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英语语言学概论一

《英语语言学概论》一

I. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word beginning with the letter given:

1. Modern linguistics is descriptive___ rather than prescriptive.

2. Consonants can be described in terms of places__ of articulation, manners of articul ation, and voicing___.

3. Allophones___ are variants of the same phoneme in different phonetic contexts.

4. The smallest meaningful unit of language is called morpheme___.

5. According to Saussure, a linguistic sign is composed of signifier_ and signified__.

6. General linguistics is based on the view that language as a system composed of thre

e aspects: sound, structure_ and meaning.

7. Monophthongs and diphthongs__ are two major types of vowels.

8. Sequences that are possible but do not occur yet are called accidental__ gap, e.g. /bl ik/, /bilk/, /klib/, and /kilb/.

9. Meanings_ and sounds _ make up two subsystems of language.

10. The language used to talk about language is called metalanguage__.

11. According to M.A.K. Halliday, language plays three metafunctions simultaneously : the ideational function, the interpersonal__ function and the textual___ function. 12. Chinese is a typical tone___ language. M (mother), m (hemp) m (horse) m (scold), for example, are four distinguished words.

13. The total number of words stored in the brain is called lexicon__, which can be un derstood as a mental dictionary.

14. Words like went, which is not related in form to indicate grammatical contrast wit

h the root, are called suppletives_____.

15. Semantics__ is defined as the study of meaning.

16. Synonym__ are words which have different forms but similar meanings.

II. Indicate the following statements true or false. Put T for true and F for false in the brackets:

(T ) 1. The Swiss linguist de Saussure regarded the linguistic sign as composed of sound image and referent.

(F) 2. Chinese is an agglutinating language.

(F) 3. Not all vowels are voiced.

(F ) 4. If segments appear in the same position but the mutual substitution does not

result in change of meaning, they are said to be in free variation.

( F) 5. A greenbottle is a type of bottle.

( T) 6. Productivity is the first and foremost striking feature of human language.

(F) 7. Language contains two subsystems, one of speaking and the other of writing. (T) 8. Language can be used to refer to things real or imagined, past, present or future. ( T) 9. Modern linguistics is prescriptive rather than descriptive.

( F) 10. The study of speech sounds is called Phonology.

( F ) 11. The voiceless bilabial stop in pin and the one in spin are in complementary distribution.

( F) 12. Tone is the variation of pitch to distinguish utterance meaning.

(T) 13. Compounding, the combination of free morphemes, is a common way to form words.

(F) 14. In the phrases a herd of cattle, a flock of sheep, both cattle and sheep

contain only one morpheme.

(F) 15. The meaning of compounds is always the sum of meaning of the

compounds.

III. Multiple Choice

1._ __ is the first and foremost striking feature of human language.(C )

A. Duality

B. Arbitrariness

C. Creativity

D. Displacement

2.Which of the following does not belong to the language metafunctions

illustrated by M.A.K. Halliday? .(D )

A.Ideational function

B. Interpersonal function

C.Textual function.

D. Logical function

3.The study of speech sounds is called ________..(A)

A. Phonetics

B. Articulatory phonetics

C. Phonology

D. Acoustic Phonetics

4.Every syllable has a(n) _______, which is usually a vowel. .(B )

A. onset

B. nucleus

C. coda

D. rhyme

5.Which of the following does not belong to suprasegmental features? .(D )

A.Stress

B. Intonation

C. Tone

D. Syllable

6.________ is defined as the study of the internal structure and the formation of

words. .(A )

A. Morphology

B. Syntax

C. Lexicon

D. Morpheme

7._____ is a process that puts an existing word of one class into another

class. .(D )

A. Clipping

B. Blending

C. Eponym

D. Conversion

8.In the phrases a herd of cattle, a flock of sheep, both cattle and sheep contain

