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[洛阳理工学院]2012新通用大学英语[第四册]考试重点1

洛阳理工学院-新通用大学英语[第四册]期末考试笔记汇总(完整版)

Unit1

Vocabulary Exercise

confront realistic perspective essential generosity

reaction interpret positively perceive peacefully

1.Public_reaction_to the use of recombinant DNA in genetic engineering has been mixed.

2.Humanity will be forced to confront_the delayed effects of having recklessly exploited the environment.

3.We rarely_perceive__more than a minute fraction of the sights and sounds that fall upon our sense organs;the great majority pass us by.

4.Even in the same culture,people differ in their ability to_interpret_and express feelings.

5.Besides natural talent,hard work and a(n)_positive_attitude are the keys to success.

√6.The author of this book often wrote about racial issues,describing his people in a_realistic__way.

√7.He says that the death of his father18months ago has given him a new__perspective_on life.

√8.Gandhi had led his people to freedom by peacefully refusing to obey unjust laws.

√9.Although they could be selfish from time to time in the little things,they are capable of great_generosity_.

√10.It is not merely desirable but____essential___for a teacher to have a genuine capacity for sympathy. Vocabulary Exercise

1.The high level of radiation in the rocks__implies_(imply)that they are volcanic in origin.

2.Three to five percent of all children have either_receptive_(receive)or expressive language disorder,or both.

3.The writer was good at describing the things not existing in the world.He had a great__imagination__(imaginative) when he wrote the book about dragons.

4.A successful individual_typically_(typical)sets his next goal somewhat but not too much above his last achievement.

5.The advantage of sequential_(sequence)learning is to follow a liner structure from basic to advanced levels,while its disadvantage is that it takes a longer time to complete the learning of a specific advanced topic.

√6.That young man tried every means to avoid personal_involvement_(involve)in the matter.

√7.A good salesperson has to be_aggressive(aggression)in today’s competitive market.

√8.Positive_affirmation_(affirm)increases your self esteem and happiness,and helps you to achieve goals and succeed.

√9.The foreign investment in service industry increased_significantly_(significance)in the first half year.

√10.Because of the tough road,you should___slacken____(slack)off your speed as you approach the village. Structure and Usage

√1.In most large companies management is directly_____planning the advertising.

a.involved in

b.involved to

c.involved with

√2.Ocean currents affect the climates of the lands_____they flow near.

a.where

b.which

c.when

√3.The kind old lady offered to_____the poor homeless stranger.

a.take in

b.take out

c.take on

√4.It was_____many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound footing.

a.not before

b.not after

c.not until

√5.It is because he is not proud of his learning_____he is respected by his students.

a.that

b.which

c.why

6._____we cannot get the necessary data,what shall we do?

a.Suppose

b.Unless

c.Thinking

7.If fish were the best brain food,many people_____more fish than usual to improve their memory.

a.would be eating

b.would eat

c.had eaten

8.In one country which I visited_____the climate is very hot all the year round,people hardly wear any clothes at

all. a.that b.which c.where

Translation

1.许多人认为国际旅游对经济发展有积极作用。(produce…effect on)

Many people believe that international tourism produce positive effects on economic growth.

2.高年级学生可以与新生一起分享他们的经历:如何克服遇到的困难,如何适应新的环境。(adjust…to)

The senior and junior students could share their own experience about how to overcome the difficulty they have ever met,how to adjust to the new environment with the new students.

3.该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。(It is time…,concerned,take steps)

It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems.

4.现在,越来越多的人认识到法制教育的重要性。(be aware that…,be of…)

Today an increasing number of people have been aware that law education is of great importance.

5.应该鼓励年轻人和他们的同龄人交往,发展他们的交际能力。(communicate with…)

Young people should be encouraged to communicate with their peers and develop their interpersonal skills.

Unit2

Vocabulary Exercise

productive brilliantly applause reject engage

compose performance insult infamous neglect

1.The piano player was not feeling well and his__performance_wasn’t up to scratch.

2.A_composer_writes a work,but no one can hear it until it is performed.

3.The Smiths did not mean to composer the musician who had written to support Elizabeth’s desire to study music.

4.We are now several years past that_infamous_year,and have avoided the dismal fate.

