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ielts写作——大作文写作讲义

大作文写作讲义

大作文写作步骤

●审题——1分钟

●提纲——3分钟

●开头——5分钟

●中间——25分钟

●结尾——3分钟

●检查——3分钟

●总共:40分钟

审题:

●杜绝看不懂题目!

●杜绝跑题!

通扫所有大作文题目:

●写作教程P94-182:

●议论文题型分析

●精彩范文

●最新范文

●白皮书P118-144:

●题目+ argument

●同黄皮书P34-43

●Broad topic—topic—specific topic

With computers, people can now shop, bank, work and communicate from home. The danger is that people could become isolated from each other and lost social skills which help them to get along with others. To what extent do you agree or disagree with their opinion?

科技——电脑——电脑与人际关系、社交技能

●Circle/underline the key words!

●写作针对specific topic! Otherwise it is

IRRELEV ANT!

例:

There is an increasing number of juvenile delinquents. Analyze the possible causes of this phenomenon and offer some recommendations.

●重点:原因分析——为什么越来越多跑题文章汇总:

●教程

●13

●22

●105

●讲义

●177

●178

●英文论文的写作原则

●理清写作思路

●确保清晰结构

●论证有话可说

1.文章风格

2.结构

3.POWER

结构:

●Beginning—view of point

1.Background

2.Transition

3.View of point

4.40 words-3 sentences

●Body—supporting ideas: 2-3

1.Topic sentence

2.Supporting ideas

3.Transitional sentence

4.180 words-10 sentences

●Ending—repetition of the opening

1.30 words-2/3 sentences

注意点:

1.There is no need for you to create a title; (讲

义117)

2.Be sure to present your view in the last

sentence of the first paragraph.

3.Be sure the topic sentences can be identified

as the first one of each paragraph in the

body.

4. 3 to 5 complex sentences are indispensable

if your want to get a band over 6

范文阅读:

●教程15—过渡痕迹明显

●教程16

●(讲义P171:专业招收男女生比

例——聪明的借鉴)

提高写作水平:

1.Read extensively to broaden your horizon;

(ideas + outline + 文章自读)

2.Read intensively to learn sentence patterns;

(范文阅读)

3.Imitate to assimilate yourself to the western

style;

4.PRACTICE!!!

练开头/结尾

练论证手法

优秀句型造句

Learn to summarize:

●Many people believe that women make

better parents than men and that this is why

they have the greater role in raising children

in most societies. Others claim that men are

just as good as women at parenting.

●Write an essay expressing your point of

view.

1.Agree with the former.

2.As a result of conditioning

3.Less aggressive nature

4.Better communication skills

5.Conclusion

提纲练习:

●写作教程:choose 3 out of them

●104——动物:肉乎?朋友乎?

●118——汽车的作用

●119——大公司/小公司?

●128——科技导致文化趋同?

●130——入乡随俗/我行我素?

●137——体育与学习:孰轻孰

重?

文章阅读:

●教程

●35-38—比较阅读

●18-太空研究值否?

●26-大学学术/实用?

●114-飞机的作用

●126-女子学校?

●127-科技与文化趋同

●131-入乡随俗/我行我素

●141-性格的形成

●143-教育学术/实用

●144-大学教育实用性

●145-挑战权威

●149-动物实验

●150-动物园

●153-老年人退休

●156-竞争与合作

●157-孩子犯罪谁负责

●159-工作为钱/成就感

●161-青年问题

●162-女性参军

●163-警察带枪

●166-成功与理论知识

●170-计算机的危害

●174-全球化的利弊

●176-动物还是人?

●179-大学的功能

●180-环境问题国际合作

●182, 185, 186-广告

文章欣赏:

●教程

●148——快乐的定义

●160——能力与报酬

●169——信息的审查

●172——电子辅导

●188——广告的作用

●189——广告时代

●可借用想法

●不适合模仿

Power

●Plan

●Outline

●Write

●Edit

●Rewrite

Brainstorming

●Many parents send their children

abroad to study. Discuss the

advantages and disadvantages

about this. Do you think when

will be a suitable age to send them

abroad.

Branching

Outline:

I.Introduction

II.Body

A. …

1. …

a. …

i. …

B. …

C. …

III.Conclusion

Be sure that you have put two main ideas in different paragraphs.

开头:

●说明现状

1.It is a fact of life that…

2.It has been widely noted that…

3.There is a growing tendency

nowadays for some people to …

●表明问题

1.There is much discussion

nowadays as to whether or not …

2. A criticism often heard these days

is that…

3.This raises serious doubts about…

4.Some maintain…, whereas others

are convinced that…

●作者观点

1.To be frank, I am in high favour

of …

2.Personally, I am convinced that…

3.For my part, I share the latter

point of view and I will give two

major reasons why this is so.

4.Here I will discuss the pros and

cons of the issue.

结尾:

1.重申

2.让步

3.谚语/格言

4.建议

5.All in all,

6.To sum up,

7.In a word,

8.To cut a long story short,

9.From what has been discussed above, we

may safely draw the conclusion that…

10.Weighing the pros and cons of the

double-edged sword, I’m inclined to agree

with the latter point of view.

