in the last paragraph that ______.

A. Darwin did outstanding work apart from his theory of evolution

B. non-biologists know very little about Darwin's theory of evolution

C. scholars failed to recognize Da rwin’s contributions for a long time

D. Darwin's most outstanding contribution is his theory of classification

II. SPEED READING

Skim or scan the following passages, and then decide on the best answer and blacken the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 1 point each)

Passage 5

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

Potatoes are a tuber-producing crop originally grown in the Americas. Over 200 varieties of wild potatoes grow from what is now Colorado to what are now Chile and Argentina. The native peoples of the Andean region of South America were the first to domesticate potatoes and to cultivate them as a food crop. The earliest potato, found in an archaeological site in central Peru, has been dated back to about 8000 B.C.. Scientists believe that American Indians began domesticating potatoes at the end of the Ice Age. Four thousand years later, native peoples living

in the Andean highlands had begun to rely on potatoes as a major part of their diet. By about 2000 B.C.. Indians in the coastal region of what is now Peru were also cultivating this crop extensively.

During the reign of the Inca, who established their empire in what is now Peru in about A.D. 1000, American Indian farmers were growing not only white potatoes but red, yellow, black, blue, green, and brown ones as well. They were deliberately developing potatoes of varying sizes and shapes that would do well under a number of growing conditions. Because potatoes were easily grown, flourish in a number of climates, and high in vitamin C, they were an efficient way of

meeting dietary needs.

In 1531, when Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro landed in what is now Peru, the native Andean peoples had developed about 3,000 types of potatoes and had also invented a method to freeze-dry them for storage. The Inca, who called potatoes papas, ate boiled potatoes as a vegetable and also made a kind of unleavened potato bread made from flour that had been ground from freeze-dried potatoes. They also added this potato flour to soups and stews and made porridge from it.

Pedro de Cieza, who traveled with Francisco Pizarro's expedition, compared potatoes to chestnuts. Because the tubers grew underground and were small, the Spaniards believed potatoes were truffles (块菌) and began calling them tartuffo. When English explorer Sir Francis Drake crossed the Strait of Magellan, he ate potatoes on the coast of what is now Chile that same year. Yet, historians are uncertain exactly whether the Spaniards or the English brought potatoes to Europe.

21. The earliest potato was found in ______.

A. Peru

B. Chile

C. Argentina

D. Colorado

22. Potatoes became the major source of food for American Indians about ______.

A. 8000

B.

C. B. 4000 B.C.

C. 2000 B.C.

D.A.D. 1000

23. American Indians developed potatoes of different sizes and shapes to ______.

A. meet different dietary needs

B. get potatoes of different colors

C. suit various growing conditions

D. store them in convenient places

24. American Indians freeze-dried potatoes so that they could be ______.

A. stewed

B. ground

C. stored

D. boiled

25. Which of the following is true?

A. Historians believe that the English brought potatoes to Europe.

B. Sir Francis Drake ate potatoes in what is now Peru.

C. Francisco Pizarro compared potatoes to chestnuts.

D. The Spaniards thought that potatoes were truffles.

Passage 6

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

The blogging craze of a couple of years ago, when it was estimated that ten new blogs were started somewhere in the world every minute, now seems to have died down a bit. Yet thousands of blogs—probably the better ones—remain. Blogs are now no longer seen as the exclusive possession of geeks, and are now seen as important and influential sources of news and opinions. So many people read blogs now that it has even been suggested that some blogs may have been powerful enough to influence the result of the recent U.S. election.

Blogs are very easy to set up. All you need is a computer, an internet connection and the desire to write something. A blog differs from a traditional internet site in two ways. First, a blog is one page consisting mostly of texts, though a few pictures are sometimes provided. Second, and more importantly, a blog is a space for people to respond to what you write. The best blogs are similar to online discussions, where people write in response to what the blogger has written. Blogs are regularly updated—busy blogs are updated every day, or even every few hours.

Not all blogs are about politics, however. There are blogs about music, films, sports, books—any subject you can imagine has its enthusiasts typing away and

giving their opinions to fellow enthusiasts or anyone else who cares to read their opinions.

But how influential, or important, is the blogosphere really? One problem with blogs is that many people who read and write them seem only to communicate with each other. When people talk about the influence of the blogosphere, they do not take into account the millions of people around the world who are not bloggers, never read blogs, and don't even have access to a computer, let alone a good internet connection.

Sometimes, it seems that the blogosphere exists only to influence itself, or that its influence is limited to what is actually quite a small community. Blogs seem to promise a virtual democracy—in which anyone can say anything they like, and have their opinions heard—but who is actually listening to these opinions? Little hard evidence shows that blogs have influenced people in the way that traditional mass media such as television and newspapers are able to do.