5.Many of the fast paced online firms are so focused on rapid growth that they_neglect_to look closely at net work security and legal liabilities.

√6.A_brilliant_diamond is a precious stone cut with many surfaces to make it shine.

√7.Almost every man wastes part of his life in attempts to display qualities which he does not possess,and to gain_ applause_which he cannot keep.

√8.The younger woman took powerful drugs both before and after the operation so her body would not_reject_the organ.

√9.The human brain is designed so that it is naturally curious and so that it automatically learns when it is_engaged_.√10.He is a_productive_writer and has written three books in the past six months.

Text B

√Although Beethoven was respected and admired by his audience,he was not concerned with pleasing them. Beethoven could play the piano so beautifully that some listeners cried;however,when he saw his fans crying, Beethoven only laughed and said they were fools.He was so egotistical that if people talked while he was performing, he would stop and walk away.(英译汉)虽然贝多芬是尊重和钦佩他的听众,他并不担心取悦他们。贝多芬钢琴弹得真漂亮,一些人哭;但是,当他看到他的球迷哭,贝多芬笑了笑,说他们是傻瓜。他是如此的自私,如果人们说话的时候他表演,他将停止和离开。

Text C

√Para9But politics was not the only subject debated in the hard rock of the1960s.Feelings,always a part of any musical statement,were a major subject.Janis Joplin sang of her sadness.The Beatles showed there were a range of emotions between love and hate.Then came The Band,mixing the more traditional ideas of country and western music into the more radical“city”ideas of the hard rock.This country element,Horowitz feels,helped its audience express an urge to“get away from it all,”to“go back to the old days.”One of the best current examples of what Horowitz is talking about is John Denver.His most notable songs—“Sunshine on My Shoulders”,“Rocky Mountain High”,and “Country Road”—combine the musical drive and power of folk rock,while the lyrics celebrate the simple joys of “the good old days.”(英译汉)但政治并非是唯一的主题辩论的硬摇滚20世纪60年代。感情,总是任何音乐的一种成分,也是一个重要题目。詹尼斯乔普林歌唱自己的悲哀。甲壳虫乐队还有一系列的情感之间的爱与恨。然后出现了乐队,把更传统的乡村和西部音乐更为激进的“城市”理念的硬摇滚。这个国家的元素,霍洛维茨认为,帮助听众

表达渴望“摆脱这一切”,“回到过去”。一个最好的例子,霍洛维茨所讲的是约翰丹佛。他最著名的歌曲-“阳光照在我肩上”,“落基山高”,和“国道”音乐气魄与力量结合的民谣摇滚,而歌词庆祝简单快乐的“美好的旧时光。”Vocabulary Exercise

√1.Leo could sense his daughter’s__frustration__(frustrate)at not being able to help with the cost of buying a house.√2.How do you manage to work in this_sweltering_(swelter)heat without air conditioning?

√3.The president was_applauded_(applause)for a full five minutes after his after-dinner speech.

√4.Mark reckons over sixty people were there,but I think that is a slight_exaggeration_(exaggerate).

√5.Many children have become_emotionally(emotion)disturbed as a result of the abuse they have suffered.

6.Their associate has absolutely no_conception_(conceive)of how a successful business should run.

7.The competitor did not want a repeat_performance(perform)of the humiliating defeat he had suffered.

8.The statesman maintains that all non-violent_religious_(religion)and political beliefs should be respected equally.

9.Most of our employees work in New York,the_remainder_(remain)are in London.

10._Currently_(current),antique oriental rugs are enjoying a wave of worldwide prosperity.

Structure and Usage

√1.After he woke up,Charlie could feel something_____his face and neck,something ice-cold.

a.touching

b.touched

c.to touch

√2.Half year after the election,the new government has been accused of_____its promises.

a.betraying

b.betrayed

c.being betrayed

√3.Why didn’t you ask for help,trying_____to do it on your own?

a.more than

b.better than

c.rather than

√4.The two sisters seem to have little in common:Marilyn is very extrovert and confident___Kathy is shy and quiet.

a.although

b.while

c.as

√5.The$10000loan from the bank helped her_____her own software company.

a.starting

b.started

c.start

6.For a moment after the accident Anna just stood there,_____to believe what had just happened.

a.to be unable

b.unable

c.being unable

7.Generally speaking,a computer can only do_____you have instructed it to do.

a.that

b.how

c.what

8.Everyone involved in the accident will be questioned by the police,won’t______?

a.they

b.he

c.it

Translation

1.据报道,有人设计出新型电脑游戏,不会对儿童行为有任何负面影响(be reported that…,have…influence on)It is reported that new video games have been designed not to have negative influence on kids’behavior in any way.

