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词汇学课本练习答案

Unit 1

1.主观题

2. How did the Norman Conquest and the Renaissance influence the English vocabulary ?

The transitional period(转型时期)from Old English to Modern English is known as Middle English(ME 1100----1500), which is characterized by the strong influence of French following the Norman Conquest in 1066, French was used for all state affairs and for most social and culture matters, which influenced English in daily life.

The English language from 1500 to the present is called Modern English. In the early stage of this period the Renaissance(文艺复兴)brought great change to the vocabulary. The renewed(复兴的)study of Greek in the Renaissance not only led to the borrowing of Greek words indirectly through the medium(媒介)of Latin, but also led to the introduction of some Greek words directly into English vocabulary. Greek borrowings were mostly literary, technical and scientific words,(page 4~5)

3.Enumerate the causes for the rapid growth of neologisms(新词,旧词新意,新词的创造者/使用者)after W orld W arⅡ. Give four examples for each cause.

①marked progress of science and technology. Example: to blast off(炸掉,炸毁) ,to countdown ,capsule,launching pad

②socio-economic(社会经济), political and cultural changes. Example: roller-hockey ,surfriding,skydiving(跳伞运动),disignated hitter

③the influence from other cultures and languages(page6~7)Example: cosmonaut ,discotheque(小舞厅,迪斯科舞厅),ombudsman(调查官员舞弊情况的政府官员), apartheid(种族隔离).

4.What are the fundamental features of the basic word stock(词库)of the English vocabulary ?

(1). National character(全民通用性):Words of the basic word stock belong to the people as a whole, not to a limited group.

(2). Stability(稳定性):As words in the basic word stock denote the commonest things necessary to life, they are likely to remain unchanged. However, a certain number of Old English words have dropped out of the basic word stock, while new words have joined the rank of basic words, following social and technological changes.

(3). Word-forming ability(构词):Basic words are very active in forming new words.

(4). Ability to form collocations(搭配能力):Basic words combine readily with other words to form habitual expressions and phrases. Since the great majority of the basic word stock are native words, they are

naturally the ones used most frequently in everyday speech and writing.(Page 10 paragraph 4 , 5 ,7 , 8 and Page 11 paragraph 2)

5. What are the characteristics of the English vocabulary as a result of its historical development ?

The historical development of English language shows that English is a heavy borrower; it has adopted words from almost every known language, especially from Latin, French and Greek.(page 18.)

6.Why do we say that native words are the core of the English vocabulary?

First, because the native words form the great majority of the basic word stock of the English language. And the basic word stock is the foundation of the vocabulary accumulated over a number of epochs. Second, they make up the most familiar, most useful part of the English vocabulary. So we say that native words are the core of the English vocabulary for its importance. (Page 10 paragraph 2, and Page 19 paragraph 2)

7.What do we mean by literary and common words ?

(1) Common or popular words are words connected with the ordinary things or activities necessary to everyday life. The great

majority of English words are common words . The core of the common words is the basic word stock. They are stylistically (在文体上) neutral , and hence they are appropriate in both formal and informal writing and speech. (Page 11 paragraph 6)

(2) Literary words are chiefly used in writing, especially in books written in a more elevated(升高的,提高的,崇高的)style, in official documents, or in formal speeches. They are comparatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.(Page 12 paragraph 1)

Chapter 2

Q1:Explain the following terms and provide example:

a.Morphemic 形位

b.Allomorph 形位变体

c.free and bound morphemic

d.hybrid 混合词

Morphemic: the smallest meaningful linguistic unit of language, not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms. Example: nation (page21 ,paragraph2, line 1)

Allomorph: any of the variant forms of a morphemic as conditioned by position or adjoining sounds. Example: books, pigs.( page22 , paragraph

3, line 4)

Free morphemic: one that can be uttered alone with meaning. Example: man,read,faith (page23 , paragraph2, line 1 To2 )

Bound morphemic: cannot stand by itself as a complete utterance表达; it must appear with at least one other morphemic. Example: unkind (page23 , paragraph2, line4)

Hybrid: a word made up of elements form two or more different language. Example: goddess, rewrite.( page27 , paragraph2, line 4)

Q2. What are the differences between inflectional and derivational affixes? P26页第4段开头P29页第4自然段末尾

Inflectional affixes (屈折词缀)are related to grammar only. Derivational affixes(派生词缀)are subdivided into prefixes and suffixes, which are related to the formation of new words. Roots, prefixes前缀and suffixes 后缀. are the building blocks with which words are formed.

The number of derivational affixes, although limited, is much larger than that of inflectional affixes.

