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(最新版)英语专业毕业论文格式

英语专业毕业论文写作格式要求

目录

1.内封(中文)格式要求 (2)

2.内封(英文)格式要求 (3)

3摘要(中文)格式要求 (4)

4摘要(英语)格式要求 (5)

5目录格式要求 (6)

6论文装订顺序等要求 (8)

7正文及一级标题格式要求 (9)

8二级标题及引文格式要求 (10)

9三级标题格式要求 (14)

10二级标题在页首及四级标题格式要求 (15)

11参考文献格式要求 (17)

12致谢格式要求 (21)

论隐喻的运作机制

李小伟

总计:毕业论文26页

指导教师:张三

评阅人:李四

完成日期:2006年5月

Incorporating Culture into English Teaching in Middle Schools

A Thesis

Presented to the College of English

Dalian University

By Li Xiaowei

In Impartial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of

Bachelor of Arts with Honors

May 2007

Thesis Supervisor: Professor Y ang Haiyan

摘要

隐喻研究归根到底是隐喻机制的研究,它是隐喻研究的核心。两千多年来,隐喻一直被仅仅看作一种修辞手段,一种语言的陪衬,被看作是两种不同事物事先存在的相似性的比较或一个词对另一词的替代,进而形成对隐喻阐述的比较论和替代论。现代学者通过大量研究表明,隐喻不仅仅是一种修辞手段,更重要的是,它是人类的主要认知方式。隐喻这一认知方式,给人们一种新的视角,创造一种相似。因此,现代学者着重于阐述相似是如何被创造出来的。在众多的隐喻理论中,影响较大的有布莱克和莱科夫的隐喻理论。(大约200字左右)

关键词:隐喻;搭配;术语

(中文摘要的内容和关键词应与英文摘要相对应,关键词3-5个,词与词之间用分号分开)*** 正文引文中涉及到中国作者有两种情况:1)在参考文献中,如果用英文表述中国作者及著作,Shen, Dan. Stylistics and Translation. Beijing: Peking UP, 1995. 那么在正文中,引用原作者话之后要这样在括号里标注, 例如,Professor Shen writes that the standard of faithfulness and accuracy is not only “a principle for translating business contracts, but an attitude in translation” (Shen 191). (引文标注用汉语拼音)。2)在参考文献中,如果用汉语表述中国作者及著作,袁振国.当代教育学[M].北京:教育科学出版社,2002.那么在正文中,引用原作者话之后要这样在括号里标注, 例如,Educator Yuan states that the Social Educational Model was first proposed by Gardner and early 1970?s and reformulated in 1985 (袁振国 116).(引文标注用汉语方块字)。(此处引文为间接引文,故没有双引号)。

Abstract

The mechanism of metaphor is actually the nucleus of the study of metaphor. For more than two thousand years, metaphor was viewed as a device of rhetoric, an attachment to language. In accordance with this perspective, metaphor was a comparison between two things that do not belong to the same category or was regarded as one word used to substitute another because there were preexisting similarities between them. As a result of this perspective, two theories took shape:

one was the Comparison Theory, the other was the Theory of Substitution. But modern scholars discard the perspective, beings to know this world, a way of thinking. (中文摘要的对应译文)

Key words: metaphor; collocation; terms

(注意:关键词3-5个,字体要加粗,词与词之间用分号分开,除专有名词外,其他单词首字母不大写)

Contents

摘要 (i)

Abstract (ii)

I. Introduction (1)

II. A Historical Retrospection of Metaphor (2)

2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor—A Device of Rhetoric (2)

2.2 The Platonic School—Language is Metaphorical……………….…………….

5

2.3 The Study of Metaphor from the 20th Century to the

Present (6)

III. On Similarity (7)

3.1 Similarity: A Fundamental Criterion for the Classification of Metaphor (7)

3.2S i m i l a r i t y a n d

C u l t u r e (9)

3.3S i m i l a r i t y a n d

C a t e g o r y (10)

