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《西方文化导论》练习题 (1)

Chapter One Greek Culture

I. Fill in the blanks:

1.European culture is made up of many elements, two of these

elements are considered to be more enduring and they are the Greco-Roman(希腊罗马的)element and the Judeo-Christian (犹太教与基督教的)element.

2.Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5th

century.

3.In the second half of the 4th century B. C., all Greece was

brought under the rule of Alexander, king of Macedon.

4.In 146 B. C. the Romans conquered Greece.

5.Revived in 1896, the Olympic Games have beco me the world’s

foremost amateur sports competition.

6.Ancient Greeks considered Homer to be the author of their

epics.

7.The Homer's epics consisted of Iliad and Odyssey .

8.The Iliad deals with the alliance of the states of the southern

mainland of Greece, led by Agamemnon in their war against the city of Troy.

9.The Odyssey deals with the return of Odysseus after the Trojan

war to his home, island of Ithaca.

10.The representation form of Greek Democracy is

citizen-assembly.(公民大会)

11.Of the many lyric poets of ancient Greece, two are still admired

by readers today: Sappho and Pindar.

12.Sappho was considered the most important lyric poet of ancient

Greece.

13.Pindar is best known for his odes celebrating the victories at the athletic

games, such as the 14 Olympic odes.

14.The three great tragic dramatists of ancient Greece are

Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.

15.Aeschylus wrote such plays as Prometheus Bound, Persians and

Agamemnon.

16.Sophocles wrote such tragic plays as Oedipus the King(俄狄浦

斯王), Electra(伊莱克特拉(谋杀其母及其情人者), and Antigone. Oedipus complex(恋母情结)and Electra complex(恋父情结) derived from Sophocles’ plays.

17.Euripides(欧里庇得斯)wrote mainly about women in such

plays as Andromache, Medea, and Trojan Women.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/204bedd94693daef5ff73d0e.htmledy also flourished in the 5th century B. C.. Its best writer

was Aristophanes, who has left eleven plays, including Frogs, Clouds, Wasps and Birds.

19.Euripides _ is the first writer of "problem plays".

20.Herodotus(希罗多德)is often called ―Father of History‖. He

wrote about the wars between Greeks and Persians.

21.Thucydides(修西得底斯)described the war between Athens

and Sparta and between Athens and Syracuse, a Greek state on the Island of Sicily.

22.Pythagoras(毕达哥拉斯)was a bold thinker who had the idea

that all things were numbers.

23.Pythagoras was the founder of scientific mathematics.

24.Heracleitus(赫拉克利特) believed fire to the primary element of

the universe, out of which everything else had arisen.

25.The greatest names in European philosophy are Socrates, Plato

and Aristotle.

26.In the 4th century B. C., four schools of philosophers often

argued with each other, they are the Cynics(犬儒学派), the Sceptics(怀疑论学派), the Epicureans(伊壁鸠鲁学派), and the Stoics(斯多葛学派).

27.Euclid(欧几里得) is well-known for his Elements《几何原本》,

a textbook of geometry. 28.To illustrate the principle of the level, Archimedes is said to

have told the king: ―Give me a place to stand, and I will move the world.‖

29.Greek architecture can be grouped into three styles: the Doric

(多利安式)style which is also called the masculine style; the Ionic(爱奥尼亚式)style which is also called the feminine style;

and a later style that is called the Corinthian(科林斯式)style.

30.The Acropolis at Athens(雅典卫城)and the Parthenon(万神

殿) are the finest monument of Greek architecture and sculpture in more than 2000 years.

II. Multiple choices:

1.Which culture reached a high point of development in the 5th

century B. C.?

A. Greek Culture

B. Roman Culture

C. Egyptian Culture

D. Chinese Culture

2.In _______ the Roman conquered Greece.

A. 1200

B.

C. B. 700 B. C. C. 146 B.C.

D. The 5th century

3.Which of the following works described the war led by

Agamemnon against the city of Troy?

A. Oedipus the King

B. Iliad

C. Odyssey

D. Antigone

4.Which of the following is NOT the plays written by Aeschylus?

