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高中英语教师学科专业素养二级标准(试行)

高中英语教师学科专业素养二级标准(试行)

模块二高中英语学科知识与技能

一、语音知识

1、掌握26个字母的正确读音。

2、掌握读音规则。

3、掌握重音的判断。

4、掌握语调。

5、掌握英、美语音的差异。

二、词法知识

1、掌握名词、代词、数词、介词、连词、形容词、副词、冠词,情态动词,助动词的用法。

2、掌握动词的时态、语态、语气的用法。

3、掌握非谓语动词的用法。

4、掌握基本构词法。

三、句法知识

1、掌握句子的种类。

(1)陈述句

(2)疑问句

(3)祈使句

(4)感叹句

2、掌握基本举句型。

(1)简单句

(2)并列句

(3)复合句

3、掌握省略与倒装。

四、词汇知识

1、掌握英语课程标准词汇表中的3500个单词。

2、掌握高中英语教材词汇表中的所有单词。

3、掌握高中英语教材中出现的所有短语、词组及固定搭配。

五、基本技能

1、能听懂有关熟悉话题的讨论和谈话并记住要点。

2、能经过准备就一般话题作3分钟的演讲。

3、理解教材上的阅读材料中的不同的观点和态度,并能对其进行补充和更新。

4、能根据所读文章进行心转述或写出摘要。

5、具有较强的学科解题能力, 能够笔答难度相当于课程标准中八级的英语试题。

模块三高中英语学科教学设计

一、教学设计概述

1、掌握教学设计的含义。

2、理解教学设计的意义。

二、教学设计的基本特征

1、掌握教学设计的基本特征的含义。

2、掌握教学设计的五个基本特征。

(1)直到性

(2)系统性

(3)操作性

(4)预演性

(5)创造性

三、教学设计的依据

(1)掌握相关教学理论。

(2)了解学生特点。

(3)了解教学实际需要。

(4)能够凭借教学经验。

四、教学设计的程序与模式

1、掌握教学设计的基本程序。

(1)分析学习者的需要

(2)确定学习目标

(3)学者教学内容

(4)组织实施教学

(5)构建评估过程

2、掌握教学设计的一般模式。

(1)授受教学模式

(2)情景教学模式

(3)发现教学模式

(4)导学教学模式

(5)口语教学模式

(6)阅读教学模式

(7)写作教学模式

五、教学设计的方法

1、了解学生的需求和特征。

2、掌握教学活动过程。

(1)引起注意

(2)展示教学目标

(3)复习回忆

(4)展示学习材料

(5)提供学习指导

(6)启发思考

(7)知识重组

(8)提供反馈

(9)课堂评价

六、教学设计的内容

1、掌握教学目标的设计。

(1)知识与技能

(2)过程与方法

(3)情感、态度、价值观

2、掌握教学内容的设计。

(1)教学重点

(2)教学难点

3、掌握教学方法的设计。

(1)教学内容和教学目的的一致性

(2)趣味性和多样性

(3)语言交际性

(4)现代化教学手段

(5)精心设疑和学法指导

4、掌握教学时间的设计。

5、掌握教学评价的设计。

6、掌握教案的设计。

模块五课堂教学专题研究之二三维目标

一、三维目标的内涵

⒈深入理解三维目标的概念。

⒉了解三维目标的内在关系。

二、三维目标的有效实施

⒈了解目前课堂教学目标的偏差与纠正策略。

⒉深刻领会三维目标的达成与“双基”培养的关系。

⒊掌握教学中处理知识和技能与过程和方法的关系的方法。

4.把握在英语教学中如何关注学生的情感、态度与价值观。

5.在教学中,能正确制定三维目标,同时能运用正确的语言进行描述。

三、三维目标在英语教学中实施的策略

模块六教学方式与学习方式专题研究之一自主学习、探究学习、合作学习一、自主学习

⒈自主学习的本质与特点

⑴理解自主学习的内涵、特征。

⑵了解自主学习与其他学习方式的关系。

⑶了解自主学习的意义。

⑷了解自主学习研究的新进展。

⒉自主学习的过程及自主学习的策略

⑴知道自主学习的过程。

⑵了解自主学习的策略。

⒊自主学习教学指导的原则及策略

⑴激发学生学习动机的原则及策略。

⑵指导学生自主制定计划、目标的原则及策略。

⑶指导学生自我学习的原则及策略。

⑷指导学生自主解决问题的原则及策略。

⒋自主学习的评价

⑴理解自主学习的评价理念和功能。

⑵了解自主学习评价的标准。

⑶掌握英语学科自主学习评价的方法。

⑷掌握英语学科自主学习评价的方案的设计与实施。

二、探究学习

⒈探究学习的本质与特点

⑴理解探究学习的本质。

⑵理解探究学习同相关概念的区别与联系。

⑶理解探究学习的意义。

⑷了解探究学习的发展特点。

⑸了解探究学习的理论基础。

⒉探究学习模式

⑴了解探究学习模式本质、结构和特点。

⑵了解主要的探究学习模式。