_____ morphemes. .(B )

A. one

B. two

C. three

D. four

9. Sip and zip, tip and dip, map and nap, etc, are all ______..(B )

A. minimal pairs

B. minimal sets

C. allophones

D. phones

IV. For each group of sounds listed below, state the phonetic feature(s) then share: Example: [s] [f] [p] [h] voiceless

1)[g] [z] [d]voiced

2)[v] [h] [s] fricative

3)[m] [p] [b] [f] [v] labial

4)[t] [d] [n] [l] [s] [z] alveolar

5)[i:] [i] [u] [u:] high

V. Transcribe the sound represented by the underlined letter(s) in the words and then describe it.

Example: heat [i:] vowel front high

a)photo /f/coiceless labiodental fricative

b)write /r/alveolar retroflex liquid

c)car /a:/low back vowel

d)actor /k/voicelsss velar stop

e)city /i/lax high front vowel

f)city /s/voiceless alveolar frocative

g)worry /w/labiovelar glide

h)yes /j/palatal glide

VI. Write the phonetic symbol that corresponds to the articulatory description.

Example: vowel front high [i:]

1bilabial nasal

2voiced labiovelar glide

3literal liquid

4voiced bilabial stop

5front high lax

VII. Pronounce the words key and core, ski and score, paying attention to the phoneme /k/. What difference do you notice between the first pair and the second pair in terms of the phonetic features of the voiceless velar stop?

In pronouncing key,the voiceless valar stop is palatalized.In key and core t he stop is aspirated. In ski,the stop is also palatalized. In ski and score, the stop is

unaspirated.

VIII. Consider the following words and answer the questions below:

a)finger1

b)disgraceful 3

c)stepsister 2 underline sister

d)psycholinguistics 4 underline linguistics

e)antidisestablishmentarianism7 underline establish

i.Tell the number of morphemes in each word.

ii.Underline the free morphemes in each word where possible to do so.

IX. Identify the difference between a greenhouse and a green house, and the difference between a sleeping car and a sleeping baby.

A greenhouse, the stree is on green, a green house ,the stress is on house.

X. Define the following term, giving examples for illustration:

Allophone

Greenhouse is a compound word;green house is a noun phrase. A greenhouse refers to a building with sides and roof of glass, used for growing plants that

need protection from the weather,while a green house refers to a house whose colour is green.

XI. Draw tree diagrams for the following two sentences:

1. A clever magician fooled the audience. A sleeping car

2.The tower on the hill collapsed in the wind. the stress is on sleeping

3.They can fish. a sleeping baby, the stress is on baby

4.Pat found a book on Wall Street. A sleeping car means a car in which one can sleep

5.I saw the man with a telescope. A sleeping baby means a baby who is sleeping.

XII. Explain the ambiguity of the following sentences.

a.This is a beautiful girl’s dress.

This is a dress for beautiful girls. This is a beautiful dress for girls.

b.Those who went there quickly made a fortune.

Those who quickly went there made a fortune.

Those who went there made a fortune quickly.

c. A woman murderer

A murderer who is a woman. A murderer who has killed a woman.

XIII. Tell the process of word formation illustrated by the example and find as many words as you can that are formed in the same way.

(1)flu clipping

(2)OPEC acronyming

(3)Nobel eponyming

(4)televise back formation

(5)better (v.) conversion

XIV. How would you read the phrases in the two columns? What does each of them mean?

Column I Column II

a. The White House a white house

b. a redcoat a red coat

a. a bluebird a blue bird

b. a lighthouse keeper a light housekeeper

XV. Explain the relation between bank1 (the side of a river) and bank2 (the financial institute).

XVI. Identify the type of transitivity process in each of the following sentences.

(1)John washed the car.

(2)John likes the car.

XVII. Answer the following question:

What are the three metafunctions according to Halliday?

《英语语言学概论》二

I.Indicate the following statements true or false. Put T for true and F for false in the brackets:

( False ) 1. Pragmatics is concerned with speaker meaning.

(True ) 2. The reference of a deixis to a preceding expression is technically termed cataphoric reference.

