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65ERICWONG

Position Paper of the People's Republic of China At the 65th Session of the United Nations General Assembly

第65届联合国大会中国立场文件

一、联合国作用

当前,国际形势继续发生深刻、复杂的变化。世界多极化和经济全球化深入发展。和平、发展、合作的时代潮流更加强劲,世界各国谋和平、求发展、促合作的愿望愈发强烈。世界经济缓慢复苏,但基础尚不牢固,表现并不均衡;气候变化、能源安全、公共卫生等全球性问题依然突出,发展不平衡问题更加严峻;地区热点问题此起彼伏,局部动荡时有发生,安全形势更趋复杂多元。国际形势中存在诸多不稳定不确定因素,世界和平与发展仍面临一系列新困难、新挑战。I. The Role of the United Nations (UN)

The international situation continues to undergo profound and complex changes. Multi-polarity and economic globalization are deepening. Peace, development and cooperation represent both the more powerful trend of the times and the stronger aspiration of the countries of the world. World economy witnesses a slow, unbalanced and multi-speed recovery. Global issues such as climate change, energy security and public health are still prominent with imbalances in development becoming even worse.

Regional hotspot issues keep emerging and local disturbances crop up from time to time, making the security situation more complex and diverse. There are multiple destabilizing factors and uncertainties in the world, posing a host of new difficulties and challenges to world peace and development.

联合国作为最具普遍性、代表性和权威性的政府间国际组织,是实践多边主义最重要的舞台,自成立以来,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展、推动国际合作发挥了不可替代的重要作用。中国一贯重视联合国地位和作用,维护《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则。中国支持联合国在当前形势下进一步发挥自身优势,在协调国际努力,妥善应对全球性威胁与挑战方面采取有效行动,继续在国际事务中发挥核心作用。The UN, as the most universal, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization, is the most important platform to practice multilateralism. Since its founding, the UN has played a significant and irreplaceable role in upholding world peace, promoting common development and facilitating international cooperation. China always values the status and role of the UN and upholds the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. China supports the UN, under the current circumstances, in further harnessing its advantages and taking effective actions to coordinate international efforts in response to global threats and

challenges and continuing to play a central role in international affairs.

二、联合国改革II. UN Reforms

中国支持联合国根据国际形势的发展,进行必要、合理的改革,提高联合国权威和效率,增强其应对新威胁、新挑战的能力。改革应提高发展中国家在联合国事务中的发言权,使之能发挥更大的作用。2005年以来,联合国采取了一系列改革措施,并取得重要成果,但同会员国期望相比仍有差距。联合国改革应是全方位、多领域的,在安全、发展、人权三大领域均有所建树。下阶段,国际社会应该在已有成果基础上,坚持通过民主、充分协商,全面推进各领域改革,特别是加大对发展领域的投入,推进如期实现千年发展目标,让广大发展中国家从中受益。

China supports necessary and reasonable reforms by the UN in the light of the developments in the international situation to enhance its authority and efficiency and strengthen its capacity to cope with new threats and challenges. The reforms should lead to increased voice and greater role of developing countries in the UN affairs. Since 2005, the UN has taken a series of reform measures and achieved important outcomes. But progress thus far still falls short of the expectations of Member States. The UN reforms should be comprehensive and wide-ranging and deliver tangible results in the

three major fields of security, development and human rights. Going forward, the international community should build on the existing achievements and adhere to extensive and democratic consultation as a means to push for comprehensive reform across the fields, with special attention to increasing development input so as to achieve the Millennium Development Goals on schedule for the benefit of developing countries.