⒊探究学习的实施

⑴探究学习中的教师

①明确教师在探究学习中应转变哪些观念。

②明确教师在探究学习中应担当角色。

⑵探究学习中的学生

①明确学生在探究学习中所处的地位。

②明确学生在探究学习中充当的角色。

⑶探究性提问

①掌握探究性提问的特点。

②理解基本要求。

⑷探究性讨论

①掌握探究性提问的特点。

②理解基本要求。

⒋探究学习的评价

⑴明确探究学习评价的主体。

⑵明确探究学习评价的原则。

⑶了解探究学习评价的指标。

⑷掌握英语学科探究学习评价的方法。

三、合作学习

1、合作学习的本质与特点

(1)理解合作学习的内涵。

(2)掌握合作学习的基本要素。

(3)知道合作学习的特点。

(4)掌握合作学习的主要类型。

(5)了解合作学习与相关概念的区别。

(6)了解合作学习发展特点。

2、合作学习的基本理念

⑴理解合作学习的目标观、师生观、教学观和评价观。

⑵了解合作学习的模式。

3、合作学习的指导策略

(1)明确教师在合作学习中担当的角色。

(2)掌握合作学习准备阶段的指导策略。

(3)掌握合作学习实施阶段的指导策略。

(4)掌握合作学习总结阶段的指导策略。

4、合作学习的评价

(1)了解合作学习评价的功能、原则和标准。

(2)掌握合作学习评价的内容、形式和方法。

高中英语教师学科专业素养二级培训内容

模块二高中英语知识与技能(语法部分)

学好语法对掌握一门语言是至关重要、必不可少的。对语法的熟练掌握有助于提高我们学习语言的效率和运用语言的正确性与创造性,也有利于我们英语教师指导学生学好英语。要想在有限的时间内系统讲解高中语法项目是不可能的,因此,我在讲座中针对高中语法范围内的重要语法项目的要点进行分析和讲解,包括名词、冠词、介词、代词、形容词和副词、情态动词、虚拟语气、时态与语态、非谓语动词、名词性从句、状语从句、定语从句、特殊句式的要点用法。

一、名词、冠词和介词

在英语中,名词、冠词和介词经常被放在一起使用,因此我把他们合在一起来讲。学习名词、冠词和介词,要注意:

1.近义词辨析

辨析近义词,要结合词义,根据具体语境和固定搭配选择合适的词。如:

例1:

Over thousand dollars a month is not a fortune but would help cover my living . A.bills B.expenses

C.prices

D.charges

讲解:本题考查名词近义词辨析。bills表示―账单‖;expenses表示―花费,费用‖;prices表示―价格‖;charges 表示―收费‖;只有expenses符合题意;句意为―每月1000美元不算什么财富,但可以支付我的生活费用‖。

例2:用except,but,besides,except for填空。

No one knew Mr Smith's address ____ his daughter.

Does John know any other foreign languages _______ French?

Your composition is very good ______ a few spelling mistakes.

He is very clever _____ that he is careless.

答案:except / but;besides; except for; except

讲解:except表示―除……之外,除去……‖之意。

but多与否定词no one,none,nobody,nothing以及who,all,everyone等连用,常与except换用。

besides prep. 表示―除……之外还有; 此外,并且‖。

except for常表示肯定整体,除去局部的不足。

2. 名词作定语

例:He dropped the coffee cup and broke it.

讲解:在句中,coffee作cup的定语。名词作定语,通常用单数形式,表示中心词的分类、用途、材料、地点、时间等。如:heart disease ,emergency room , stone wall , South China,winter holidays; 用复数名词作定语的情况需专门总结记忆,如:sports meeting, a goods train,sales department,clothes shop等。

3.不可数名词具体化

某些抽象名词和物质名词前可以用a/an, 表示具体的动作、行为、事件和人。如:The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games was __a__ great success.

