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第三、常见的错误和问题

注意方面:

1.切题2.结构(三段式)3.落题快(主题句在每段句首,不要绕圈)4.长度(120-150字,卷面第二页中间或到三分之二处,不要过多)

语言方面须注意的问题:

1.题目的大写

An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident

It Pays to Be Honest

How to Succeed in a Job Interview

2.句子错误

1)语态时态不正确

I read the passage carefully and several mistakes were found.( 语态不一致)

I read the passage carefully and found several mistakes.

I am very grateful if you could help me with this problem.(时态不一致)

I will be very grateful if you could help me with this problem.

2)主谓不一致

He like playing football very much.

He likes playing football very much.

3)中式英语

My English has made great progress.

I have made great progress in English.

Work makes me feel satisfied.

Work is a source of satisfaction to me.

4)结构不完整

Although had many difficulties in studying English, I finally passed the exam.

Although I had many difficulties in studying English, I finally passed the exam.

5)改错:

I think there are two reasons for the accident. First, it was just the time we began our first class, the bike rider perhaps did not want to be late, he ride his bike so fast, even didn’t low down his speed at the gate. Secend, the truck is too large, and at that time, there were too many people walk through the gate, so the bike driver have no other way to chose, but to ride in the middle of the road.

第一、写作中的常用句式

一、开头常用语式(主题段的引入)

A proverb says…

As the proverb says…

Some people say that…

Many people believe that…

It is generally believed that…

We all know that

As we all know …

It is quite clear that

Various views exist as to …, but…

There are many arguments/opinions/views about

There is much discussion about/attention to

It is well known that…

It is sai d that…

It has been found that…

It is easy to see that…

The pie graph shows…

A recent survey provides…

The chart/graph/table shows…

No one can deny that …

Nowadays,….

At present…

二、中间常用句式(扩展段的连接)

通常按重要程度排列,我们习惯于先说最重要的,西方人则相反,但都得符合逻辑顺序。1.表示“首先”first, firstly, first of all, to begin with 在跌降法里用first and foremost 但不可用at first。

2.表示“第二”、“此外”“其次”、“况且”second, secondly, and, besides, moreover, additionally, furthermore, what’s more, in addition, besides+名词短语,in addition to+名词短语,another+名词短语

3.表示“最后”finally, last, lastly, 但不可用at last 或in the end。

4.表示“最重要的是” above all, most important of all,在跌降法里用last but not least 最后但并非最不重要的是。

5.表示“更严重的是”、“更糟糕的是”more serious, even worse, to make matter worse

6. 表示“最为严重的是”、“最糟糕的是”most serious of all, worst of all

例如:

1)First of all, 论据1. More importantly,论据2. Most important of all,论据3. In summary,总结观点.

2)The advantages can be listed as follows:First,好处1. Besides,好处2. Most

important of all, 好处3.

But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. To begin with,坏处1. To make matter worse,坏处2. Worst of all,坏处3.

From the above analysis, I believe 观点.

3)For one thing, 论据1. For another, 论据2. Last but not the least,论据3. To conclude, 总结观点或From above, we can predict that 预测.

4)First of all,论据1。Furthermore, 论据2。Among all of the supporting evidences, one is the strongest. That is,论据3。 A natural conclusion from the above discussion is that总结观点。或From above, we can predict that预测.

5.其他词语或句式:

1)用于强调:after all, any way, in fact, indeed, apparently, clearly, obviously, especially,

2)用于对比:however, on one hand, on the other hand, in contrast, by contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas, instead, but, different from,

3)用于比较:similarly, likewise, like, in the same way,

4)用于列举:for example, for instance, such as, take…for granted, except(for)

5)表示时间:later, then, next, finally, at last, eventually, meanwhile, after that, from now on, at the same time, for the time being, after some time, in the end, immediately, in the meantime, recently, soon, now and then, during, nowadays, presently, since, as soon as, afterwards, some time later, temporally, in the meanwhile, after a while,

6)用于解释:in other words, as a matter of fact, that is,

7) 用于让步:although, in spite of, despite, even though, even if, though, no matter how

8) 用于结果:consequently, thus, as a result, as a consequence, hence, so, therefore, accordingly

9) 其他:not only…but also…, as far as I am concerned, when it comes to…, in practi ce, in principle, another key aspect of…is…, it is true that…, what is more serious is…, there is no doubt that…,but it is a pity that…,but the trouble /problem/point is…

例1 Brain Drain in China (接开头)

1)中国人才流失的现状;

2)对人才流失的看法;

3)如何解决人才流失。

However,people see this phenomenon in different perspectives.Some hold the opinion that China suffers a lot from brain drain. They argue, on the one hand, that brain drain considerably weakens our international competitiveness.On the other hand,they believe that the talent should serve their native country first.