3.4T h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S i m i l a r i t y a n d K n o w l e d g e (13)

IV. On the Mechanism of Metaphor (15)

4.1B l a c k?s I n t e r a c t i o n T h e o r y (15)

4.1.1I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e I n t e r a c t i o n T h e o r y (15)

4.1.2S o m e D e f e c t s o f t h e I n t e r a c t i o n T h e o r y (16)

4.2L a k o f f i a n C o n c e p t u a l M e t a p h o r T h e o r y (19)

4.2.1T h e P h i l o s o p h i c a l B a s i s o f L a k o f f i a n T h e o r y (19)

4.2.2L a k o f f i a n T h e o r y o n t h e M e c h a n i s m o f M e t a p h o r (21)

4.2.3 The Deficiencies of Lakoffian Theory in Expounding the Creation of

Similarity………………….

(26)

4.3C o n c e p t u a l I n t e g r a t i o n T h e o r y (29)

4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory (29)

4.3.1.1F o u r M e n t a l S p a c e s (29)

4.3.1.2 Three Processes of BT (33)

4.3.1.3O p t i m a l i t y P r i n c i p l e s o f

B T (34)

4.3.2 The Advantages of BT in Solving the Paradox of the Two Former

Theories (3)

4

4.3.2.1T h e G e n e r i c M e n t a l S p a c e (34)

4.3.2.2T h e B l e n d i n g S p a c e a n d E m e r g e n t S t r u c t u r e (35)

4.3.2.3T h e O t h e r A d v a n t a g e s o f

B T (40)

V. Conclusion (42)

Bibliography (45)

Acknowledgements (46)

论文装订顺序等要求:

页码起始从Introduction部分开始第1页,直到Acknowledgements 结束,(包括Acknowledgements)。

其装订顺序为:封面(学校印刷厂负责印刷学校统一封面)→内封页( 中文)→内封页(英文)→中文摘要→英文摘要→目录→正文(如果有注释,可以加在当前页下脚或者放在本章节后面)→参考文献→致谢

(论文打印用A4纸)

页眉:4.5cm, 小五,Times New Roman; 下划线

页脚:1.8cm

注:Bibliography 和Acknowledgement 上面不加页眉(详见论文样本)

I. Introduction

The study of metaphor with us and the focus of the study is the mechanism of metaphor. It is the most significant and indispensable part of the study. For more than two thousand years, the study is carried on mainly from the perspective of rhetoric, viewing metaphor as a device of rhetoric, an embellishment of language. The representative of the theories in this long period is Aristotle?s Comparison Theory and Quintilian?s Theory of Substitution.

Because metaphor is not only a rhetorical phenomenon, but also one of cognition, the interpretation force of these theories is very limited. In 1936, I.A. Richards put forward Interaction Theory. Later Max Black made an elaboration of the work of Theory claims that metaphor is a cognitively irreducible phenomenon that works not at the level of word combination, but much deeper, arising out of the interaction between the conceptual structures underlying the words. But the ones who really turn the study of metaphor to a new page are George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The mark of this change is the publication of the book named Metaphors We Live By. The theory of Lakoff and Johnson?s is Conceptual Metaphor Theory. As these scholars regard metaphor as the creation of similarity, their theories concentrate on Theory or Blending Theory. Comparatively speaking, it is more convincing on the mechanism of metaphor than the other two.(以下省略,此部分字数最少不少于300字)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