What a surprise!

an honour, a failure, a pleasure, have a knowledge of sth.对…了解,

have a dream, a coffee, an advanced culture 一种先进文化。

4.习惯用语和固定搭配

英语中有很多习惯用语和固定结构都含有名词、冠词和介词,如:

in the distance, by the way,on the other hand,all of a sudden,in a hurry,take the place of,by the

hour/pound/dozen/week,as a matter of fact等等。

又如:―拍打拉牵‖动词+ sb + on/in/by the 身体的某个部位名词‖

介词还可以和动词搭配形成固定词组和短语,如:

warn/ rob/suspect/ remind/ accuse/ convince/persuade/ cure/ inform sb.of sth.

be senior/ junior/ superior/ inferior/ prior to me

look forward to, take care of 等等

5.零冠词的使用

英语中有很多习惯用语和固定结构中的名词前不带冠词,如:

husband and wife,from morning till night, take place , out of order等等。

Child as he is , he knows a lot.

表示官衔、职位或身份的名词作同位语、表语、宾语补足语时,名词前不用冠词。

如:Yesterday, Peter Brown, X principal of Liaoning University, will pay a visit to Mr. Smith , who has been appointed X headmaster of our school.

6.冠词与零冠词的转换。

一般来说,某些抽象名词、物质名词和专有名词前无冠词,但特定场合,a/an 用于专有名词前表示泛指;the 用于抽象名词前表示特指。

—Hello,could I speak to Mr. Smith?

—Sorry,wrong number.There isn’t a Mr.Smith here.

高中英语教师学科专业素养二级标准(试行)

讲解:A

构成:with + 名词/代词+ 分词/名词/代词/形容词/副词/介词短语/不定式

功能:在句子中作状语、定语等。前面的名词/代词和后面的词形成逻辑上的主系表关系。如:

With all lights turned on,the building looks more beautiful.

With the guide leading the way,we set off on foot into the dark night.

The teachers came in with many students following.

He sleeps with the windows open,even in winter.

The teacher came into the cassroom with a book in his hand.

With production up by 60%,the company has had another excellent year.

With them to help us,we can finish the work ahead of time.

二、代词

学习代词,要注意:

1.几组不定代词的区分。

第一组:用one,that ,it,those,ones 填空。

①The water of the well is cleaner than _____ of the river.

②The students in China are much more diligent than ______ in foreign countries.

③I have bought a new bike.My old _____ doesn’t work.

④Don’t you think it a lit tle surprising that a house made of wood or bamboo may stay up in an earthquake while ______ made of steel and concrete may fall down?

⑤I will appreciate _____ if you can help me.

⑥Cars do cause some health problems—in fact far more serious ____than mobile phones.

答案:that,those,one,one,it,ones

讲解:

one作为不定代词,泛指―任何人‖(包括说话人在内),还可用来代替上文出现过的可数名词(指人或物),相当于―a + 可数名词‖。并有复数形式ones。

ones替代复数可数名词,替代范指的人和物。

that替代不可数名词或单数名词以避免重复;

those 可代替复数名词以免重复。

one ,that都可代替前面出现过的单数名词,但这样用时,one可被前置或后置定语修饰,that只能被后置定语修饰。句④中one 代替a house,表泛指。句意为―由木头和竹子制作的房子有可能在地震中挺立而由钢筋和水泥制作的房子却可能在地震中倒塌,难道你不认为这令人吃惊吗?‖。

第二组:用some,any, every,no填空。

①Could you get me ____ water?

②If you have ___ ink , please give me ____.

③Last week,Tom came to see me ______ other day, that is, on Monday ,on Wednesday and on Friday.

④Please correct the mistakes if there are ___.

⑤Hearing the words, he made ____ answer.

答案:some; any; some; every; any; no.

讲解:some多用于肯定句;还可用于疑问句中,表示请求、提议或者希望得到肯定回答。any多用于否定句,疑问句或条件句中。no用于否定句,意为―没有‖,修饰名词。

第三组:用不定代词all,none,both,neither,either填空。

①____ the students took part in the exam,but____ of them have/has succeeded.

②— How many books are there on the desk ?

— _____.

③—Which do you like,coffee or tea?

— ___ is OK.

④He thought there would be many people at the show,but when he arrived he found___.