26. Now the blogging craze ______.

A. is emerging

B. has become less intense

C. keeps rising

D. remains the same as before

27. Blogs differ from traditional internet sites in that ______.

A. texts are mostly short

B. they present pictures

C. they are daily updated

D. readers can make comments

28. One problem with blogs is that bloggers fail to consider ______.

A. non-bloggers

B. virtual democracy

C. U.S. politicians

D. internet connection

29. In the author's opinion, the influence of the blogosphere is ______.

A. important

B. powerful

C. positive

D. limited

30. According to the author, it is not difficult to ______.

A. set up blogs

B. make blogs involve everyone

C. show the importance of blogosphere

D. make blogs surpass traditional mass media

非选择题部分

注意事项:

用黑色字迹的签字笔或钢笔将答案写在答题纸上,不能答在试题卷上。

III. DISCOURSE CLOZE

The following is taken from the textbook. Read the passage and fill in the numbered spaces (there are more suggested answers than necessary). Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 1 point each)

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

One great amendment abolished slavery in the United States.The Fourteenth Amendment,

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

and increased the taxing power of Congress.By amendment we have sought to overcome defects in the Constitution and thus to keep it alive.

(From The Constitution of the United States)

[A] accepted after the Civil War

[B] laid down in the original document

[C]in order to make it more democratic

[D] that we call the Bill of Rights

[E] by interpretation on the part of the Supreme Court

[F] twenty-six amendments to the Constitution have been adopted

[G] that Congress had no power under the Constitution to pass such a law

[H]at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures

[I]but they did not make it easy to do so

[J] does the change become part of the Constitution

[K] after the Constitution went into effect

[L]by lowering the voting age to eighteen

IV.WORD FORMATION

,1 point each)

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

4 1.(bright) .

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

42.(anxiety) .

43.(ill)

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

44.(sign) .

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

45.(simple) .

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

46.(enjoy) .

47.(able) This health center serves all patients,

48.(understand) .

49.(1ead) Ever since the 1990s,.

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

50.(judge) .

V.GAP FILLING

The following is taken from the textbook.Fill in the numbered gaps with the correct form of the words or phrases in the box(there are more words than

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

to him. As is

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

the case in many fairy tales, this daughter, the apple of her father’s eye, was in love man was below her in station. He was a

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

all his being. The princess had enough barbarism in her (54)

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

their love affair was dramatic…

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

The king didn’ a date for his trial in the arena. When the date arrived, everyone in

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

’in the case, and there was excitement in the air.

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

committed the “crime” of (59)the princess, but the king did not allow the facts

自考英语阅读一试题参考答案

of the case to alter his decision. The trial would go on (60)

married. The king could enjoy the proceedings for the sport of it.

(From The Lady or the Tiger) VI. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

The following questions are based on Passage Four in this test paper. Read the passage carefully again and answer the questions briefly by referring back to Passage Four. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 5 points each)

61. In what way did Darwin's evolutionary theory challenge the basic beliefs of his day? Darwinian revolution .

62. Apart from his evolutionary theory, what other contributions did Darwin make in his life? The theory of classification.

VII. TRANSLATION

The following excerpt is taken from the textbook. Read the paragraph carefully and translate into Chinese each of the numbered and underlined parts. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 2 points each)

Because a friend of mine asked me, I called on good-natured, talkative old Simon Wheeler and asked him about my friend's friend, Leonidas W. Smiley. (63)This story is the result of that visit. I have a deep suspicion that Leonidas W. Smiley doesn't exist; that my friend from the East never knew such a person; and that he made the request of me as a joke. (64) I think he imagined that if I went to Wheeler and asked him about Smiley, then Wheeler would make up a story and bore me to death with some terribly long, exasperating, useless tale. If that was my friend's plan, it succeeded.

I found Simon Wheeler dozing comfortably by the barroom stove of the dilapidated tavern in the decayed mining camp of Angel's, and I noticed that he was fat and baldheaded. (65) He looked gentle, and his face showed him to be a happy, peaceful man. He awakened and greeted me enthusiastically. (66) I told him that a

friend of mine had asked me to ask around about an old friend of his from childhood. My friend's old friend was named Leonidas W. Smiley. I further explained that my friend thought that Smiley was a young minister of the Gospel and that he lived in Angel's Camp—or at least he used to. (67) I told Wheeler that I would be very grateful if he could tell me anything about Smiley, since I wanted to honor my friend’s request.

(From The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County)

(63)This story is the result of that visit. 这则故事是关于那次来访之后所发生的事情。

(64) I think he imagined that if I went to Wheeler and asked him about Smiley, then Wheeler would make up a story and bore me to death with some terribly long, exasperating, useless tale.

我估计他料想我要是去找Wheeler问他关于Smiley的话,那么Wheeler定会编造一个故事,某些又臭又长使我烦得要死、令我恼怒的和无用的故事。

(65) He looked gentle, and his face showed him to be a happy, peaceful man.

他看起来温和,他的脸上显现出他是一个快乐而平和的人。

(66) I told him that a friend of mine had asked me to ask around about an old friend of his from childhood.

我告诉他我的一个朋友曾经让我去到处打听一个他童年时候的老朋友。

(67) I told Wheeler that I would be very grateful if he could tell me anything about Smiley, since I wanted to honor my friend’s r equest.

我告诉Wheeler,如果他能告诉我关于Smiley的任何事情那么我将会非常感激,自从我接受我朋友的请求以后。