A. Antigone

B. Agamemnon

C. Persians

D. Prometheus Bound

5.Which of the following is NOT the plays written by Sophocles?

A. Electra

B. Antigone

C. Trojan Woman

D. Oedipus the King

6.Which of the following is the play written by Euripides?

A. Antigone

B. Persians

C. Electra

D. Medea

7.Which of the following is NOT the greatest tragic dramatist of

ancient Greece?

A. Aristophanes

B. Euripides

C. Sophocles

D. Aeschylus

8.Who ever said that ―You can not step twice into the same river.‖?

A. Pythagoras

B. Heracleitus

C. Aristotle

D. Plato

9.Who was the founder of scientific mathematics?

A. Heracleitus

B. Aristotle

C. Socrates

D. Pythagoras

10.Who is chiefly noted for his doctrine that ―man is the measure of

all things‖?

A. Protagoras

B. Pythagoras

C. Pyrrhon

D. Epicurus

Chapter Two Roman Culture

I. Fill in the blanks:

1.The burning of Corinth in 146 B. C. marked Roman conquest of

Greece, which was then reduced to a province of the Roman Empire.

2.The Roman writer Horace said: ―Captive Greece took her rude

conqueror captive‖.大意:征服者反被被征服者所征服。

3.In 27 B. C. Octavius(屋大维)took supreme power as emperor

with the title of Augustus(奥古斯都).

4.The Romans enjoyed a long period of peace lasting two hundred

years, a remarkable phenomenon in history known as the Pax Romana(罗马的和平).

5.In the 4th century, the emperor Constantine moved the capital

from Rome to Byzantium, renamed it Constantinople (modern Istanbul ).

6.In 476 the last emperor of the west was deposed by the Goths(哥

特人) and marked the end of the West Roman Empire.

7.The East Roman Empire collapsed when Constantinople fell to

the Turks in 1453.

8.Julius Caesar recorded what he did and saw in the various

military campaigns he took part in and these writings, collected in his Commentaries(《高卢战记》), are models of succinct Latin.

9.Virgil was the greatest of Latin poets and wrote the great epic,

the Aeneid.

10.The Pantheon is the greatest and the best preserved Roman

temple, which was built in 27 B. C. And reconstructed in the 2th century A. D..

11.She-wolf is the statue which illustrates the legend of creation of

Roman.

12.The dividing range in the Roman history refers to 27 B.C.

13.―I came, I saw, I conquered.‖ is said by Julius Caesar.

II. Choice:

1. Who wrote, ―I came, I saw, I conquered‖?

A. Horace

B. Julius Caesar

C. Virgil

D. Marcus Tullius Cicero

2. The author of the philosophical poem On the Nature of Things is ___ _.

A. Virgil

B. Julius Caesar

C. Horace

D. Lucretius

3. Which of the following is not Roman architecture?

A. The Colosseum

B. The Pantheon

C. The Parthenon

D. Pont du Gard

4. Who wr ote, ―Captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive.‖?

A. Sappho

B. Plato

C. Virgil

D. Horace

Chapter Three Christian Culture

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Among all the religions by which people seek to worship,

Christianity is by far the most influential in the West.

2. Both Judaism and Christianity originated in Palestine the hub of

migration and trade routes, which led to exchange of ideas over wide areas.

3. Some 3800 years ago the ancestors of the Jews – the Hebrews(希

伯来人)– wandered through the deserts of the Middle East.

(Hebrews:希伯来人,犹太人北方闪米特民族的一员或后裔,自称是亚伯拉罕、以撒克和雅各的后代;古以色列人;犹太人)

4. About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle in Palestine, known

as Canaan at that time, and formed small kingdoms.

Canaan:迦南(《圣经》故事中称其为上帝赐给以色列人祖先的―应许之地‖,是巴勒斯坦,叙利亚和黎巴嫩等地的古称) 5. The king of the Hebrews was handed down orally from one

generation to another in the form of folktales and stories, which were recorded later in the Old Testament.