答案:All(Both); none(neither); None; Either; none

讲解:all表示―三者或三者以上全部‖,可以修饰可数、不可数名词。

none用于表示对三个或三个以上的人或物的否定,意思是―一个(一点)也没有‖,可作主语和宾语。none可以简略回答以How many或How much开头的疑问句。

none of…后的谓语可以是单数或复数形式。

both表示―二者全部肯定‖。

neither表示―二者全部否定‖。

either表示―二者中的任何一个‖。

第四组:用不定代词other ,another ,the other ,others ,the others 填空。

①I don’t like this hat ,please show me _____.

②No agreement was reached in the discussion as neither side would give way to______.

③Thirty students in our class are boys ,____ are girls.

④Some are carrying water ,_____ are watering the trees.

⑤I’ll go to see you some _____ day.

答案:another; the other; the others; others; other

讲解:other表示―没有范围的,其他的‖,与名词复数连用。如:other books/boys/…

another泛指很多中的―另一个‖,可作代词或形容词用,代替或修饰单数可数名词。

others泛指其他的人或物;others常和some对比使用。

the others特指其余的人或物。

the other可作代词或形容词用,指已知的事物或人中的―另一个‖,或另一方中的―全部其他的‖。

2.it 的用法

it 可代替前面说过的特定的同一事物;作形式主语和形式宾语;用来引导强调句式;用于固定句型中。

常用形式主语句式:

It is adj. for(of) sb. to do sth.

It is no use (no good) doing sth.

It is/was +过去分词(said,reported,known,thought,believed,suggested,…)+that从句。通常译为―据说(报道……)‖。同样,it是形式主语,that从句是真正的主语

常用形式宾语句式:

…think /find/consider/make/feel it adj./n.for sb.to do sth. /that-clause

... think it no good /no use doing sth.

I think it necessary for him to learn a foreign language

it作形式宾语,还用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后,尤其是表示好恶的动词,如:enjoy,like,love,dislike,be fond of,feel like,see to,appreciate 等。

I’ll appreciate it if you can help me.

I can’t help it if he is always late.

用于强调句型It is /was +强调部分+that从句。

如:It is in the post office that I saw her when I was walking by.(强调地点状语)

It is when I was walking by that I saw her in the post office.(强调时间状语从句)

用于其它句式

It was (not ) + 时间段+before +一般过去时过了一段时间就……..

It will (not )be+ 时间段+before +一般现在时要过一段时间才会…

It is/ has been +时间段+ since…..

It was +点时间+ when…..

It is/was the first (序数词) time that从句

1). It was not long before he sensed the danger of the position.不久他就意识到他处境危险(动作已发生)

2). It will be half a year before you graduate from the school. 还有半年你才从这个学校毕业(动作未发生)

3). It is 3 years sinece he worked here.= he left here.(since从句中的谓语动词若是延续性动词,要从这个动作结束的时候算起)

4). It was 3 o’clock when they received the telephone.

5) It was at 3 o’clock that they received the telephone.

三、形容词与副词

学习形容词与副词,要注意:

1.比较级和最高级及前边的修饰语

能修饰比较级的副词常见的有:rather,much,still,even,far,any, a lot, a little, a bit, a great deal,by far 等,如:

She is a littlle taller than I.

A car runs a great deal faster than a bike.

2.有无ly的形容词与副词的区别。

例:As the Spring Festival is drawing _____ , people are getting busier and busier. A.near B.nearly C.almost

D.closely

答案:A 类似的还有:

deep/ high/ wide/close (具体意义)

deeply 深深地/ highly (程度上)高度地/widely大大地,广泛地/ closely(程度上)密切地(抽象意义)

most最,极,十分,非常mostly大部分;

late/lately dead/deadly bad/badly

3.具体语境形容词与副词的辨析。

The committee is discussing the problem right now. It will____ have been solved by the end of next week.