In contrast, others highlight the advantages of international exchange and cooperation. They claim that Chinese youths should go abroad to study and gain more experience. What’s more, the long-term benefits will outweigh losses we suffer now.

三、结尾常用句式(终结段的连接)

1.表示“总之”、“总而言之”、“简言之”in conclusion, in summary, to conclude, to summarize, to sum up, in short, in brief, in a word, on the whole

2.“综上所述”from the foregoing, from what has been discussed above, from what has been mentioned above, from the above analysis

Obviously(此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that

Thus, it can be concluded that…, Therefore, we can find that…

Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem.

Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken.

Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken.

例1 Vacation, Long or Short

One the whole, either long or short vacation has its advantages and disadvantages. What matters is how to make use of it.

例2 Good Health

1.身体健康的重要性。2.保持健康的途径。3.我自己的实践。

As for me, I like playing tennis in the morning. I also attach much importance to enough sleep and relaxation. I believe this will ensure my good health for the rest of my life.

例3 Hope Project希望工程

In my opinion, this project is of great importance to our country at the present time. And it also will have a profound effect on the future achievements of our country. I suggest that more work be done so that every child in the countryside can receive elementary education.

练习:Is Failure a Bad Thing

In my opinion, failure is not a bad thing, the really bad thing is taking a failure as failure or even lose our heart after failure.

第二、写作模式

一、议论文

1.对立观点式

1)有人赞成X.

2)有人反对X.

3)我的看法。

例文:

1. 很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是……

2. 也有人持不同意见,……

3. 我的看法和打算

Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?

Different people have different opinions about the necessity of a test of spoken English in the College English Test. Some people believe that a test of spoken English is necessary because spoken English is an important part of language. Only when one speaks fluent English can we say that he has really a command of the language. So a test ought to be devised to assess the learner’s ability in spoken English.

Other people, however, think that a test of written English is enough and test of spoken English is not necessary at all. They hold that one’s competence in English can be shown in a test of written English, and a test of spoken English will be difficult to carry out, and will, moreover, add to the burden of the students.

In my opinion, a test of spoken English is absolutely necessary, because I believe it is of great importance for every foreign language learner to speak the language with fluency. For one thing, more and more foreigners are coming to China every year, a large number of people who can speak English fluently are badly needed in all walks of life. For another, the four skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing in language learning are closely related. A test of spoken English will stimulate the other skills in English learning.

模式1

Different people have different opinions about(讨论主题). Some people believe (argue,

recognize, think) that (观点1).

But other people take an opposite side. They firmly believe that(观点2)./ Other people, however, think that(观点2)

As for me, I agree with the former/latter idea. (I am in favor of the first/second idea.) (The following are the reasons of/for my choice/personal inclination.)First of all,(论据1).More importantly, (论据2).Most important of all,.(论据3).In summary, (总结观点). As a college student, I am supposed to ( 表决心).或From above, we can predict that (预测).

模式2

People’s ideas/opinions/views on(讨论主题)vary from person to person. Some people hold/think that.(观点1). From their point of view, .

However, others hold/think that(观点2). In their opinion,./ Yet other people don’t think in this way. They argue that (观点2).

As far as I am concerned, the former/latter opinion holds more weight. For one thing, ( 论据1). For another,(论据2). Last but not the least,(论据3)./ First of all,( 论据1)。Furthermore,(论据2)。Among all of the supporting evidences, one is the strongest. That is, (论据3)。To conclude, (总结观点). As a college student, I am supposed to (表决心). 或From above, we can predict that(预测).

模式3

Different people have different views on (讨论主题) . Some people think that (观点1). Other people hold that(观点2).

Those who hold the first opinion think that (观点1)( 论据1,2,3)On the contrary, those who hold the second view think that(观点2)( 论据1,2,3)

As for me, I agree with the former/ latter opinion. (论据1,2,3)Therefore I hold that (观点1/2.)