6. The Bible is a collection of religious writings comprising two

parts: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

7. The old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most

important of which are first five books, called Pentateuch(摩西五书).

8. When the Hebrews left the desert and entered the mountainous

Sinai, Moses climbed to the top of the mountain to receive from God message, which came to be known as the Ten Commandments.

9. Chronologically Amos is the earliest prophet in the Old

Testament.

Amos:阿摩司(前八世纪的希伯来先知)

10. In Babylon in the 6th century B.C., the Hebrews, now known as

Jews, formed synagogues to practise their religion.

11. At the age of 30, Jesus received the baptism at the hands of John

Baptist.

12. Jesus spent most of his life in Galilee, where he apparently made

a sensation.

Galilee:加利利(巴勒斯坦北部一多山地区)

13. Jesus of Nazareth((巴勒斯坦地区北部古城)拿撒勒)lived in

Palestine during the reign of the first Roman Emperor Augustus.

14. Jesus went with his disciples to Jerusalem for the Passover, but

was betrayed by Judas.

15. In 313 the Edict of Milan(米兰敕令) was issued by Constantine

I and granted religious freedom to all and made Christianity

legal.

16. In 392 A.D, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religions of the empire and outlawed all other religions.

17. After Jesus died, St. Peter and St. Paul led the disciples of Jesus to spread gospel in the Mediterranean regions.

18. By 300 A.D. each local church was called a parish(教区)and had a full time leader known as priest.

19. Towards the end of the fourth century four accounts were accepted as part of the New Testament, which tells the beginning of Christianity.

20. When as Jesus’ mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, bef ore they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost 21. Jesus went with his disciples to Jerusalem for the Passover(逾越节), but was betrayed by Judas and caught at the Last Supper. 22. The Hebrews history was recorded in The Old Testament of the Bible.

23. The New Testament is about the doctrine of Jesus Christ.

24. The story about God’s flooding to the human being and only good-virtue being saved was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, the Bible, which was known as Noah’s Ark.

25. The Birth of Jesus was recorded in Matthew(马太福音).

26. The story about Jesus being pinned in the cross to death was known as The Last Supper.

27. The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers led by John Wycliff.

II. Choice:

1.Which of the following is by far the most influential in the West?

A.Buddism

B. Islamism

C. Christianity

D. Judaism

2.The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called __________.A. Exodus B. Commandments C. Amos D. Pentaeuch(摩西五书)

3. Which of the following is NOT the content of the Ten Commandments?

A. Honor your father and your mother.

B. Do not commit suicide.

C. Do not desire your neighbor’s wife.

D. Do not take the name of God in vain.

4. When in Babylon the Hebrews formed synagogues to practise their religion?

A. in 169

B.

C. B. in the 4th century

C. in 76 B.C.

D. in the 6th century

5. After the _______ century Nestorianism reached China.

A. sixth

B. fifth

C. second

D. third

(Nestorianism: 聂斯托里教;景教: 5世纪君士坦丁大主教Nestorius 创立的)

6. Which of the following emperors made Christianity the official religion of the empire and outlawed all other religions?

A. Theodosius

B. Augustus

C. Constantine I

D.

Nero Caesar

7. Which of the following emperors issued the Edict of Milan and made Christianity legal in 313?

A. Augustus

B. Thedosius

C. Nero

D.

Constantine I

8. At the age of 30, Jesus Christ received the baptism at the hands of _________.

A. St. Peter

B. St. Paul

C. John Baptist(施洗者约翰)

D. John Wycliff

9. By 1693, the whole of the Bible had been translated in _________languages.

A. 228

B. 974

C. 1202

D. 154

10. The oldest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as ________.

A. the Latin Vulgate

B. the Aristeas

C. the ―Authorized‖

D. the Septuagint(《旧约圣经》的希腊文译本)

11. When printing was invented in the 1500’s, the ___ Bible was the first complete work printed.

A. English

B. Latin

C. Aramaic

D. Hebrew

12. When did the standard American edition of the Revised Version appear?

《西方文化导论》练习题 (1)

D. 1979

1.In European history, the thousand year period following

the fall of the West Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.