安理会改革是联合国改革的重要组成部分。中方支持通过改革增强安理会的权威和效率,更好地履行《联合国宪章》赋予的维护国际和平与安全的职责。改革应优先增加发展中国家、特别是非洲国家的代表性。应继续通过广泛、民主协商,兼顾各方利益和关切,寻求―一揽子‖改革方案,并达成最广泛一致。中国愿同各国共同努力,推动安理会改革朝有利于联合国整体利益和会员国团结的方向发展。

Reform of the Security Council is part and parcel of the UN reforms. China supports the Security Council in enhancing its authority and efficiency and better fulfilling its responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security bestowed on it by the Charter of the United Nations through reform. The priority of the reform should be increasing the representation of developing countries, African countries in particular. It is important to continue the extensive and

democratic consultation to accommodate the interests and concerns of all parties, seek a package solution and reach the broadest possible consensus. China is ready to work with all countries to ensure that the reform of the Security Council will be carried out in a way that serves the overall interests of the UN and the solidarity of its Member States.

三、安全领域III. Security Sector

(一)联合国维和行动1. UN Peacekeeping Operations 联合国维和行动是联合国维护国际和平与安全的重要、有效手段。当前,联合国维和行动规模不断扩大,授权日趋广泛,面临挑战也在增多。中国坚定支持并积极参与联合国维和行动,支持联合国维和行动在坚持―哈马舍尔德‖维和三原则基础上,进行合理改革与创新,突出战略设计,加强与当事国沟通和协调,改进后勤工作机制,优化资源配置,提高维和行动的效率和效力及其部署、规划和管理的水平。各方也应更加重视维和行动与缔造和平、建设和平的衔接及统筹。中国呼吁联合国继续重视加强与区域组织在维和领域的合作,尤其要关注非洲国家的需求。

UN peacekeeping operations are an important and effective means in maintaining international peace and security. The peacekeeping operations, with an ever expanding scale and broader mandate, are facing more and more challenges. China is a strong supporter of and active participant in the UN peacekeeping operations. China supports reasonable and innovative reform of peacekeeping operations on the basis of the three principles put forward by the former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold. Such reform should prioritize strategic designing, enhance communication and coordination with the host countries, improve logistics mechanisms, optimize resource allocation and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of peacekeeping operations and the level of their deployment, planning and management. At the same time, the parties concerned should place greater emphasis on better coordination between peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding. China calls upon the UN to continue to enhance, as a priority, cooperation with regional organizations in peacekeeping, focusing on, in particular, the needs of African countries.

二)建设和平2. Peacebuilding

建设和平是涉及联合国全系统的任务。建设和平委员会(PBC)是联合国改革的重要成果,是联合国系统内首个协调冲突后重建的机构,地位独特,作用突出。中方一贯支持联合国在冲突后重建工作中发挥领导作用,支持PBC及建设和平基金(PBF)工作。下阶段,PBC应进一步完善内部机制建设,加强与联合国其他机构协调,强化与当事国的伙伴关系,并更好地发挥PBF的作用。联大、安理会、经社会等相关机构均应结合各自特点发挥优势,为PBC工作提供支持。

Peacebuilding involves the entire UN system. The Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), an important outcome of the UN reforms, is the first agency within the UN system entrusted with coordinating

post-conflict rebuilding and has a unique status and an important role to play. China supports as always UN's leading role in

post-conflict rebuilding and the efforts of the PBC and the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF). Going forward, the PBC should further improve its institution-building, strengthen coordination with other UN agencies, enhance partnership with the countries involved and make better use of the PBF. The General Assembly, Security Council and ECOSOC should all make good use of their respective advantages to support the work of PBC.

(三)武装冲突中保护平民3. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict

中国对平民生命、财产安全在武装冲突中受影响和威胁深表关切,敦促各方认真遵守国际人道法和安理会有关决议,在武装冲突中充分保护平民。China is deeply concerned about the life and property of civilians affected and threatened by armed conflicts and urges the parties concerned to abide by the international humanitarian law and the relevant Security Council resolutions in good faith and give full protection to civilians caught up in armed conflicts.