练习:1. 有些人认为某些数字会带来好运。

2. 我认为数字和运气无关,……

Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck?

2. 利弊式

1)某事物带来的好处

2)某事物带来的问题

3)应该怎样做?

例文:

1.ATM(自动柜员机)的好处

2.ATM存在的问题

3.我的看法

Positive and Negative Aspects of ATM

Nowadays, ATM plays an important part in people’s life. Like everything else, ATM has both favorable and unfavorable aspects. Generally, the advantages can be listed as follows.

First, ATM is convenient. People can draw money from it with a card everywhere. Besides, it is safe. If you lose your card, someone else can’t use it, because people have to enter the password to draw money. Most important of all, when people need money at night or weekend, they can draw money from a round-the-clock ATM. Therefore, ATM solves the problem

of money shortage.

But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent(显而易见的). To begin with,if someone inputs a wrong password three times, ATM will withhold the card.To make matter worse, sometimes there is no money in some ATM. It makes people disappointed. Worst of all, if someone forgets password, he will not draw money from ATM.

From the above analysis, I believe that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Therefore, more and more people tend to use the ATM for the sake of (为了…利益)convenience and safety.

模式

Nowadays, (讨论主题)plays an important part in people’s life. Like everyt hing else, (讨论主题)has both favorable and unfavorable aspects. Generally, the advantages can be listed as follows.

First, (好处1)Besides, (好处2)Most important of all, (好处3)

But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. To begin with, (坏处1)To make matter worse, (坏处2)Worst of all, (坏处3)

From the above analysis, I believe that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Therefore,(结论)

练习:

?双休日给大学生带来的好处。

?双休日可能给大学生带来的问题。

?我应当怎样过好双休日。

The Two-day Weekend

?3.解决问题式(How to …?)

?例文:

?How to Solve the Problem of Overpopulation

?With the development of civilization, the population has reached six billion at the

end of 20th century. Therefore, environmental problems often occur. To solve the problem of overpopulation, we have many ways, but the following ones are most immediate and effective.

?One way is to conduct family plan to reduce the birth rate of babies and the

employment pressure could be relieved. However, if there’s only child in the family, the child may be spoiled and it’s hard for him to form complete characteristics.

Another approach is to let people get married late. By this means, at the same time there will be fewer people in the contest of employment or colleges. But this is not a perfect way either. This method just alleviates the problem but can’t solve it.

?In conclusion, these are not the only two or best ways to solve the problem of

overpopulation, but if we combine those two ways, we may have raise the quality not the quantity of the population.

?

?解决问题要讲究方法,可按时间先后,也可按轻重缓急等排列。基本套路有:

?模式:

?______(目前的现象及存在的问题).Many ways can contribute to ________(要

解决的问题),but the following ones may be most effective.

?First of all_____(方法1)Besides,_ ____(方法2)Finally,_ _______(方法3)?These are not the only three points you should pay attention to. But it should be

noted that_________(使用这些方法时要注意的事项)/(展望)/(总结上述三种方法)

?练习1

? 1. 面试在求职过程中的作用

2. 取得面试成功的因素:仪表、举止谈吐、能力、专业知识、自信、实事求是......

?How to Succeed in a Job Interview?

?4.解释现象或原因式

用事实或理论来解释和论证某种现象或结果。有先结果后解释原因,也有先原因后结果的,但结构基本相同。(列举原因123。列举方面12,列举例子1234)

?例文:

?Why Does China Bid for Olympic Games

?In 2001, China started its final bid for hosting the 2008 Olympic Games. We all

know that China failed to bid for hosting the 2000 Olympic Games eight years ago. Why does she bid for it again? The following are possible reasons.

?For one thing, hosting the 2008 Olympic Games will stimulate the development

of the whole country. Our economic construction will make great progress, so will the cultural construction.Furthermore, the environment of our country will be paid much more attention to and must be improved. As you know, the slogan of the Olympic bid

?is “Green Olympic”. Another reason is that it will integrate China with the international

community more powerfully to gain the bid for hosting the 2008 Olympic Games. The goal of this is consistent with our endeavor to be a member of WTO. Most important of all, the opportunity to host the Olympics is a symbol of China’s prosperity.It is well known to the world that in the past two decades, China has made great social and economic progress. We have been developing in the new century.