2.Between the fifth and eleventh centuries, West Europe

was the scene of frequent wars and invasions.

3.The Middle Age is a period in which classical, Hebrew

and Gothic heritage merged.

4.Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land

holding –a system of holding land in exchange for military service.

5.In 732 Charles Martel, a Frankish ruler gave his soldiers

estates known as fiefs(封地, 采邑) as a reward for their service.

6.The center of medieval life under feudalism was the

manor.

7.By the 12th century manor houses came to be called

castle, which were made of stone and designed as fortress.

8.As a knight, he was pledged to protect the weak, to fight

for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

9.After 1054, the Church was divided into the Roman

Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

10.The most important of all the leaders of Christian

thought was Augustine of Hippo who lived in North Africa in the fifth century. (奥古斯丁:罗马帝国基督教思想家; 北非希波主教))

11.Under feudalism, people of western Europe were mainly

divided into three classes: clergy, lords and peasants.

12.The Pope not only ruled Roman and parts of Italy as a

king, he was also the head of all Christian churches in western Europe.

13.In the Medieval times the Church set up a church court –

the Inquisition(宗教审判所) to stamp out so-called heresy(异教).

14.One of the most important sacraments(圣礼)was Holy

Communion(圣餐礼), which was to remind people that Christ had died to redeem man.

15.To express their religious feelings, many people in the

Middle Ages went on journeys to sacred places where early Christian leaders had lived. The most important of all was Jerusalem(耶路撒冷:巴勒斯坦著名古城)).

16.With a return attack against the Moslems, the Western

Christians launched a series of holy wars called the Crusades.

17.Charlemagne, who temporarily restored order in western

and central Europe, was perhaps the most important figure of the medieval period.

18.Charlemagne was crowed ―Emperor of the Romans‖ by

the Pope in 800.

19.The Summa Theologica(《神学大全》)by St. Thomas

Aquinas (阿奎那:神学家和哲学家;经院哲学杰出代表)forms an enormous system and sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology.

20.Roger Bacon was one of the earliest advocates of

scientific research and called for careful observation and experimentation.

21.―National epic‖ refers to the epic written in

vernacular(本国的) languages – that is, the languages of various national states that came into being in the Middle Ages.

22.Beowulf is an Anglo-Sexon epic, in alliterative verse,

originating from the collective efforts of oral literature.

23.Dante Alighieri was the greatest poet of Italy, his

masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the landmarks of world literature.

24.Chaucer was a great English poet, The Canterbury Tales

were his most popular work for their power of observation, piercing irony, sense of humor and warm humanity.

25.The style of architecture under Romanesque art is

characterized by massiveness, solidity and monumentality with all overall blocky appearance.

26.The Gothic style started in France and quickly spread

through all parts of western Europe.

II .Choice:

1. In the later part of the 4th century, which of the following tribes swept into Europe from central Asia, robbing and killing a large numbers of the half civilized Germanic tribes?

A. the Mongolians

B. the Huns(匈奴人)

C. the Turkish

D. the Syrians

2. The Middle Ages is also called the _________.

A. ―Age of Christianity‖

B. ―Age of Literature‖

C. ―Age of Holy Spirit‖

D. ―Age of Faith‖According to

3. the code of chivalry, which of the following is not pledged to do for a knight?

A To be loyal to his lord BTo fight for the church

CTo obey without question the orders of the abbot(修道院)DTo respect women of noble birth

4. In 732, who gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs(封地, 采邑)as a reward for their service?

A. Charles Martel, a Frankish ruler

B. Charles I, a Turkish ruler

C. Constantine I, a Frankish ruler

D. St. Benedict, a Italian ruler

5. When was the Church divided into the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church?

A. after 1066

B. after 1296

C. after 1054

D. after 476

6. Which of the following about the knight or noble in the Middle Ages in Western Europe is NOT true?

A. Almost all nobles were knights in the Medieval days.

B. A noble began his education as a page at the age of seven.

C. As a knight, he was pledged to fight for the church.

D. At about fourteen, the page became a knight.

7. When was a noble crowned as a knight in the Middle Ages in Western Europe?

A. At the age of 14.

B. When he was taught to say his prayers, learned good manners and ran errands for the ladies.

C. At a special ceremony known as dubbing(骑士爵位的授与).

D. When he was pledged to fight for the church.

8. Which of the following is NOT true about what the monks must do before entering the monastery according to the Benedictine Rule?