根据《联合国宪章》和国际人道法,保护平民的责任首先在于当事国政府。国际社会和外部组织的帮助应坚持公正、中立和客观原则,获得当事国同意,并充分尊重当事国主权与领土完整,避免介入当地政治纷争或影响和平进程。The responsibility to protect civilians rests first with the government of the country involved under the Charter of the United Nations and the international humanitarian law. When providing assistance, the international community and external organizations should adhere to the principles of impartiality, neutrality and objectiveness, seek the consent of the recipient countries, fully respect their sovereignty and territorial integrity and

refrain from interfering in local political disputes or impeding the peace process

要把保护平民问题放在和平解决冲突的政治进程中加以处理。在冲突后和平重建中也应重视保护平民。联合国各有关机构应加强协调,形成合力。

The protection of civilians should be incorporated into the political process aimed at peaceful solution to conflict. It should also be given priority in post-conflict peace-rebuilding. Relevant UN agencies should strengthen coordination and forge synergy for this purpose.

(四)反对恐怖主义4. Counter-Terrorism

中国支持打击一切形式的恐怖主义。国际社会的反恐努力应以《联合国宪章》、国际法和其他公认的国际关系准则为基础,充分发挥联合国及其安理会的领导与协调作用。China supports combating terrorism in all its manifestations. The international community should, when fighting against terrorism, act on the Charter of the United Nations, the international law and other universally recognized norms governing international relations and give full play to the leading and coordinating role of the UN and its Security Council.

中国支持安理会反恐委员会及联大反恐执行工作组发挥积极作用,协调各国打击恐怖主义的努力。中国支持并积极参与制定《关于国际恐怖主义的全面公约》,希望各方本着建设性的合作态度继续进行协商,尽早达成一致。China supports the active role of the Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee and the General Assembly Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force in coordinating counter-terrorism efforts among countries. China endorses and takes an active part in the drafting of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, and hopes all parties will continue consultation in a constructive and cooperative spirit and reach consensus at an early date.

中国主张反恐采取综合办法,标本兼治。联合国应发挥自身优势,在消除贫困等滋生恐怖主义的根源问题上发挥积极作用,促进不同文明之间对话,帮助发展中国家加强反恐能力建设。反对将恐怖主义与特定的国家、民族、宗教或文明挂钩,或采取双重标准。China stands for a holistic approach which addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism. By making full use of its advantages, the UN can play an active role in eliminating poverty and other root causes of terrorism, promote dialogues between civilizations and assist developing countries in counter-terrorism capacity building. China

opposes the linkage of terrorism to certain countries, ethnic groups, religions or civilizations and is against double standards.

中国一贯积极参与国际反恐合作进程,愿继续加强与各方的反恐交流合作,推动国际反恐合作不断取得新进展,维护地区和世界和平稳定。

China, as a long-time, active participant in international cooperation against terrorism, stands ready to enhance exchanges and cooperation with various parties and work for new progress in international counter-terrorism cooperation with a view to maintaining regional and international peace and stability.

(五)朝鲜半岛局势问题5. Situation on the Korean Peninsula 当前朝鲜半岛局势仍然复杂敏感。和平、稳定、发展、繁荣的朝鲜半岛符合包括中国在内等地区国家及国际社会的共同利益。中国希望有关各方着眼长远,通过对话协商解决有关问题,继续推动六方会谈进程,共同致力于维护朝鲜半岛和平稳定,实现本地区的长治久安。The current situation on the Korean Peninsula remains complex and sensitive. A Korean Peninsula that enjoys peace, stability, progress and prosperity serves the common interests of countries in the region, China included, and the rest of the international community. China hopes that the parties concerned will adopt a

long-term perspective, solve relevant issues through dialogue and consultation, continue to push forward the Six-Party Talks, and work together for peace and stability on the Peninsula and lasting peace and tranquility in the region.

(六)缅甸问题 6. The Myanmar Issue

中国希望缅甸保持稳定,国内有关各方通过协商达成民族和解,顺利举行大选,实现民主与发展。缅甸问题本质上属于一国内部事务,国际社会应向缅甸提供建设性帮助,为缅全国大选的顺利举行和推进缅甸国内政治和解、逐步实现民主与发展创造宽松环境。制裁和施压无助于问题的解决。中国支持联合国秘书长及其特别顾问的斡旋努力。

China hopes to see stability in Myanmar and national reconciliation through consultation between the parties in the country and a successful general election for realization of democracy and development. The Myanmar issue is, in essence, a country's internal affair. The international community should provide constructive assistance to Myanmar to create an enabling environment for a successful nationwide general election as well as gradual progress in political reconciliation, democracy and development. Imposing sanctions and exerting pressure will not

help solve the issue. China supports the efforts of the good offices of the UN Secretary-General and his Special Adviser.