II. A Historical Retrospection of Metaphor

2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor--A Device of Rhetoric

Andrew Ortony, one of the most influential writers on metaphor, Poetics,Aristotle expounds the essence, function and the way of

explanation of metaphor as three nuclei. He defines metaphor as “the

application of an alien name by transference either from genus to

species, or from species to genus, or from species to species, or by

analogy, that is, proportion”(Aristotle 71). Then say …there lies my

ship? (genus-to-species metaphor), since …ten thousand? is a species of a

…large number?, one can say verily ten thousand noble deeds say with

blade of bronze drew away the life (species-to-species metaphor). And

since old age is to life as evening to the day, one can say that old age is

the evening of life (ibid.). (此符号ibid.意为同上,引文出处与上相同。

本例为整段引用,即block quotation,前后空五号字一行) All metaphors, Aristotle believes, fall into at least one of these four categories, although analogy metaphors are the most pleasing. Aristotle also make the prosaic style charming, and stresses that it can only be confined to poetry (ibid. 72). This perspective leads to the later theorists making distinction between poetic language and everyday language. Especially in Chapter 21 and 22 of Poetics, Aristotle states that every word “is either curren t, or strange, or metaphor, or ornamental, or newly coined, or lengthened, or contracted, or altered”(ibid.70). It is obvious that Aristotle classifies metaphors as lying outside normal language use. They are deviant or aberrant forms of discourse. He also embellishment of language (Kittay 1). Also in this chapter of Poetics, metaphor and genius, viewing metaphor as a talent of epic poets and tragedians:

The greatest thing by far is to not be imported by another; it is the

mark of genius—for to make good metaphors implies an eye for

resemblances ( Aristotle 72).

As Hawks writes about Aristotle?s account of metaphor:

It is abundantly clear that, as an entity in itself, metaphor is regarded

as a decorative addition to language, to be used in specific ways, and

at specific times and places (ibid. 8-9).

In Rhetoric,(书名下划线)Aristotle says that the best metaphors are those that achieve the effect of bringing things vividly before the eyes of the audience. He argues that this effect is “p roduced by words which refer to things in action”( ibid. 92-93). “The best image involves a metaphor”(ibid. 96). From the above statements, we know that Aristotle views metaphor as a rhetorical device and an embellishment of language. Finally metaphor—Comparison Theory. It

is the earliest theory in the gist is:

1 Metaphors are matters of language and not matters of thought or

action. There is no such thing as metaphorical thought or action.

2 A metaphor of the form “A is B” is a linguistic expression whos e

meaning is the same as a corresponding linguistic expression of the

form “A is like B, in respect X, Y, Z…” “Respects X, Y, Z…”

characterize what we therefore only describe preexisting similarities.

It can?t create similarities (Lakoff & Johnson 1980: 153).(如果在论文

中引用同一作者的不同的著作,应加上出版年代以示区别)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

III. On Similarity

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

IV. On the Mechanism of Metaphor

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.1 Black?s Interaction Theory(章内每节标号及标题左起顶格,四号字,加粗,前后空一行为小四号字。如在页首则其前不空行,但其后空行)

4.1.1 Introduction to Interaction Theory

In teraction Theory was originated from I. A. Richards? theory. In the simplest formulation, when we use a metaphor we ”(Richard 89). The most important in this definition is “two active thoughts interact with each other.” He first provided the basic terminology and conceptual framework for discussing metaphor. He argued that metaphor consists of two terms, the tenor, or topic, and the vehicle, and the

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.3 The Conceptual Integration Theory

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory

Conceptual Integration Theory was proposed by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.3.1.1 Four Mental Spaces

In BT, the basis unit of cognitive organization is not the domain but the mental spaces, which are a partial and temporary representational structure that speakers construct when thinking or talking about a perceived, imagined, past, present………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

V. Conclusion

The study of metaphor is, in essence, the study of scholars discard the perspective that metaphor is a device of rhetoric, an attachment to language, and claim that metaphor is of cognition and is omnipresent; it is a way of thinking. Moreover, they the preexisting similarity. Hence, the mechanism of metaphor is to interpret theory, due to some defects and deficiencies, are not able to give a clear description of the creation of similarity. They endeavor to expound the appearance of a new structure after a novel metaphor, but they fail to do that and result in “isomorphism”.