A.eagerly

B.hopefully

C.immediately

D.gradually

B. 考查句子副词的用法。句子副词修饰整个句子,表示说话人的态度或语气。常见此类副词还有:actually,eventually, anyway,fortunately,unexpectedly,strangely,luckily,nowadays,interestingly, natually 等等。

4.多个形容词作定语的语序

在英语中,当名词有多个形容词修饰时,排列顺序为:

限定词+ 描绘性形容词(beautiful、bad、cold、great等)+ 大小、长短、高低等形容词(big,long,high)+ 形状(round square等)+ 新旧(new)+ 颜色(red)+ 国籍(Japanese)+ 材料(wood, wooden, woolen, stone,silk等)+ 用途/类别(writing,medical)+ 中心名词(desk)

限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老;颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别往后靠;

其中,―限定词‖包括:冠词、物主代词、指示代词、或数词,它位于各类形容词前。

它本身分为三位,即:前、中、后。

前位限定词有all、half、both、分数和倍数;

中位限定词有冠词、指示代词、物主代词等;

后位限定词有基数词和序数词,但序数词位于基数词前。如:both my hands,all half his income等。

如:最近的这些日子all these last few days

那两位身材高大的俄罗斯老人both the tall old Russian men

5. 形容词比较级、最高级的特殊结构。

翻译划线句子:--What do you think of the Beijing Olympic Games?

--We can’t have found a more successful one.

本题考查特殊结构―否定+ 比较级= 最高级‖的用法。

There is no greater love than that of a man who lays down his life for his friends.为朋友而放弃生命的人的爱是最伟大的爱。

特殊结构还有:

The +比较级……,the + 比较级…… 表示"越……,就越…"。

The more tickets you sell,the more money you will get.

比较级+ and + 比较级,越来越…

The new city is becoming more and more beautiful

the +比较级+ of the two +名词,表示"两者当中较……"。如:

The taller of the two boys is my brother

6.倍数表达法

倍数表达法也涉及数词用法。三种常见倍数表达法:

①倍数+ as +原级形容词/副词+ as… 如:

They have three times as many cows as we do.

②倍数+ 比较级than + 被比较对象或比较级than + 被比较对象+ by + 倍数。如:

This rope is four times longer than that one.

They produced more products in 2001 than those in 2000 by twice.

③倍数+ the + size / length / weight/width/depth/height … + of + 表示比较对象的名词,也可用于倍数+ what引导的从句中。如:

This room is three times the size of that one.

The college is twice what it was 5 years ago.

四、情态动词

学习情态动词,注意点:情态动词+ have done, shall, must, should等。

下面通过几个例题来展示要点用法。

例1:--Why? I couldn’t get you on the phone this morning.

--We ____ tennis in the yard when you phoned.

A.must be playing

B.could be playing

C. must have played

D.must have been playing

答案:D.

must have done表对过去的动作作出肯定性的推测,意为"肯定/一定做了某事"

It must have rained last night,for the ground is wet.

can have done表示对过去发生行为的可能性的推测,通常用在否定和疑问句中。

could have done在肯定句中表示"可能已经…;还可表示过去没有实现的可能性,意为―本来可以‖。如:

We could have walked to the station; it was so near

I saw Mr Smith just now. He couldn't have gone there.

may / might have done表示对过去己发生行为的可能性的推测,通常用于肯定句或否定句,不用于疑问句; 用might 比may 在语气更加不肯定。

It's too late. I think he may have gone to bed.

You might both been caught and killed.

needn't have done表示本没有必要做某事,而实际上做了

did not need / have to do表示过去不需要做某事,实际上也未做。

You needn't have taken a taxi here,for it was so near.

I did not need to hand in my paper to my teacher the next day. He was absent himsef.

would rather have done表示"宁愿当时做了某事";其否定形式为would rather not have done表示宁愿当时没有做某事I would rather have taken his advice.

I would rather not have done that.

would like / love to have done表示过去“本想干某事”而实际未做。

I would like / love to have attended you party,but I had to work extra hours to prepare a speech.

should / ought to have done表示“本应该做某事”而实际上未做; 用于否定时,表示“本不该做某事”反而做了。You should have been here five minutes ago.

He ought not to have treated his parents like that.

例2:--How's your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful?

--It ______ ,but it is now heavily polluted.

A. will B would C should D. must

答案:C

should表示推测,可表达依据情理或常理对将要发生的事情的猜测。如:

They should be prepared now.

should用于表示劝告和建议,用于表达职责和义务,表明说话者的主观看法,有劝说之意。如:

You should keep your promise.

表示说话者对某事难以置信,感到惊讶,可译作"竟,竟然"。如:

We are sorry you should feel uncomfortable.

I d idn’t expect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。

例3.--Congratulations! You’ve been admitted into Peking University.

--I can’t thank you too much. You offered me great help.