A. They had to attend service 6 times during the day and once at midnight.

B. They could promise to give up all their possession before entering the monastery.

C.They were expected to work 5 hours a day in the fields surrounding the monastery.

D. They had to obey without question the orders of the abbot.

9. Under feudalism, what were the three classes of people of western Europe?

A. clergy, knights and serfs

B. Pope, bishop and peasants

C. clergy, lords and peasants

D. knights, nobles and serfs

10. By which year the Moslems had taken over the last Christian stronghold and won the crusades and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the crusaders had fought to control?

A. 1270

B. 1254

C. 1096

D. 1291

11. Which of the following was crowned ―Emperor of the Romans‖ by the Pope in 800?

A. St. Thomas Aquinas

B. Charlemagne

C. Constantine

D. King James

12. Who was the ruler of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex and contributed greatly to the medieval European culture?

A. Charles I

B. Constantine I

C. Alfred the Great

D. Charles the Great

13. Does Song of Roland belong to which country’s epic?

A. English

B. Germanic

C. Hebrew

D. French

14. Who is the author of the Opus Maius(《新工具论》)?

A. Roger Bacon

B. Dante Alighieri

C. Chaucer

D. St. Thomas Aquinas

Chapter Five Renaissance

I. Fill in the blanks:

1.Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid 17th century.

2.Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.

3.In essence, Renaissance was a historical period in which the European humanist thinkers and scholars made attempts to get rid of conservatism in feudalist Europe and introduce new ideas that expressed the interests of bourgeoisie(资产阶级), to lift the restrictions in all areas placed by the Roman Church authorities.

4.Renaissance started in Florence and Venice with the flowering of paintings, sculpture and architecture.

5.Beginning from the 11th century, cities began to rise in central and north Italy.

6.Decameron(《十日谈》) is a collection of 100 tales told by 7 young ladies and 3 younger gentlemen on their way to escape the Black Death of 1348.

7.Petrarch(彼特拉克) was best known for Canzoniers(诗集), a book of lyrical songs written in his Italian dialect.

8.The Renaissance artists introduced in their works scientific theories of anatomy(解剖学) and perspective(透视画法).

9.The four representative artists of High Renaissance in Italy are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael and Titian.

10.Loenardo da Vinci’s major works: Last Supper is the most famous of religious pictures; Mona Lisa probably is the world’s most famous portrait.

11.Michelangelo created a style of art in which he freed himself from the old tradition of decoration on the one hand and documentary realism on the other.

12.Titian’s painting is acknowledged to have established oil colour on canvas as the typical medium of the pictorial tradition in western art.

13.In world trade, Italy had lost its supremacy because of the discovery of America in 1492 and the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, the opening of an all-water route to India which provided a cheaper means of transport.

14.Petrarch is looked up as the father of modern poetry.

15.Italy is regarded as the birthplace of the Renaissance.

16.The Reformation led by Martin Luther which swept over the whole of Europe was aimed at opposing the absolute authority of the Roman Catholic Church and replacing it with the absolute authority of the Bible.

17.Martin Luther was the German leader of the Protestant Reformation. His doctrine marked the first break in the unity of the Catholic Church.

18.When the Pope refused to recognized Henry’s marriage with Anne Boleyn, British Parliament, in 1534, passed the Act of Supremacy(确立英皇权力高于教会的法令)which marked the formal break of the British with the Papal authorities.

19.Ignatius(圣伊纳哥安提拉城主教,以其所著的启示书出名。在罗马皇帝图拉真统治时期殉教。) and his followers called themselves the Jesuits(天主教耶稣会会士), members of the Society of Jesus(耶稣会).