?As I have mentioned above, biding for Olympic Games is good to China’s development

and it is the impetus to Chinese people. As the newspaper reported, most of Beijing citizens are eager to learn oral English for the sake of “New Beijing, Great Olympic.”

?步骤:

?1.阐述现象(举例)/论点

?2.分析原因1。2。3。

?3.指出危害性(举例)/得出结论

?模式:

?. (提出论点/某种现象)

?The reason are listed as follows:First,_________(原因1)Additionally,______(原因

2)Third, ______(原因3)/ For one thing, (原因1).For another,.(原因2)./ For instance, .(事例) Another instance, A case in point is that (事例)

?说明危害(通常举例),或得出结论Therefore, / From the above example,/ in

conclusion,/ in short, / In a word(结论)。

?练习1

?前社会上有不少假冒伪劣商品(fake commodities)。为什么会有这种现象?

?举例说明假冒伪劣商品对消费者个人、社会等的危害。

?Harmfulness of Fake Commodities

?练习2

?1)现代的交通工具越来越发达

2)人与人之间的交往越来越频繁

3)结论

?The World Is Getting Smaller and Smaller

?6.”我之最” 模式My Most …

?例1 My Ideal Job

? 1. 人们对职业各有不同的理想

? 2. 我理想的职业是什么

? 3. 我怎样为我理想的职业做准备

?There are various kinds of jobs in the world, such as writing, nursing, teaching and

engineering. But different people choose different jobs as their careers. This is because everyone has his own interest.

?As for me, I have made up my mind to be a teacher. I choose to do so mainly for three

reasons.First,I want to teach because I like the pace of academic calendar. Two long vacations offer me an opportunity for reflection, research and writing. Secondly, I want to reach because I like the freedom to make my own mistakes, to learn my own lesson, to stimulate myself and my students. And I can have the opportunity to keep on learning.

Finally, I want to teach because, being around the students who are beginning to grow and change in front of me, I will grow and change with them too.

?But teaching is no easy job at all. I must study cleverly to obtain more knowledge. And,

at the same time, I will make every effort to purify my soul so that I can become an arc hitect of man’s soul.

?练习1 My Favorite Sport

?练习2

?My Favorite Programme

? 1. 我最喜欢的电视(或无线电)节目是。。。

? 2. 这类节目的内容和特点

? 3. 我喜欢它的原因

?二、说明文

?例文:Bicycles ---- an Important Means of Transport in China

?1.为什么自行车在中国这样普及

?2.和汽车的比较

?3.自行车在中国的用途

?There are several reasons why bicycle is so popular in China. To begin with, it

is so cheap that every family can afford to buy one. Some families even have two or three of it. Secondly, it is so convenient that with a bicycle, you can to to any place you like. Besides, you don’t have to find a parking lot in a crowded street of have a garage at home. Finally, cycling has become a kind of sport that many people enjoy.

?Compared with a car, a bicycle has both advantages and disadvantages. For

instance, a car uses gas as its fuel, as a result, it may cause air pollution. A bicycle, however, is pollution free. A long travel is surely not fit for a bicycle. But a person who

sits all day long in a car might get fat and become unhealthy.

?I think that since bicycle is so popular in China, it will certainly remain for a

long time. Many things are being done to make cars popular in China, but even when that time comes, bicycle will still be welcome.

?练习:Advantages of a Job Interview

? 1.现在找工作一般都要进行面试,通过面试面试者(interviewer)和应试者

(interviewee)可以相互了解情况;

? 2. 面试者可以向应试者介绍情况,如工作性质、条件、待遇等。

?三、图表式作文

?1.图表式作文常用句式词语

?Pie Graph 圆周图Bar Graph 条形图Curve Graph曲线图Table 统计图(表格)?2.说明图表的表达结构(如图所示):

?The graph shows/ points out that…图表显示。。。

?As is shown in the table, we can see/conclude that… 如图所示,我们可以看出/得出结

论。。。

?As can be seen in the table released/provided by the government,…

?We can see from the table that…; 我们可以从图表看出

?According to the graph, it can be learned that 根据图表,可以知道

?3.引用数据的表达结构:

?The statistics presented in the chart are rather convincing.图表中所显示的数据相当具

有说服力。

?All these data clearly prove the fact that…所有这些数据明显证明这一事实。

?The figures lead us to the conclusion that…这些数据到四这样的结论。

?The above data can be interpreted as follows: 上面的数据可以解释如下:

?4.时间和趋势的表达结构:

?1)表示时间跨度

?from 1990 to 1999

?over the period from 1981 to 2001

?during the past three decades

?between 1998 and 2001

?2)表示“上升”increase, rise

?3)表示“下降”decrease, fall, go down

?4)表示“上升/下降到---”to

?5)表示“上升/下降了---” by

?6)表示“从----上升/下降到---” from…to…

?7)表示“呈上升趋势”on the rise/increase tend to go up/rise/increase

?8)表示“呈下降趋势”

?on the decline

?tend to go down/decrease/fall

?9)表示“(在数量、比例方面)占”account for make up

?如:Girls account for/make up 60% of our class.

?10)表示“分别”、“各自”respectively

?如:In 1960 and 1990, the life expectancy was about 40 and 60 years old respectively.

?11)表示“(某时)发生(某事)”see, witness

?如:August saw/witnessed the most accidents of the year.

?例句:

?This chart provides several important points of comparison between the two trends. 这

张表格揭示了这两种趋势的许多很重要的方面。

?The increase of ……in the city has reached to 20%. …在这个城市的增加已经达到20%。

?In 1985, the number remained the same. 1985年,这个数字保持不变。

?There was a gradual decline in 1989. 1989年,出现了逐渐下降的趋势。

?There was no drop in 1986, and then came a sharp rise in the following years. 1986年,

没有出现下降,接着在接下来的几年中出现了迅速的上升。

?If the increase of ……is compared to……, it will be observed that……如果把……的增加

与……的对比,就会看出……

?After a steady increase for 5 years, the country’s rate of population shows signs of

dropping. 在5年的持续增长后,这个国家的人口增长率表现出下降的迹象。

?

?5.图表式作文的标准提纲:

?现状――图表揭示的表面现象

?原因――引起图表表面现象的深层次社会根源

?发展趋势或启示――图表所描述的现的发展前景(或趋势)或从中我们得到的启示?图表作文的模式:

?This table/chart shows that (表面现象)From the table/chart, we can

see that 。

?There are two/three major reasons(many causes) for .(现象)For one

thing, . (原因1)For another, .(原因2)

?So from the analysis, we can draw a conclusion that (结论)./ Many

problems also arise in .One problem is that The other problem is that So it is suggested that .(建议)

?练习1

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

1990 1995 2000 year

?上图所示为1990年,1995年,2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变

化。

?1.请说明发生这些过程的原因(可从计算机的用途,价格和社会发展等方面加以

说明);

?2.你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题?

?Student Use of Computers

?四、记叙文

?模式:

?1.简单介绍时间、地点、人物和事件。(1句)

?2.描述事件发生的过程。(当时的背景,人物,行为,结果等)

?3.分析原因1.2.3./对事件的感受或得到的启示1.2.3

?

?练习:

? 1.简单叙述一下这位同学生病(或受伤)的情况(1-2)

2.同学、老师和我是如何帮助他/她的(人物,行为,结果)

3.人与人之间的这种相互关爱给我的感受是……

英语writing

?The Day My Classmate Fell Ill (or Got Injured)大学英03.03.99语四03

?五、书信式作文

?第二节书信及电子邮件

?一、信封(略)

?二、书信格式(略)

?三、信的种类

? 1 感谢信 2 致歉信 3 邀请信 4 慰问信

? 5 祝贺信 6 请求信7 抱怨(投诉)信

?8 申请信

?四、电子邮件

结束语

写好作文不是一朝一夕的事,而是个日积月累的过程。然而,作为应试的手段,不妨注意下列几项:

1. 合理分配30分钟。审题:5~8分分清题型;揣摩

题意;构思内容和步骤。书写:18~21分下笔时

必须注意该句是否正确、完整,前后是否连贯,用

词是否得当,以减少修改的时间。检查校正:4分

2. 注意书法,尽量做到字迹清晰,卷面整洁,切忌勾

来划去,不要使用颜色较淡的蓝色原子笔,更不能

用铅笔。

3. 先求正确达意,即,语言正确,表达意思清楚,再

工选词修辞,即,字眼大小或用词档次。