2.当意识到所有现有的机器已被新的设计所取代时,校领导发起脾气来。(lose one’s temper,be replaced with…)The head of the school lost his temper when he realized that all the existing machine had been replaced with new designs.

3.史蒂文听说他对新项目的提议被当成荒谬之词而遭到断然否决,十分恼火。(be upset to do…,be rejected as)Steve was very upset to hear that his proposal for the new project had been rejected as ridiculous.

4.现代社会的孩子很难想像一个没有电视和电脑的时代。(find it difficult to do…,conceive of)

The modern child finds it difficult to conceive of a time when there was no TV or Computer.

5.面试官忘了问我现在老板的名字,他好像对细节不大感兴趣。(neglect to do…,be concerned with)

The interviewer neglected to ask about the name of my present boss;he seemed not to be concerned with the details.

Unit3

Vocabulary Exercise

sponsor approximately reflect temporarily donate

profit generous trait dual investment

1.Unless they can find a__sponsor_,they will be forced to retire from athletics.

2.If these suggestions are followed,we should be able to save__approximately__$26000in the coming year in

3.The United States court system,as part of the federal system of government,is characterized by___dual__ hierarchies:both state and federal courts.

4.The returns in the short term may be small,but over a number of years the_investment___will be well repaid.

5.For the developing countries,using the land is a means to_temporarily avoid worsening poverty and starvation.

6.John makes me want to do things for him because of his___generous__nature.

7.The study found that some alcoholics had clear personality___traits__showing up in early childhood.

8.We want a future for the next generation which will__reflect__the highest ideals for which we have labored.

9.Kamen has persuaded some large companies to___donate___money and engineers to work with the young people.

10.This report found that the leading concern of young farmers was earning a__profit___.

Text C

√Para3Just as you want to pay the best price for a car,you should also comparison shop for the best deal on a car loan.And the ideal time to shop for a car loan is before you shop for a car.(英译汉)就如你所愿支付的价格最为汽车,你也应该比较购物的最佳处理对汽车贷款。和理想的时间来购买汽车贷款是在你买车。

√Para4Getting your loan preapproved before you start looking for a car is like shopping with cash.You can drive the car right off the lot—no more waiting for the loan to be approved and disbursed and taking the check back to the dealer.In most cases the loan can be approved by your lender in a couple of days.(英译汉)

你的贷款获准之前,你开始寻找一车就像是购物现金。你可以把车上很多-没有更多的等待贷款获得批准和支付以支票回到经销商。在大多数情况下,在短短的几天贷款可以批准你的贷款。

Vocabulary Exercise

1.Keeping yourself_informed___(inform)about important days in your friends’lives can nurture friendship.

2._Various__(variety)people among those present thought they had heard the aircraft.

3.The waters of the sea_stretched_(stretch)round them as far as the eyes could see.

4.Today’s schedule of events is organized_flexibly__(flexible)so that people can decide for themselves what they want to do.

5.Contacts between cultures_promote__(promotion)understanding among peoples of the world.

√6.Tom would be most likely to_benefit_(benefit)from the old man’s death.

√7.Will those in favor of the suggestion please_signify__(significant)their agreement by raising their hands?

√8.Mike left most of his money to his son;his daughter received only a_minor__(minority)share of his wealth.

√9.My boyfriend writes to me as_regularly__(regular)as clockwork every Thursday.

√10.Everyone liked the stranger,but in_reality_(realize)he was a criminal.