II. Multiple Choice

1.Both pretty and handsome mean good-looking but they differ in _ABD_______

meaning.

A. collocative

B. social

C. affective

D. reflected

2.__B____ refers to having the right to speak by turns.

A.Adjacency pairs

B. Turn-talking

C. Preferred second parts

D. Insertion sequences

3. British English and American English are ___C___ varieties of the English

language.

A. functional

B. social

C. regional

D. standard

4. ___B___ is the approximate language system that the learner constructs for use in

communication through the target language.

A. Metalanguage

B. Interlanguage

C. Sign

D. Esperanto

5.In __C___ stage, children use single words to represent various meanings.

A. telegraphic

B. two-word

C. holophrastic

D. babbling

6.___A___ is a term widely used in sociolinguistics to refer to “varieties according

to use.”

A. Register

B. Field

C. Mode

D. Tenor

III. Tell the semantic relation within the given sentence and that between the two sentences.

1.My uncle is male. tautology

2.The spinster is married. contradiction

3.Jim is an orphan. Jim lives with his parents. inconsistency

4.Sam is the husband of Sally. Sally is the wife of Sam. synonymy

5.He has gone to London. He has gone to England. entailment

IV. Data Analysis:

1.What is the illocution of A’s utterance in the following brief

encounter?

A: You are in a non-smoking zone, sir.

B: Thanks (extinguishing the cigarette).

A wants to stop

B from smoking there

2.What kind of pre-sequence is A’s first utterance? (Hint: A and B

are two secretaries working in the same office.)

A: Are you going to be here long?

B: You can go if you like.

A: I’ll just be outside. Call me if you need me.

B: OK.

Pre-request.

V. Try to think of contexts in which the following sentences can be used for other purposes than just stating facts:

1. The room is messy. It's time to clean it up

2. It would be good if she had a green skirt on. I wish she had a good time.

VI. Define the following term, giving examples for illustration:

Variety The term variety is the label given to the form of a language used by any group of speakers or used in a particular field. A variety is characterized by the basic lexicon, phonology, syntax shared by members of the group. Varieties of a language are of four types: the standard variety, regional (geographical) dialects, sociolects (social dialects) and registers (functional varieties).

VII. Give examples to illustrate gradable antonyms, complementary antonyms, and reversal antonyms.

Gradable antonyms are pairs of words opposite to each other, but the positive of one word does not necessarily imply the negative of the other, or vice versa. A person who is not rich is not necessarily poor. The two words represent two polarities between which there is continuum. This relation is found between many adjective and adverb pairs. They have three characteristics. Firstly, they can be used in comparative or superlative degrees (faster, fastest; slower, slowest). Secondly, they can be modified by adverbs of degree, very, fairly, quite, rather, etc. Thirdly, they can follow how in questions (How large is the room? How long is the river?). In raising such questions the basic one of the two is preferred. Otherwise, there is presupposition in the question. For instance, “How short is the man?” presupposes the man is below the average in height.

Complementary antonyms are words opposite to each other and the positive of one implies the negative of the other. Dead/alive, male/female, pass/fail, etc. are complementary antonyms. An animal may be neither big nor small, but it cannot be neither dead nor alive. Adjectives and adverbs which are complementarily opposite to each other cannot be used in comparative or superlative degrees, nor modified by adverbs of degree. In addition, they cannot appear in questions beginning with how.

Reversal antonyms are words that denote the same relation or process from one or the other direction. Push/pull, come/go, ascend/descend, buy/sell, up/down in/out, employer/employee, husband/wife, are all reversal antonyms. If you see push on the door when you enter a room, then you will expect to see pull, going out of the room through the same door. If John is on the right of Jane, Jane must be on the left of John. These examples show that reversal antonyms describe a relation between two entities from alternate directions or view points.

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1.What are the features of metaphors?