Q3:In what two ways are derivational affixes 派生词缀classified? p26

Derivational affixes are classified in prefixes 前缀and suffixes后缀.

Q4:How are words classified on the morphemic(语素的)level? P29 paragraph 5

On the morphemic level, words can be classified into simple, complex and compound words(复合词).

Chapter III

ⅠExplain

1、(p32)Word-formation rules: The rules of word-formation define the scope and methods whereby speakers of a language may create new words

2、Root, stem and base. Analyze the word denationalized into root, base and stem. Denationalized

①Root:nation

②stem:denationalize

③base:nationalized

ⅡCompounding

1、What are the relative criteria of a compound?

(p35-p36)①Orthographic criterion

②Phonological criterion

③Semantic criterion

ⅢDerivation

1、What is derivation?

(p42-p43)Derivation is a word- formation process by which new words are created by adding a prefix, or suffix, or both to an already existing word.

2、What is the difference between prefixation and suffixation?

Prefixation is the addition of a prefix to the base. Prefixes modify the meaning of the base, but they do not generally alter its word-class. Every prefix has a specific meaning of its own; prefixes are therefore classified according to their meanings.

Suffixation refers to the addition of a suffix to

the base. Suffixes frequently alter the word-class of the base. Therefore, suffixes are classified according to the class of word they form into noun-forming suffixes, verb-forming suffixes, etc(p66)

3、How are the major living prefixes classified? Give a few examples to illustrate each kind. (P44)The major living prefixes are classified into the following eight categories by their meaning :

1)negative prefixes (un- , non- , in- , dis- , a- ). eg , unhappy ,nonhero , injustice ,disadvantage , atypical )

2) reversative or privative prefixes (un - , de - , dis -). eg , unwrap , decentralize ,disunite

3) prejorative prefixes ( mis - , mal - , pseudo - ) .eg. mistrust , maltreat, pseudo-science

4) prefixes of degree or size ( arch - , super - , out - , sub - , over - , under - , hyper - , ultra - , mini - ) eg, archbishop,supercurrent

hyperactive, outlive , ultra-conservative

5) prefixes of attitude ( co - , counter - , antic - ,

pro - ) eg, cooperation, anti-nuclear , pro-student , counterpart

6) locative prefixes ( super-, sub- ,inter- , trans- ) eg. Subarctic , superacid, transcode 7) prefixes of time and order ( fore - ,pre - , post - , ex - , re - ) forehead , reconsider ,prereading , post-war

8) number prefixes ( uni - / mono - , bi - / di - , multi - / poly -) multi-purpose , monocle , bi-media

4、How can you form deverbal nouns, denominal nouns, deadjective verbs, and denominal adjectives by suffixation?

(P50)answer:1)deverbal noun suffixes: verb-noun suffixes , such as –er in writer , -ee in employee, -ation in exploitation and –ment in development .

2) denominal noun suffixes : noun –noun suffixes , such as –hood in boyhood , - ship in

scholarship , - let in booklet , and –dom in stardom .

3) deadjective verb suffixes : adjective –verb suffixes , such as –ify in simplify , - ize in modernize , and –en in quicken

4) denominal adjective suffixes: noun –adjective suffixes, such as –full in helpful, -less in limitless, -y in silky and –ish in foolish.

5、Give the meaning of the following words and analyze the structure of each word:

(P51)answer: 1) a driver means a person who drives

2) a lighter means a machine used for lightering

3) a gardener means a person who garden

4) a New Yorker means a person from New York

5) a villager means inhabitant of village

6) a diner is‘a dining carriage on a train‘

7) a lifer is‘slang. A person sentenced to

imprisonment for life

8) a dresser means

Analyse : as for 1、2、3 ,affixed to a verb ,the suffix forms agent nouns with the meaning of ? one who performs an action ‘as for 4、5 ,this affix may also be joined to the means of cities , countries , and to other place names . as for 6、7、8 colloquial and slangy .

ⅣConversion

1、what is the difference between conversion (此类转化法)and suffixation(加后缀)? (P55 介绍conversion的第一段):Conversion is a word-formation process whereby a word of a certain word-class is shifted into a word of another word-class without the addition of an affix. It is also called zero-derivation.

e.g. bottle (n. ) ---- bottle ( v. ), buy (v. ) ---- buy ( n.), tutor ( n. ) ---- tutor ( v. )(例子也可以举其他的如attack)

(P49 介绍Suffixation的第一段):Suffixation: It's the formation of a new word by adding a suffix or a combining form to the base, and usually changing the word-class of the base.e.g.boy n. + -ish -- boyish adj. boy n. +hood -- boyhood n.