翻译划线部分。

讲解:考查情态动词的特殊结构:

cannot/can’t…too/too much/over …―越……越好,怎么也不过分‖。

You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时候,越小心越好。

may/might (just) as well ―不妨,最好‖,与had better相近,意为―最好,还是,不妨‖。

例4:--Excuse me,but I want to use your computer to type a report?

--You _____have my computer if you don’t take care of it .

A.shan’t

B.might not

C.needn’t

D.shouldn’t

答案:A 表示否定意义的强制要求,即不爱惜就不给用。

shall用于第二、三人称的陈述句中,表示命令、警告、允诺、威胁、决心等。如: He shall be punished if he breaks the school rles. (警告)

You shall stick to you post. (命令)

You shall have the bike if you win the game. (允诺)

shall与第一、三人称连用用在句子中,表示征求对方意见或向对方请示。如::Shall we begin our class?

例5:Naturally, after I told her what to do,my daughter ____ go and do the opposite. A.may B.can C.must D.should 答案:C.偏要,硬要(做令人不愉快的事)

五、虚拟语气

学习虚拟语气,要注意:

1.个别动词及短语引导从句,从句中谓语动词的虚拟表达法。

例如:wish, if only, as if/as though, It is (high、about) time十从句, in case,for fear that,lest等引导的从句中,谓语动词的虚拟表达法。

wish十从句。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去时;

表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句用―would (could) +动词原形‖;

表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句用―had + 过去分词‖;

if only十从句= wish十从句。

If only I were your mother!

If only I had taken his advice!

would rather+从句。从句用一般过去时表示将来,其他同wish从句。

I would rather you paid me now.

I would rather you came to see me tomorrow.

I would rather she hadn't done that.

as if/as though + 从句。从句中的谓语动词与wish 从句同。

①He talks as if he had been to America.

②Our teacher treats us as if we were his children.

但as if后的从句有时也可用陈述语气。

It looks as if it is going to train.

It is (high、about) time十从句。从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时或―should十动词原形(should不能省略,be 用were)‖。意为―现在该… …‖

It is high time we left/should leave.

在in case,for fear that,lest等引导的从句中,谓语动词用should +动词原形,从句表达―唯恐,以免‖之意。有时也用陈述语气。

She took the raincoat with her in case / for fear that / lest she (should) be caught in the rain.

The student is working hard for fear that he should fail to pass the exam.

You'd beter take an umbrela in case it rains.

2.与表―建议、命令或要求‖的动词相关的从句的虚拟表达法。

在英语中,表达建议、命令或要求的动词和他们的名词在句中出现,则相应的从句(宾语从句、主语从句、同位语从句或表语从句)要用虚拟语气,从句中的谓语动词一定用"(should) 动词原形"。

The doctor suggested that she(should) stay in bed for a few days. (宾语从句)

It is suggested that she( should) stay in bed for a few days. (主语从句)

His suggestion was that she(should) stay in bed for a few days. (表语从句)

The doctor made the suggestion that she (should) stay in bed for a few days. (同位语从句)

常用动词:一个坚持(insist) ;两个命令( command,order) ;三个建议(suggest,advise,propose);五个要求(demand,desire,require,request,ask

它们的名词形式:insistence,requirement,proposal,asking,advice,suggestion等。根据insist,suggest的具体词义判定是否用虚拟语气。

3.错综时间条件句(混合虚拟语气)的用法。

当条件从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为"错综时间条件句",动词的虚拟表达形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整。如:

If I were you,I would have gone to the theatre last night.

If you had followed my advice just now,you would be better now.

4. 用介词、连词引出含蓄条件。

用介词with,without,but for或连词and, or,otherise,but等引出虚拟条件,使用虚拟语气。

He informed me of your birthday,or I would have known nothing about it.

I was ill that day. Otherise,I would have taken part in the sports meet.

But for(Without)your help,we wouldn't have finished the work so soon.

You could have done beter,but you didn't try your best.

Five minutes earlier and you could have met her at the station.

With a litte more care you could have avoided this traffic accident.

六、时态与语态

学习时态与语态,要注意:

1.分析语境,挖掘关键词或隐含信息,根据具体语言环境确定时态。

例. Tom _____ here for years. Now he lives in London.

A. lived

B. has lived C has been living D. had lived

正确答案:A 本题容易受句中for years的干扰错选为B。学生往往认为:带有for短语作时间状语的句子,用完成时态。

2.固定结构。如:

It is some time since sb. did sth.