20.John Calvin put his theological thoughts in his Institutes of the Christian Religion(《基督教原理》), which was considered one of the most influential theological works of all times.

21.The Protestant group in France was known as the Huguenots (法国胡格诺派教徒)whose rivalry with the Catholic Church led to the wars of religion from 1562 to 1598.

22.In 1492 the Moors(摩尔人)that had ruled Spain for four centuries were driven out from their last stronghold.

23.In 1492 Columbus discovered American and claimed America for Spain.

24.The author of Don Quixote(《堂吉诃德》)is Cervantes(塞万提斯).

25.Albrecht Dürer was the leader of the Renaissance in Germany. His engravings are unsurpassed and his paintings of animals and plants are exceedingly sensitive.

26.Under the reign of Elizabeth I, England began to embark on the road to colonization and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday of capitalist development.

27.Thomas More was a great humanist during the Renaissance. Among his writings the best known is Utopia.

28.Cervantes crowned literature of Spain and Shakespeare of England during the Renaissance.

29.The Renaissance was the golden age of geographical discoveries: by the year of 1600 the surface of the known earth was doubled.

30.Columbus was a Genoese-born navigator and discoverer of the New World.

31.Dias was a Portuguese navigator who discovered the Cape of Good Hope.

32.Vasco da Gama(达伽马)was a Portuguese navigator, who discovered the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope between the year of 1497 and 1498.

33.Amerigo Vespucci(韦斯普奇)was the Italian navigator in whose honor America was named

34.Amerigo Vespucci discovered and explored the mouth of the Amazon(亚马逊河)and accepted South America as a new continent.

35.Copernicus(哥白尼)came to be known as father of modern astronomy.

36.During his life time Leonardo da Vinci dissected more than thirty corpse and was a great anatomist in Italy.

37.Andreas Vesalius was the founder of modern medicine. Vesalius:维塞利亚斯(1514-1564)佛兰德斯解剖学家和外科大夫,是现代解剖学的奠基人,他的主要作品《人体结构》(Fabrica, 1543年)建立在对尸体进行细致的解剖基础上。38.Vesalius was a Flemish anatomist. His work Fabrica(《人体结构》)marked the beginning of a new era in the study of anatomy (解剖学).

39.Machiavelli(马基雅弗利)was called ―Father of political science‖ in the West.(政治学之父)

40.The Reformation shattered Medieval Church’s stifling(沉闷的;令人窒息的)control over man, thus paving the way for capitalism.

II. Choice:

1.Where did the Renaissance start with the flowering of paintings, sculpture and architecture?

A. in Greece and Rome

B. in Florence and Venice

C. in Milan and Florence

D. in Italy and Germany

2.When did the Renaissance reach its height with its center moving to Milan, then to Rome, and created High Renaissance?

A. in the 11th century

B. in the 15th century

C. in the 16th century

D. in the 17th century

3.Which of the following works is written by Boccaccio?

A. Decameron

B. Canzoniers

C. David

D. Moses

4.Who is the author of the painting, Kiss of Judas? (见下图)

A. Giotto(乔托:意大利画家、雕刻家、建筑师)

B. Brunelleschi

C. Donatello

D. Giorgione

5.Which of the following High Renaissance artists is the father of the modern mode of painting?

A. Raphael

B. Titian

C. da Vinci

D. Michelangelo

6.Which of the following High Renaissance artists was best known for his Madonna (Virgin Mary)?

A. Titian

B. da Vinci

C. Michelangelo

D. Raphael

7.Which of the following paintings was based on the story in the Bible with Maria riding on a donkey ready to face the hardship ahead?

A. Tempesta

B. Sacred and Profane Love

C. Flight into Egypt(见下图)

D. The Return of the Hunters

Kiss of Judas Flight into Egypt (逃往埃及)

8. Who took up the translation of the Bible into English for the first time?

A. Jan Hus

B. John Wyliff

C. Martin Luther

D. John Calvin

9. Who is the author Institutes of the Christian Religion?

A. John Wycliff

B. Jan Hus

C. John Calvin

D. Erasmus

10. In whose reign did the formal break of the British with the

papal(教皇制度的)authorities take place?