2、In a conversion pair, how can you determine which of the two is the base and which the derived word(派生词)?

(P56 中间三个例子)

?The base is derivation by zero suffix.

Spy –a deverbal noun without suffix, meaning one who spies.

?The derived word is derivation by suffix Wirter---a deverbal noun with "-er" suffix,meaning one who writes

3、Illustrate the axiom(原理),"The actual grammatical classification of any word is pendent upon its use."

(P57最后一段)Notice how the word-class of

round varies in accordance with its use in the following sentence:

i.e. The second round(n)(回合)was exciting. Any round(adj)(圆的)plate will do.

Some drivers round(v)(绕行)coners too rapidly.

The sound goes round and

round(phrase). (旋转)

The above examples tell us a very important fact: because word order(词序)is more fixed in Modern English than ever before, the function shifts within sentence structures are possible without causing any confusion in intelligibility(可懂度,可理解性).『这一段可不要』

4、Why is the conversion from noun to verb the most productive process of conversion? (58—59页)First in contemporary English, there is a tendency o f ―a preponderance of nouns aver verb‖.

Second, there are only a few

verb-forming affixes in English. They are be-, en-, -ify, -ize and –en.

5、What are the major semantic types under

noun to verb conversion?

(a)“to put in/on N”

(b)“to give N, to provide N”

(c)“to deprive of N; or to remove the object denoted by the noun from something”

(d)“To….with N”

(e)“To{be/ act as}N with respect to…”

(1)verbs from human nouns

(2)verbs from animal nouns

(3)verbs from inanimate nouns

(f)“To {make/change}…into N”(g)“To {send/go}by N”

(1)mail

(2)bicycle

(h)“To spend the period of time denoted by N”

6、Why is the poor an example of partial

conversion?

(62页)It is used as noun when preceded by the definite article; yet the converted noun takes on only some of the features of the noun; i.e. It does not take plural and genitive inflection, nor can it be preceded by determiners like a, this, my, etc.

8、Pick out the converted words in the

sentences below and state(1)the word-class of the converted words and their meanings;

(2)to what word-class the base of each of

the converted words belongs:

(1)They are going to summer in Guilin.

the converted word:summer(v.)

the word-class of it: conversion

meaning:避暑;过夏天

the base of the word of the word-class belongs: summer(n.)

(2)They hurrahed his wonderful

performance.

the converted word: hurrah(v.)

the word-class of it: conversion

meaning:欢呼,叫好,为----喝彩

the base of the word of the word-class belongs: hurrah(n.)

(3)You have to round your lips in order to make the sound/u:/.

the converted word: round(v.)

the word-class of it: conversion

meaning:弄圆,使---成圆形

the base of the word of the word-class belongs: round(n.)

(4)They are great sillies.

the converted word: silly(n.)

the word-class of it: conversion

meaning:傻瓜

the base of the word of the word-class belongs: silly(adj.)

(5)She dusted the furniture every morning.

the converted word: dust(v.)

the word-class of it: conversion

meaning: 拂去灰尘

the base of the word of the word-class belongs: dust(n.)

(6) It is a good buy.

the converted word: buy(n.)

the word-class of it: conversion

meaning:购买,买卖;所购的物品

the base of the word of the word-class belongs: buy(v.)

Chapter4

1. Initialism:

Initialism is a type of shortening, using the first letters of words to form a proper name, a technical term, or a

phrase;an initialism is pronounced letter by letter.

2. Acronym:

Acronyms are words formed from the initial letters of the name of an organization or a scientific term, etc.

3. Blend:

Blending is a process of word-formation in which a new word is formed by combining the meanings and sounds of two words, one of which is not in its full form or both of which are not in their full forms.

4. Front and back clipping:

The process of clipping involves the deletion of one or more syllables from a word (usually a noun), which is also available in its full form.

Back clipping may occur at the end of the word. This is the most common type of clipping.

Front clipping occurs at the beginning of the word.

5. back-formation:

Back-formation is a term used to refer to a type of

word-formation by which a shorter word is coined by the deletion of a supposed affix from a longer form already present in the language.

6. Reduplication:

Reduplication is a minor type of word-formation by which a compound word is created by the repetition(1)of one word like go-go; (2)of two almost identical words with a change in the vowel‘s such as ping-pong; (3)of two almost identical words with a change in the initial consonants, as in teenyweeny.

Chapter V

1.How are the sound and meaning of most words related?

Give examples to illustrate your point. (P93)

Most English words are conventional(常规的), arbitrary symbols; consequently, there is no intrinsic(内在的,固有的)relation between the sound-symbol and its sense.

e.g. house ( English)

maison ( French)