Structure and Usage

√1.She can always_____some new reasons for not doing anything unpleasant.

a.dream of

b.dream up

c.dream with

√2.This is the most popular book recently,which is_____human rights and love.

a.to the subject by

b.for the subject in

c.on the subject of

√3.According to his resume,Bob is_____to apply for the position as a manager in this multinational corporation.

a.well qualified

b.qualitative

c.qualifying

√4.People who can read and write are not_____in some African countries.

a.for the major

b.in the majority

c.on the majority

5.The plan must_____several stages to identify whether it is reasonable or not in reality.

a.go through

b.go after

c.go up

6.Not only_____arrested,but he had been sent to prison as well.

a.the poor boy had been

b.had the poor boy been

c.had been the poor boy

7.We were told that he_____in the third round of the competition the day before.

a.will eliminate

b.was eliminating

c.was eliminated

8.The police_____that he must have left his apartment yesterday evening.

a.had deduced

b.have deduced

c.would deduce

√1.由于这份工作提供良好的提升机会,我琢磨不透汤姆为什么要辞掉它。(offer,promotion prospects,figure out) As the job offers excellent promotion prospects,I can’t figure out why Tom quit it.

√2.我们已经向一个慈善组织提出申请,要求它为这个项目提供资助。(apply to…for…,grant)

We have applied to a charitable organization for a grant for the project.

√3.他的论文非常有助于我们对这个困难问题的了解。(enormously,contribute to)

His thesis has contributed enormously to our understanding of this difficult subject.

√4.毫无疑问许多国家将要参加2008年奥林匹克运动会。(there is no doubt,participate in)

There is no doubt that many countries will be participating in the Olympic Games in2008.

5.这家公司已经投资几百万美元编写新的程序满足发展需求。(invest,writing new programs,meet the requirements of…)

The company has invested millions of dollars in writing new programs to meet the requirements of the development. Crossword Puzzles

√8.An_institution_is an established organization or foundation,especially one dedicated to education,public service, or culture.

√10.Does the__loan_carry any interest?

√11.The children__spin__a coin to decide who should start in the game.

√12.We know that_generosity_can be spending time,money,or labor,for others,without being rewarded in return.

Unit4

Vocabulary Exercise

affect disorder extreme invisible target

equate double alarm reveal present

1.I realized that much that would have seemed horrible to most people did not in the least__affect__Jerry.

2.The cancer had caused a blood___disorder__that was making my teeth fall out.

3.Any of these__extreme_conditions would mean a quick death for someone who did not wear special protective clothing.

4.These people are often in the high-income group and should be a major_target_for tax collection.

5.A research estimated that in1998US consumers would purchase$7.3billion of goods over the Internet, __double__the1997total.

√6.I hate people who_reveal_the end of film that you haven’t seen before.

√7.Steven went from one store to the next until he finally found the perfect_present_for his wife.

√8.Ultraviolet rays are_invisible rays in sunlight which have an effect upon the skin,causing certain skin diseases.

√9.I felt a growing sense of__alarm_when he did not return that night.

√10.Some teachers often make the mistake of_equating_high test scores with intelligence.

Vocabulary Exercise

√1.The young defense lawyer_established__(establish)the innocence of the accused.

√2.The doctor told the nurse to call him if there was a_noticeable_(notice)change for the worse.

√3.Outside factors_influenced_(influence)him to resign from his post.

√4.Wax prints are more_commonly__(common)used today by the designers of African clothing.

√5.The famous artist is known for a painting full of inspiration_(inspire).

6.This year his salary,increased_consideration_(consider)due to his contribution to the factory.

7.This morning Tom gave a__detailed_(detail)report on the state of the economy in the conference.

8.Pizzahut is a_fashionable__(fashion)restaurant for teenagers.

9.Did the manager give you any_indication__(indicate)of his feelings?

10.The_denotation_(denote)of colors differ in China from that in the western countries.

Phrasal Verbs

pass down make you remember sth

[洛阳理工学院]2012新通用大学英语[第四册]考试重点1

bring back give or teach to children

wrap around match with Array keep up with figure out,find the answer

work out tie firmly

√1.Our memory of the earlier life in the country was__brought back__by the movie we saw last night.

√2.My husband__wrapped__his arms tightly__around___my waist from behind.

√3.Modern hotels have been built to keep up with_the development of tourism and the expansion of foreign business.√4.I couldn’t__work out___how Jack had got there so quickly.

√5.These stories were__passed down___from one generation to the next.