The mechanism of metaphor is sophisticated. It is a result of various factors. Interacting, projecting and blending constitute the process. It is obvious that BT, on the basis of the two above-mentioned theories, focuses on solving the problem of the “isomorphism”-structure. To avoid committing the same mistake that all the knowledge, the features mapped from the source domain and the structure (topology) of the target domain are interwoven…….

(400words)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Bibliography

MLA “参考文献”格式范例

Adams, Richard P. Faulkner: Myth and Motion. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Aiken, Conrad. “William Faulkner: The Novel as Form.” Frederick J. Hoffman and Olga W. Vickery. Eds. William Faulkner: Three Decades of Criticism.

East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1960.

Barker, Debor ah E., and Ivo Kamps. “Much Ado about Nothing: Language and Desire in The Sound and the Fury.” Mississippi Quarterly: The Journal of Southern Culture. 46.3 (Summer 1993): 373-93.

Bleikasten, Andre. Faulkner?s As I Lay Dying. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973. Carter, Ronald, ed. Language and Literature: An Introductory Reader in Stylistics. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982.

——. Literary Text and Language Study. London: Edward Arnold, 1982. Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom! New York: The Modern Library, 1936. ——. Faulkner at Nagano. Robert A. Jeliffe, ed. Tokyo: Kenyusha, 1956.

——. The Sound and the Fury. Middlesex: Penguin, 1964.

Hellstrom, Gustaf. “Presentation Speech.” 20 Jan 2003.

< …A Justice? and The Sound and the Fury.” Approaches to Teaching Fau lkner?s The Sound and the Fury. Eds. Stephen Hahn and Arthur F. Kinney. New York: MLA, 1996, 140-43.

Leech, G. N. 1969. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. Longman. Rpt in Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.

Leech, Geoffrey N. and Michael H. Short, 1981. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. Rpt in Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.

Popping, Roel. Computer-Assisted Text Analysis. London: Sage, 2000.

Shen, Dan. Stylistics and Translation. Beijing: Peking UP, 1995.

中文书目:

参考文献是对期刊论文引文进行统计和分析的重要信息源之一,在本规范中采用GB 7714推荐的顺序编码制格式著录。

一、参考文献著录项目

①主要责任者(专著作者、论文集主编、学位申报人、专利申请人、报告撰写人、期刊文章作者、析出文章作者)。多个责任者之间以“,”分隔,注意在本项数据中不得出现缩写点“.”(英文作者请将作者名写全)。主要责任者只列姓名,其后不加“著”、“编”、“主编”、“合编”等责任说明。②文献题名及版本(初版省略)。③文献类型及载体类型标识。④出版项(出版地、出版者、出版年)。⑤文献出处或电子文献的可获得地址。⑥文献起止页码。⑦文献标准编号(标准号、专利号……)。

二、参考文献类型及其标识

根据 GB 3469规定,以单字母方式标识以下各种参考文献类型:

参考文献类型、文献类型标识

专著[M],论文集[C],报纸文章[N],期刊文章[J],学位论文[D],报告[R],标准[S],专利[P]。对于专著、论文集中的析出文献,其文献类型标识建议采用单字母“[A]”;对于其他未说明的文献类型,建议采用单字母“[Z]”。

对于数据库(database)、计算机程序(computer program)及电子公告(electronic bulletin board)等电子文献类型的参考文献,建议以下列双字母作为标识:

电子参考文献类型、标识

数据库[DB],计算机程序[CP],电子公告[EB]

三、电子文献的载体类型及其标识

对于非纸张型载体的电子文献,当被引用为参考文献时需在参考文献类型标识中同时标明其载体类型。本规范建议采用双字母表示电子文献载体类型:磁带(magnetic tape)——[MT],磁盘(disk)——[DK],光盘(CD-ROM)——[CD],联机网络(online)——[OL],并以下列格式表示包括了文献载体类型的参考文献类型标识:

[文献类型标识载体类型标识]

如:[DBOL]——联机网上数据库(database online)

[DBMT]——磁带数据库(database on magnetic tape)

[MCD]——光盘图书(monograph on CD-ROM)

[CPDK]——磁盘软件(computer program on disk)

[JOL]——网上期刊(serial online)

[EBOL]——网上电子公告(electronic bulletin board online)

以纸张为载体的传统文献在引作参考文献时不必注明其载体类型。

四、文后参考文献表编排格式

参照ISO 690及ISO 690-2,每一参考文献条目的最后均以“.”结束。各类参考文献条目的编排格式及示例如下:

1.专著、论文集、学位论文、报告

主要责任者.文献题名[文献类型标识].出版地:出版者,出版年.起止页码(任选) .