(七)阿富汗问题7. The Afghan Issue

阿富汗局势事关国际和地区的和平与稳定,也事关国际反恐斗争的顺利进行。阿富汗重建进程已取得积极进展,但仍面临诸多挑战。阿重建首先需要阿政府的坚定努力,也需要国际社会的有力支持。The situation in Afghanistan concerns peace and stability in the region and beyond as well as the smooth progress of the international counter-terrorism efforts. Despite positive progress, the reconstruction process in Afghanistan still faces numerous challenges. To succeed, it requires, first and foremost, the determined efforts of the Afghan government. It also calls for strong support from the international community.

中国一贯支持并积极参与阿富汗和平重建,赞赏阿富汗政府制订《国家发展战略》,支持其确定的优先发展项目,支持继续推进落实《阿富汗契约》和“喀布尔进程”,尊重阿富汗政府和人民在该进程中的主导权。我们呼吁国际社会给予阿持续关注和投入,并加强彼此间的协调与配合。中国支持联合国继续在解决阿富汗问题方面发挥主导作用。China has consistently supported and actively participated in Afghanistan's peaceful reconstruction. China applauds the formulation of the Afghanistan National

Development Strategy, supports the priority programs it has identified, supports further implementation of the Afghanistan Compact and the Kabul Process, and respects the leading role of the Afghan government and people in advancing this process. We call on the international community to continue to devote attention to and make inputs in Afghanistan and intensify coordination and cooperation. China supports the UN in continuing to play a leading role in resolving the Afghan issue.

(八)伊朗核问题8. The Iranian Nuclear Issue

中国支持维护国际核不扩散体系,维护中东地区的和平与稳定。中方认为,伊朗作为《不扩散核武器条约》的缔约国,享有和平利用核能的权利,同时也应履行相应的国际义务。China supports upholding the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East. China is of the view that Iran, as a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), is entitled to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and at the same time obliged to fulfill relevant international obligations.

中方主张通过对话谈判解决伊朗核问题。有关各方应加大外交努力,尽快恢复有关对话,并采取灵活、务实的态度,共同推动对话取得积极进展China stands for negotiated settlement of the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue. The parties concerned should step

up diplomatic efforts to facilitate an early resumption of talks and work together to push for positive progress in the talks with a flexible and pragmatic attitude.

中方一直致力于劝和促谈,愿继续为和平解决伊朗核问题发挥建设性作用。

China has long been committed to encouraging dialogue for peace and will continue to play a constructive role in pushing for the peaceful settlement of the Iranian nuclear issue.

(九)中东问题9. The Middle East Issue

中国一贯支持中东和平进程,主张中东问题有关各方在联合国有关决议、―土地换和平‖原则、―阿拉伯和平倡议‖和中东和平―路线图‖计划等基础上,通过谈判妥善解决彼此争端,最终实现巴勒斯坦独立建国,以色列同所有阿拉伯国家关系正常化。China has always supported the Middle East peace process. It is China's long-held position that the parties concerned in the Middle East issue properly solve their disputes through negotiation on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of "land for peace", the Arab Peace Initiative and the Middle East Roadmap for Peace with the ultimate goal of establishing an independent Palestinian state and

achieving normalization of relations between Israel and all Arab countries.