A. Elizabeth I

B. William I

C. Edward III

D. Henry VIII

11. After the formal break of the British with the papal authorities,

who was the head of the church?

A. King

B. Pope

C. Bishop

D. Queen

12. Which of the following works was written by Rabelais(拉拍雷), in which he praises the greatness of man, expresses his love of love and his reverence and sympathy for humanist learning?

A. Gargantua and Pantagruel

B. Don Quixote

C. The Praise of Folly

D. Utopia

13.Whose motto put down in his essays ―What do I Know?‖ is world famous?

A. Cervantes

B. Rabelais

C. Montaigne(蒙田:法国人文主义思想家)

D. Shakespeare

14.Which of the following works is worth reading for Montaigne’s humanist ideas and a style which is easy and familiar?

A. Sonnets

B. Decameron

C. Rabelais

D. Of Repentance

15.Which of the following is NOT French writer poet?

A. Cervantes

B. Pierre de Ronsard

C. Rabelais

D. Montaigne

16.In 1516 who published the first Greek edition of the New Testament?

A. Bruegel

B. Erasmus(伊拉兹马斯

C. El Greco

D. Rabelais

17.―To be, or not to be, -- that is the question. ‖is from whose works?

A. Chaucer

B. Dante

C. Roger Bacon

D. Shakespeare

Chapter Six Culture in the Enlightenment

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement originating in France, which attracted widespread support among the ruling and intellectual classes of Europe and North America in the second half of the 18th century.

2. The Enlightenment is sometimes called the Age of Reason because it characterizes the efforts by certain European writers to use critical reason to free minds from prejudice, unexamined authority and oppression by Church or State.

3.The most important forerunners of the Enlightenment were two 17th century Englishmen John Locke(洛克)and Isaac Newton.

4.The major force of the Enlightenment was the French philosophers. Among them were such well-known men of letters as Montesquieu(孟德斯鸠), V oltaire and Rousseau.

5.Diederot, who edited the famous encyclopedia, was also an important French Enlightenment figure.

6.In art and literature, what coincided with the Age of Reason was a period called neo-classicism.

7.In American, The American War of Independence of 1776 ended British colonial rule over that country.

8.The seizure of Bastille(攻占巴士底狱) marked the end of the French monarchy, and the First French Republic was born in 1792.

9.The Industrial Revolution (1760-1840), beginning with the invention of the steam engine, rapidly changed the face of the world, and ushered in a completely new age.

10.Montesquieu’s doctrines of the separation of powers became one of the most important principles of the U.S. constitution.

11.In The Origin of Human Inequality, Rousseau argues that the social order of civilized society introduce inequality and unhappiness. This social order rests upon private property.

12.Besides Hobbes and Locke, Rousseau is also famous for his theory of social contract.

13.In Elements of Physiology, Diderot developed his materialist philosophy and fore-shadowed the doctrine of evolutions as later proposed by Charles Darwin.

14.Montesquieu is the first of the great French men of letters associated with the Enlightenment.

15.Pope represented the rationalistic neoclassical tendency in literature and has often been called the spokesman in verse of the Age of Reason..

16.In A Modest Proposal, Swift bitterly criticizes the British Government by suggesting that the children be fatten and eaten. This essay has been regarded by many as the most savage single piece of ironical satire ever written.

17.Richardson, novelist, is often called the founder of the English

domestic novel. His type of novel is called the epistolary novel(书信体小说).

18.Fielding, novelist, dramatist and essayist, was called by Sir

Walter Scott the ―Father of the English novel‖.

19.Johnson was the editor of A Dictionary of the English

Language (1747-1755), the first great English dictionary.

20.In 18th-century England, two writers must be mentioned as far

as the periodical essay is concerned: Addison and Steele.

21.Both Addison and Steele contributed to The Tatler and The

Spectator, two series of periodical essays.

22.Gulliver’s Travels is Swift’s best work, a social and political

prose satire, in the form of a book of travels.