Metaphors are systematic precisely because they are conceptual in nature. For example, there are many metaphors which reflect our conceptions of time. Among them, TIME IS MONEY, TIME IS A LIMITED RESOURCE and TIME IS A VALUEABLE COMMODITY are three concepts which are systematically related. These concepts are shown by many English metaphors as listed by Lakoff & Johnson

Of these metaphors, some refer specifically to money (spent, invested, budget, profitably, cost), others to limited resources (use, use up, have enough of, run out of), and still others to valuable commodities (have, give, lose, thank you for). The three

metaphorical concepts form a conceptual system based on subcategorization and entailment. In modern industrialized societies, time is conceptualized as a valuable commodity, limited resource, and even money, because work and pay are quantified in terms of hours, weeks, and years. TIME IS MONEY entails TIME IS A LIMITED RESOURCE, which entails TIME IS A VALUABLE COMMODITY. The most specific concept TIME IS MONEY is often used to characterize coherently and systematically all those concepts expressed by the metaphors listed.

Metaphor can create similarities between the two domains involved. This runs counter to the traditional view which holds that similarities are inherent in the entities themselves. But cognitive linguists hold that the similarities relevant to metaphors are experiential rather than objective. The metaphorical concepts TIME IS MONEY, for example, is not found in all cultures, nor in all historical periods of a particular culture. The correlation between the two semantic categories is established in the process of conceptualization. Out of human experience, the concept of verticality has no relation to health, consciousness, emotion, quality, and virtue. The UP-DOWN orientation is, however, found in many metaphors in which correlations are created. We select a few orientational metaphors below (Lakoff and Johnson 1980: 15-17):

2.How do you distinguish homonymy from polysemy?

Homonyms are listed as separate entries in a dictionary, because lexicographers see them as unrelated in sense. A polyseme is a word which has several related senses. In many dictionaries you can find bank(1) and bank(2) as separate entries. The relation between the two is homonymy. Both of them are polysemes, because each of them has several definitions. Lexicographers make the distinction between homonyms and polysemes based on the intuition of native speakers as well as the

etymology or history of words.

3.What is reference and what is sense? How are they related?

Linguistic expressions stand in a relation to the world. One aspect of meaning is reference, the relation by which a word picks out or identifies an entity in the world. London refers to or denotes the capital of Great Britain. The word dog denotes a kind of domestic animal. The referential theory, the simplest theory of meaning, claims that meaning is reference. As described by Kempson (1977: 13), the referential approach makes these generalizations: Proper nouns denote individuals; common nouns denote sets of individuals; verbs denote actions; adjectives denote properties of individuals; adverbs denote properties of actions.

Words stand not only in relation to the world but also to human mind. So in addition to reference, there is another dimension of word meaning called sense. For example, when you hear the expression dog, you will naturally reflect on its features in addition to the kind of animal as the referent of the expression. Sense is mental representation, the association with something in the speaker/hearer's mind. Words like dragon, but, of and phrases like a round triangle have sense, but no referent. Words like dog, horse, car and gun have both referent and sense. The study of meaning from the perspective of sense is called the representational approach. The following sections will explore how to analyze meaning along this line. 4.What are the components of metaphor?

How do metaphors function as a mode of thinking and talking about the world? All metaphors are composed of two domains. They allow us to understand one domain of experiences in terms of another. The domain to be conceptualized is called target domain, while the conceptualizing domain is termed the source domain. (In the literature, another pair of terms used are tenor and vehicle). The transference of properties of the source domain to the target domain is referred to by some cognitive linguists as mapping. The source domain is concrete and familiar. The target domain is abstract and novel. Bubble economy, soft landing, bottle-neck phenomena are metaphors used frequently in recent years in talking about the economy. Economic phenomena are not easy to describe and understand. Metaphors like these help to conceptualize various economic situations. The semantic properties of the source domains of bubbles, bottles, landing aircrafts are mapped to the target domain of economics.

5.What is the difference between linguistic competence and communicative

competence?