和平谈判是解决中东问题的唯一正确途径。希望巴以双方坚持谈判道路,以严肃认真和负责任的态度推动和谈不断向前发展。叙以、黎以两线是中东和平进程的重要组成部分,同样应予重视和推进。中国愿与国际社会一道,推动中东问题早日得到公正、全面、持久的解决。

Peaceful negotiation is the only right way leading to a solution to the Middle East issue. We hope Palestine and Israel will remain committed to negotiation and advance the peace talks in an earnest and responsible manner. The processes between Syria and Israel and between Lebanon and Israel are important components of the Middle East peace process and deserve equal attention and commitment. China will work together with the international community for a just, comprehensive and enduring settlement of the Middle East issue.

(十)苏丹问题10. The Issue of Sudan

中方支持苏丹北南和平进程,主张北南双方本着互谅互让的精神,通过对话和协商妥善解决有关分歧,全面落实北南《全面和平协议》(CPA)。中方注意到CPA强调应使统一具有吸引力,有关方面不应

预设南方公投结果。国际社会应充分尊重苏丹的主权,尊重苏丹人民的意愿和选择,确保苏丹及地区的和平稳定大局。China supports the North-South peace process in Sudan and stands for proper settlement of disputes through dialogue and consultation on the basis of mutual understanding and accommodation and comprehensive implementation of the North-South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). China notes that CPA stresses the importance of making unification attractive and no prejudging of Southern Sudan referendum results by any party. The international community should fully respect Sudan's sovereignty as well as the will and choice of the Sudanese people and ensure overall peace and stability in Sudan and the region as a whole.

中方支持达尔富尔问题的政治解决,主张应充分发挥联合国、非盟、苏丹政府―三方机制‖的主渠道作用,平衡推进维和部署和政治谈判的―双轨‖战略,特别是推动达尔富尔地区主要派别尽快加入政治谈判进程。同时,应帮助苏丹改善达尔富尔人道和安全局势,早日实现该地区的和平、稳定与发展。China supports the political settlement of the Darfur issue and maintains that the role of the UN-AU-Sudan tripartite mechanism should be brought into full play as the main channel and the "double-track" strategy should be advanced to

promote balanced progress in peacekeeping deployment and political negotiation. What is particularly important is to encourage major factions in Darfur to join the political negotiation process at an early date. At the same time, it is imperative to help Sudan improve the humanitarian and security situation and realize peace, stability and development in Darfur as soon as possible.

中国重视―有罪不罚‖问题。我们对国际刑事法院对苏丹总统巴希尔采取的行动表示严重关切,呼吁国际社会重视并尊重今年7月召开的非盟首脑会再次就此表明的立场,认为针对苏丹问题的举措应当有助于维护苏丹局势的稳定和促进苏丹问题的解决China takes the issue of "impunity" seriously. However,we are gravely concerned about the move by the International Criminal Court against Sudanese President Bashir. We call on the international community to value and respect the position reiterated by the African Union Summit in July 2010. We believe the measures taken on the Darfur issue should facilitate stability in Sudan and proper settlement of the Darfur issue.

中方为推动苏丹问题的解决做出了自己的努力。中方向苏丹南方提供了6600万元人民币的无偿援助,并为南方培训人才,参与南方建设。中方向达尔富尔地区提供了1.8亿元人民币人道和发展援助,向非盟和联合国信托基金分别提供了230万美元和100万美元捐款。中方还积极参与联合国苏丹特派团和联合国/非盟达尔富尔特派团的维和行动。中方将继续为推动苏丹问题的妥善解决做出自己的努力。China has made efforts to facilitate the settlement of the issue of Sudan. In Southern Sudan, China has provided 66 million RMB yuan in gratis assistance, helped with human resources training and contributed to local development. China has provided Darfur with 180 million RMB yuan worth of humanitarian and development assistance and contributed US$2.3 million and US$1 million to the AU and UN trust funds respectively. China has also actively participated in the UN Mission in the Sudan and the AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur. China will continue to work for the proper settlement of the issue of Sudan.

(十一)索马里问题11. The Issue of Somalia

中国对索马里局势表示关注,希望索有关各方以国家和人民的利益为重,通过对话和协商解决分歧,早日实现和平与稳定。中国支持索过渡联邦政府寻求民族和解以及非盟和有关地区组织为推动索和

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