Text A

√Fifty years ago,a tattoo was a symbol of nonconformity.A person with a tattoo was seen as devious and offensive. This began to change in the1960s,as many standards for dress,grooming,and behavior began to change.Rock‘n’roll musicians were among the first to wear tattoos as a way to rebel against society’s rules.Eventually,athletes,models, and movie stars also began to wear tattoos.(英译汉)五十年前,一个纹身是一个标志不符合。人有纹身被视为偏僻的进攻。这开始改变,在60年代,许多标准服饰,美容,和行为开始改变。摇滚'摇滚音乐家之间的第一次穿的纹身作为一种反抗社会的规则。最终,运动员,模型,和电影明星也开始穿的纹身。

Translation

1.在这种情况下约翰尼急切地抓住了难得的机会。(jump at the chance)

In this case Johnny jumped at the rare chance to apply for the post.

2.现在说是由于天气关系才耽搁了航班还为时过早。(It is too early to say…)

It is too early to say that the weather is responsible for the delay of the flight.

3.现代英语中许多词汇来源于拉丁文。(be derived from)

In modern English many words are derived from Latin.

√4.我们也许不能理解75%的女性下班后要继续照顾孩子。(It might not…)

It might not be understood that75percent of women have to take care of their kids after work.

√5.平均来说,我们每天要在电脑前工作十小时。(on average)

On average,we spend almost ten hours a day working with computer.

[洛阳理工学院]2012新通用大学英语[第四册]考试重点1

blue in the face

√2.The hardworking colleague was_green with envy_of Mary’s success.

√3.George is regarded as the__black sheep__of the family because of his bad behavior.

√4.The charming girl was_born to the purple__in June in1986.

√5.A motorcycle would be__a white elephant___to me,for my home is very near from the company.

Unit5

Vocabulary Exercise

link advent preserve absolutely spontaneity

well-being gap collaboration anticipation element

1.There is a strong___link____between population growth and the increase in what are called greenhouse gases.

2.The____advent___of the Web as a research tool has greatly expanded the availability of information while reducing

the amount of time needed on each task.

3.Life is made up,not of great sacrifices or duties,but of little things,in which smiles and kindness,and small

obligations win and____preserve__the heart.

4.It is___absolutely__essential for all the applicants to be interviewed one by one.

5.Winfrey’s talent for public performance and__spontaneity__in answering questions helped her win fame.

6.Post-retirement employment appears to be beneficial for the psychological__well-being__of those who have retired.

7.The government will have to raise taxes to plug the__gap_____between revenue and spending.

8.Scientists hope the work done in__collaboration___with other researchers may be duplicated elsewhere.

9.The architect and the decorator try to sustain and increase this excitement and___anticipation___as the spectator moves through the theater.

10.The single most important___element__that separates ordinary photographs from good photographs is the lighting. Vocabulary Exercise

√1.Five thousand years ago,these remote islands were___inhabited___(inhabit)only by birds and animals.

√2.There has been a continuing___deterioration__(deteriorate)in the relations between the two countries.

√3.Repeated interventions_(intervene)on the current markets have failed to prevent the value of the currency failing.√4.The___municipality__(municipal)provides services such as electricity,water and rubbish collection.

√5.The___provision__(provide)of good public transport will be essential for developing the area.

Phrasal Verbs

sit back sometime,especially time or money for a special purpose

[洛阳理工学院]2012新通用大学英语[第四册]考试重点1

sit the progress or development of something

set or talk about an idea,argument,or a set of figures

set and make no effort to get involved in something

set a lot of time sitting and doing nothing very useful

√1.The bad weather will_set back__our building plans by three weeks.

√2.Tom and I used to just__sit around_for hours talking about the meaning of life.

√3.We should try to_set aside_at least one hour each day for learning new vocabulary.

√4.Do not just_sit back__and wait for new business to come to you.

√5.Rousseau(卢梭)__set forth__his theories on education in his book“Emile”.

Translation

1.除了伦敦的公寓,杰克还在意大利有一座别墅,在苏格兰有一座城堡。(in addition to)

In addition to his flat in London,he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland.

2.他试图和妻子开个玩笑,但得到的反应只是沉默。(attempt to,be received)

He attempted to make a joke with his wife,but it was received in silence.