刘国钧,陈绍业,王凤翥.图书馆目录[M].北京:高等教育出版社,1957.15-18. 辛希孟.信息技术与信息服务国际研讨会论文集:A集[C].北京:中国社会科学出版社,1994.

张筑生.微分半动力系统的不变集[D].北京:北京大学数学系数学研究所,1983. 冯西桥.核反应堆压力管道与压力容器的LBB分析[R].北京:清华大学核能技术设计研究院,1997.

2.期刊文章

主要责任者. 文献题名[J]. 刊名,年,卷(期):起止页码.

金显贺,王昌长,王忠东,等.一种用于在线检测局部放电的数字滤波技术[J].

清华大学学报(自然科学版),1993,33(4):62-67.

3.论文集中的析出文献

析出文献主要责任者. 析出文献题名[A]. 原文献主要责任者(任选) . 原文献题名[C]. 出版地:出版者,出版年. 析出文献起止页码.

钟文发.非线性规划在可燃毒物配置中的应用[A].赵玮.运筹学的理论与应用——中国运筹学会第五届大会论文集[C].西安:西安电子科技大学出版社,

4.报纸文章

主要责任者. 文献题名[N]. 报纸名,出版日期 (版次) .

5..国际、国家标准

标准编号,标准名称[S].

6.专利

专利所有者. 专利题名[P]. 专利国别:专利号,出版日期.

7.电子文献

主要责任者.电子文献题名[电子文献及载体类型标识].电子文献的出处或可获得地址,发表或更新日期引用日期(任选) .

王明亮.关于中国学术期刊标准化数据库系统工程的进展[EBOL].

I am greatly indebted to Professor … for .

I also thank those who course of the writing and whose names I can?t list

3. 千秋功业a great undertaking of lasting importance

4. 安居乐业live in peace and work

6. 各得其所be properly provided for

7. 众议纷纭disagree on

8. 岁月不居,来日苦短Time does not stay is brief is the day.

9. 夜长梦多A long delay may mean trouble.

10. 时不我与Time and tide wait for no man.

11. 依时顺势keep up with the tide

12. 日渐没落being pushed out of business

13. 鹬蚌相争play A off against B

14. 浩然之气noble spirit

15. 凤毛麟角a rarity of the rarities

16. 望而生畏stand in awe before

17. 敬而远之keep respectfully aloof from

18. 众矢之的in the dock

19. 毫无瓜葛be divorced from

20. 尔虞我诈sheer cunning and falsehood

21. 备受推崇be rewarded and respected

22. 善有善报,恶有恶报the good inevitably is successful and the bad inevitably punished

23. 其乐融融sweetness and light

24. 义无反顾feel obliged to

25. 物美价廉attractive in price and quality

26. 源源不断keep flowing in a steady stream

27. 滚滚不息pour into

28. 福祉well-being

29. 精华quintessence

30. 阴霾specter

31. 势不两立pit sth against sth

32. 打折扣wear thin water down

33. 大展宏图score big points

34. 重整旗鼓shock sth back to life

35. 不谋而合coincide with

36. 染指dip one’s finger in

37. 博大精深both extensive and profound

38. 源远流长long-standing and well-established

39. 诸子百家the masters’ are equal.

41. 天下兴亡,匹夫有责Everybody is responsible for the fate of 45. 当务之急

50. 信誓旦旦be poised to