The previous sections examine the complex relation between language and society as well as the relation between language and culture. It is obvious that to be able to use a language is not merely to manipulate a system of code. There are striking different connotations between the ability to speak and the ability to talk. Linguists like Noam Chomsky who are not concerned with language use propose the term linguistic competence to account for a speaker's knowledge of his language. Sociolinguists like Dell Hymes criticized this concept of competence. He argues that a normal child acquires knowledge of sentences, not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate. A child acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner. In short, a child becomes able to accomplish a repertoire of speech acts, to take part in speech events, and to evaluate their accomplishment by others. This competence, moreover, is integral with attitudes, values and motivations concerning language, its features and uses, and integral with competence for, and attitudes toward, the interrelation of language with the other code of communicative conduct (Hymes 1972). Based on this argument Hymes and others propose communicative competence as the most general term to account for both the tacit knowledge of language and the ability to use it.

6.What is the difference between referential meaning and associative meanings of

words?

Referential meaning(sometimes called denotative meaning) is widely believed to be the central meaning of words. It is comparatively more stable and universal. The word woman refers to female human adult. This kind of meaning of the word has not changed and will not change. But other meanings which are parasitic to its referential meaning may vary from one historical period to another. Presumably, in all languages there is a word that denotes womanhood. But due to different social roles of women in different cultures, other meanings associated with the referential meaning (female human adult) vary in different languages. In a matriarchy society people must have different conceptions of woman than in a patriarchy society.

Associative meanings are meanings that hinge on referential meaning. In contrast to referential meaning, they are less stable and more culture-specific. For example, although the referential meaning of the word king has not changed in English, English people today have different conceptions of the

king than before. The English word pig may have the same referent as its equivalent in a language of Islamic culture. Yet, the associative meanings are totally different.

7.How do you distinguish pidgin from Creole?

The term pidgin is the label for the code used by people who speak different languages.

A pidgin is not the native language of any group. It is confined to very limited communicative purposes, such as trade. Pidgins are mixed languages that are simplified syntactically and lexically. Juba Arabic spoken in southern Sudan is a pidgin.

A creole is a mixed language which has become the mother tongue of a speech community. The majority of creoles that still exist are based on English or French. Hawaiian creole, Jamaican creole, Guyana creole, etc. are all English-based. Creloes are not confined to certain functions of language nor reduced in syntax and lexis. Creoles and pidgins are distributed mainly in the equatorial belt around the world, usually in places with direct or easy access to the oceans

8.What are the three dimensions that a speech act consists of?

locutionary act illocutionary act perlocutionary act

9.How do sociolinguists classify the varieties of English?

The English language has many regional dialects. British English, American English, Australian English, Indian English, South African English, etc. are all regional varieties of the language. One dialect is distinctive from another phonologically, lexically and grammatically. Between British English and American English, differences can be easily found in pronunciation, in spelling, in words and in syntactic structure. The word hot, for example, is pronounced differently in the two regional dialects. The vowel is a mid back in British English, while in American English it is a low back. The same word is spelt differently, such as labour and labor. The same concept or object is represented by different lexis (dialectal

synonyms, such as flat and apartment). In some sentences, the constituents are different. The auxiliary do may not be necessary in a yes/no question in British English if the predicate verb is have. For example “Have you a match?” is equivalent to “Do you have a match?”

10.What are the four maxims of the Cooperative Principle?

(i) Tact maxim

(a) Minimize cost to other [(b) Maximize benefit to other]

(ii) Generosity maxim

(a) Minimize benefit to self [(b) Maximize cost to self]

(iii) Approbation maxim

(a) Minimize dispraise of other [(b) Maximize praise to other]

(iv) Modesty maxim

(a) Minimize praise of self [(b) Maximize dispraise of self]

(v) Agreement maxim

(a) Minimize disagreement between self and other [(b) maximize agreement between self and other]

(vi) Sympathy maxim

(a) Minimize antipathy between self and other[(b) Maximize sympathy between self and other]