23.The author of The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of

Robinson Crusoe is Daniel Defoe, novelist and political journalist.

24.Lessing was the first German dramatist of lasting importance

and the most brilliant representative of the German Enlightenment.

25.Goethe was the greatest of all German poets and the

outstanding figure of world literature since the Renaissance.

26.In Faust, Goethe draws on an immense variety of cultural

materials. It is not only his own masterpiece but the greatest work of German literature.

27.Schiller was a founder of modern German literature. He and his

contemporary Goethe are the chief representatives of German classicism.

28.Kant was the key figure of the German classical philosophy

and called ―Waterhead of modern philosophy‖. He ex erted an immense influence on the intellectual movements of the 19th and 20th centuries.

29.During the reign of Luis XIV (1638—1715) and Louis XV

(1710—1714) in France, an artistic style became prevalent which was known as Rococo.

30.Watteau and Boucher were the representative French painters

of Rococo style.

31.The two major musicians of the Musical Enlightenment were

Bach and Handel.

32.The Baroque Period was followed by the Classical Period,

roughly between 1750 and 1820.

33.The two major musicians of the Classical Period were Haydn

and Mozart.

34.During the second half of the 18th century, instrumental music

was the primary mode of expression after centuries of subordination to vocal music.

35.Of the three great composer of the Viennese school, Beethoven

occupied a pivotal position, learning in much of his work towards the Romantic Movement in music.

36.The author of The Marriage of Figaro was Mozart who

produced a vast output almost in every form of composition.

37.The famous German composer, Schumann said: ―Music owes

as much to Bach as Christianity does to its Founder.‖.

38.Rococo style in art is usually associated with architecture and

interior decoration.

39.Kant’s three most important critiques are: Critique of Pure

Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of judgment.

40.The three best-known composers of the Viennese school are

Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.

II. Choice:

1. Whose doctrines of the separation of powers became one of

the most important principles of the U.S. constitution?

A. John Locke

B. Rousseau

C. Montesquieu

D. V oltaire

2. Which of the following works is the most famous of

V oltaire’s novels?

A. Candide

B. The New Heloise

C. Emile

D. Laocoon

3. Who ever said, ―Man is born free, and everywhere he is in

chains‖

A. Montesquieu

B. Rousseau

C. V oltaire

D.

Diderot

4. In which of Rousseau’s works, Rousseau argues that Man’s

greatest ill are not natural but made by man himself; the

remedy lies also within man’s power?

A. The Origin of Human Inequality

B. The

New Heloise C.Emile or On Education

D. The Social Contract

5. Who ever said that ―Nature made men happy and good, but

society makes him evil and miserable.‖?

A. Diderot

B. V oltaire

C. Montesquieu

D. Rousseau

6. In which of Diderot’s works, the author developed his

materialist philosophy and fore-shadowed the doctrine of evolutions as later proposed by Charles Darwin?

A. Rameau’s Nephew

B. Philosophical Thoughts

C. Encyclopedie

D. Elements of Physiology

7. Which of Lessing’s works was his most brilliant dramatic

work, a landmark in 18th-century German drama — its first successful comedy and its first truly national drama?

A. Nathan the Wise

B. Laocoon

C. Hamburgische

Dramaturgie D. Minna Von Barnhelm

(注:Minna Von Barnhelm:《明娜·冯·巴尔赫姆》或《军人之福》,1763年)

9. Which of the following works is a classic of modern

aesthetics (美学)?

A. Laocoon

B. Faust

C. The Robber

D. Wallenstien

10. Which of the following works represents Schiller’s most

powerful tragedy?

A. Wilhelm Tell

B. Wallenstein (《华伦斯坦》)

C. Cabal and Love

D. The Robber

11. Which of the following philosophers first proposed the

well-known ―nebular hypothesis‖?

A. Kant

B. Descartes

C. Locke

D. Hobbes

12. Which play by Schiller is widely known in China?

A. The Robber

B. Wallenstein

C. Wilhelm Tell

D. Cabal and Love 或者Love and Intrigue 《阴谋与爱情》