√3.史密斯先生总是每天拨出些时间给孩子们读故事。(set aside)

Mr.Smith always sets some time aside every day to read stories to his children.

√4.这实际上是一种朋友之间的交流,而不是吵架。(kind of,rather than)

It is really a kind of communication between friends,rather than a quarrel.

√5.由于提前接受了训练,因此他在最新的影片中的特技效果极为出色。(as a result of,special effect)

As a result of being trained in advance,the special effects in his latest film are brilliant.

Unit6

Vocabulary Exercise

extinct diversity ultimately inheritance habitat

address modify conserve economics community

1.Estimates range that from4000to as many as50000species per year become_extinct_.

2.Because Americans believe time is a limited resource,they try to_conserve__and manage it.

3.One of the goals is to show children they are part of a larger world___community___.

4.The need to maintain adequate genetic diversity is why cloning is of little or no use in conserving endangered species

5.If your friend did something wrong,you should always_address_a warning to him.

6.The reality is that most Canadians will have to adjust their savings,_modify_their retirement goals,or both.

7.Fish stocks could be protected and rebuilt by prohibiting certain fishing activities and restoring_habitat_.

8.After some hesitation,Bruce confessed that,as executor of his father’s will,he had been cheating his brother,who

lived abroad,of his_inheritance_.

9.Without it,there can be no respect,no trust,no law and,_ultimately_,no society.

10.One of the principles of modern_economics_is the principle of competition for values.

Phrasal Verbs

bring introduce plans,arguments,etc.for people to discuss

[洛阳理工学院]2012新通用大学英语[第四册]考试重点1

bring something happen

bring something easier to see,taste,notice,etc

bring up someone to successfully deal with a difficult event or period of time

bring out mention a subject or start to talk about it

√1.In the UK,many people believe it was Churchill who__brought__their country__through__the war.

√2.In the past decades,computers have___brought about__many changes in the workplace.

√3.Under great pressure,the Government has__brought forward___a plan to tackle urban crime.

√4.Jack is now a father himself and fatherhood seems to have__brought out__his sense of responsibility.

√5.Why did you have to_bring up_the subject of money yesterday,when we visited the Smiths?

Structure and Usage

1.I_____have a pet parrot,but they require too much care.

a.had better

b.would like to

c.am able to

2.I am sorry,but I_____come to the meeting tomorrow.

a.must not

b.will not be able to

c.could not

3.If you do not mind,I_____eat out tonight;I am not quite myself.

a.would not

b.do not have to

c.would rather not

4.You_____feed the animals in the zoo—it is against the rules!

a.do not have to

b.cannot

c.had better not

√5.He is better at writing news reports than novels;he is_____a writer as a reporter.

a.more

b.not so much

c.not such

√6.The Chairman suggested that we use the meeting as an_____for announcing the reconstructing.

a.occasion

b.condition

c.situation

√7.If you want to get air tickets at a cheap rate,you must______well in advance.

a.reserve

b.conserve

c.book

√8.Few would deny that almost all humans possess capabilities like intelligence and moral sense to a far greater______than animals.

a.size

b.degree

c.point

Translation

1.保护也适用于文化遗产,因此也包括有历史意义的事物,比如古建筑、古战场、历史传说等。(apply to,cultural heritage)Conservation is also applied to cultural heritage,thus including things of historical importance,such as old buildings,battlefields and oral traditions.

2.任何人无权侵犯“他人”权利以获取自身利益,不管这个“他人”是人,还是动物(violate one’s right,as a result of) No one has a right to benefit as a result of violating another's rights,whether that"other"is a human being or some other animal.

√3.1998年12月11--13日,在云南昆明召开了第三届全国生物多样性保护及可持续利用研讨会。(biodiversity conservation,sustainable)The Third National Seminar on Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Using was held in Kunming,Yunnan on December11-13,1998.

√4.很多电影明星对于自己的私生活受到公众监视非常反感。(resent doing sth.,under scrutiny)

Many film stars resent their private life being under public scrutiny.

√5.我们每天的事情很多,只有把最重要的优先安排才能保证有时间完成。(give priority to,ensure)We have many things to do each day and we must give priority to those most important to ensure we have time for them.

大鹏&王子