写作技巧:

●Definition: happiness

●Example:

●Anecdote

●Adage

●Typical events

●中国古代的例子不要出现

●Comparison and contrast

●Block to block

●Point to point

●Cause and effect

●因果关系词

●Statistics

●Metaphor

●My love is red, red rose.

因果关系词:

选5个造句

Not because A but because B

Reading work:

●写作教程P41-50:

●关联词的运用

●文章的连贯性

不能容忍的错误:

1.Plural and singular forms 单复数/主谓一

Nowadays anyone who study at university need to learn how to use computer.

1.Part of speech 词性

The develop of personal computers effect on people’s lives because small businesses can easy afford them and this makes their work more efficiency.

1.Tense 时态

The number of household utility consumption was rising between 1990 and 2000.

1.Preposition 介词

He appears to be very experienced with dealing with people.

Have a knowledge and sensitivity of the culture of the recipient, and you will have an invaluable chance to earn respect and establish a durable relationship.

5.及物/不及物动词

He rose the matter at the meeting.

6.副词的位置

Success only can be achieved through hard work.

6.冠词

Horse is a useful animal to human beings.

6.There be句型

There are many people would agree with this statement.

6.Spelling 拼写: monk—monkey

7.Punctuation 标点

The money should be spent improving facility in old homes, that will help provide a more comfortable environment for old people.

(写作教程P21)

不同句式:

1.In the farm, the goats grazed peacefully and

were unaware of the approaching hunter.

(副词短语+并列句)

2.The goats grazed peacefully in the farm and

were unaware of the approaching hunter.

(并列句)

3.The goats were grazing peacefully in the

farm, unaware of the approaching hunter.

(简单句+形容语短语)

4.Grazing peacefully, the goats in the farm

were unaware of the approaching hunter.

(现在分词+简单句)

5.As the goats grazed peacefully in the farm,

they were unaware of the approaching

hunter. (原因从句+主句) 组成长句:

The graph is about student numbers in the UK.

The number of students in higher education has risen. The rise has taken place over the last five years.

Students were asked how much they expect to earn when they start work.

40 per cent of them expect to earn about 21,000.

2 per cent expect to earn 40,000 or more.

A typical police force in Britain has 2500 officers.

A typical town has a population of 180,000.

At any one time, there are only 10 officers patrolling the streets of a typical town.

Drink-driving laws vary from country to country.

In Poland it is illegal to drive with more than 20 mg of alcohol in your blood.

In Italy it is illegal to drive with more than 80 mg of alcohol in your blood.

1. A student acquires knowledge mainly from

the textbook and in class.

2.When he graduates from school he can do

nothing.

3.Everything is different from what teachers

told them.

4.He may be disappointed.

5.He may be frustrated.

6.He may be afraid to face the real world.

7.Our universities have turned out people of

no use.

1.Frans Mesmer was a physician.

2.Frans Mesmer was from Germany.

3.Frans Mesmer invented hypnotism.

4.Hypnotism was invented in the eighteenth

century.

5.Hypnotism remained an amusing gimmick.

6.It remained a gimmick for over a century.

7.The gimmick was for nightclub acts.

8.The gimmick was for parlor games.

9.Physicians now use hypnotism.

10.Dentists now use hypnotism.

11.Psychiatrists now use hypnotism.

12.Hypnotism is used to treat various ailments.

13.Hypnotism is used to control chronic pain.

14.Hypnotism is used as a replacement fro

anesthesia.

用词:

1.写不出想表达的词

2.同一个词反复用

3.好词但不知用法——放弃!!!

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/36032b180912a21614792988.htmle a simple substitute!

5.Try another way:

1.Negation vs. affirmation

2.General vs. specific

6.Abandon the idea and try for a new one.

7.Accumulate your bank of vocabulary,

especially of synonyms.

●名词间的转化:

higher education, senior education, advanced schooling, college education, academic study…

●名词—动词:

go to university/college, go for further study

●形容词—副词:a good swimmer

●变换句式:

简单句/从句

被动/主动语态

非谓语形式

倒装/虚拟/强调

特殊结构:

so that…, too…to, not A but B, A rather than B

使用插入语

注意点:

1.使用齐头式:讲义176、177

2.Make your writing as legible as possible;

3.Make your paper as clean as possible;

4.If you write task 2 in the wrong place, write

down on the margin:

●Sorry for the inconvenience

brought to you because I have

written task 2 in the wrong

place.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/36032b180912a21614792988.htmle British English in spelling

●Labour/behaviour

●Metre

●Cheque

●Travelling etc.

模仿:

●Choose a topic and write an essay following

the models provided on pages:

●写作教程

●95 opinion—科技与生活

●97 discuss—医疗系统

●98 problem + reason + solution—

学校第一天

●99 agree/disagree—不乖的学生

●101 advantage/disadvantage—广

告的利弊

考虑问题的思路

●经济决定一切(政治、文化、教育、基

础设施)

●生理走向心理(马斯洛需要层次:跳槽/

养老院)

●客观先于主观(全球化导致文化丧失)

●有关对象排排号(孩子教育的负责人/环

境治理)

●内部关系先切断(国际性语言/服装与爱

国/烟草)

●两边谈谈折中走

●正反论证好说话

●追根溯源挖本质(教程19+27)

●观点变态没关系

●自圆其说为真理