It is the second time that have/has done

...was doing/was about to do sth. when …did sth

hardly / scarcely had done when did sth

no sooner had done than did sth

We had scarcely / hardly left the house when it began to rain.

No sooner had we left the house than it began to rain.

表希望、想法、打算、意图的动词用过去完成时,表示过去未曾实现的事。这样的动词有:think,want,plan,mean,intend,hope,expect,suppose等。如: I had meant to help her,but I was too busy.

I had thought that he died ten years ago.

例题:— I hear that you are living in the new developed zone.

—Yes. It is five years since I _____ downtown .

A.have lived B.had lived C.lived D.was living

讲解:C 当since从句中动词为瞬间性动词,则时间从动作开始时算起,如:It is five years since he joined the army.他已经参军5年了;当since从句中动词为延续性动词,则时间从动作结束时开始算起。本题中,live为延续动词,全句译为―我听说你正在开发区住。‖―对,我有5年不在市中心住了。‖

3.几组易混时态。如:一般过去时与过去进行时、一般过去时与现在完成时、现在完成时与过去完成时、现在完成进行时与过去完成进行时的区别。

一般过去时:过去某时间点发生的动作、存在的状态。

He suddenly fell ill in the class this morning.

过去某段时间内经常发生的动作、存在的状态。

He rang to you 4 times when you were out .

说话人始料未及的事情。

I didn’t know it was you.

I never thought you would bring me a gift.

(强调过去的事实,动作已经完成)

—Have you read a book Waiting for Anya?

--Who wrote it?

过去进行时:表示过去某一时刻或时段正在进行的动作及状态。

What were you doing when Tom telephoned you?

—You didn’t turn up at the meeting yesterday.

—I _______ for a long-distance call from my mother in Paris.

A.waited

B.was waiting

C.am waiting

D.had waited

正确答案:B 本题容易错选为A。

现在完成时:强调过去动作对现在的影响或结果。

I read the book last year.(去年读)

I’ve read the book before.(已了解书的内容)

过去完成时:强调在过去某一时刻或动作前已经完成的动作。―过去的过去‖

I had been there more than a week when I set to work with the scientist.

现在完成进行时:动作从过去开始,一直持续到现在,现在动作仍在进行中,有可能还要延续。

He has been writing the novel recently. I don’t know when he will finish it.

例题:--I have got a headache.

--No wonder. You _____ in front of that computer too long.

A. work

B.are working

C.have been working

D.worked

答案:C

过去完成进行时:过去某时间以前一直在进行的动作。

This morning he received the letter he had been looking forward to.

4.用主动形式表示被动意义的几种情况:

1)表示主语的一般性质和特征的动词。如:tear,cut,write,sell,wash等。

The coat washes well.

2)need/want/require 作―需要‖讲

The house needs repairing.

3)不定式在某些形容词(difficult,easy,hard,heavy,light等)后作状语且与句子主语构成动宾关系时。

The man is easy to get along with.

4)不定式作名词的后置定语,与被修饰的名词形成动宾关系,且句中的另外一名词或代词与不定式动作形成逻辑上的主谓关系。

I have a meeting to attend.

5.被动语态与系表结构的区别

被动语态表动作,句中主语为动作的对象,且可加by短语。

系表结构表示主语的特点、状态。其中过去分词已经形容词化,后多有固定的介词搭配。

The door is shut now.

The door was shut by an old man just now.

属于系表结构的短语:be covered/filled/crowded with…,be prepared for,

be determined ,be seated 等。

七、非谓语动词

学习非谓语动词,需注意:

1.固定搭配的用法。有些动词和词组只接动词的ing形式作宾语。如:appreciate,avoid,consider(思考,想),enjoy,excuse,finish,imagine,practise,give up,put off,set about,be worh,look forard to,devote oneself to,feel like等。如: I really enjoy doing that kind of work.

I can't understand his giving up such a well-paid job.

有些动词和词组既可接不定式又可接动名词作宾语(意义上有区别)。如:try,mean ,go on ,can’t help ,stop ,remember,forget,regret等。

有些动词只接不定式作宾语。如: agree; pretend; beg; decide; expect; fail; happen; hope; intend; manage; afford; offer; plan; promise; refuse; wish; desire; choose; determine; demand; attempt; want; claim; manage; aim; appear; care; come; prepare; hesitate; seem; learn; long; tend等.

有些动词只接不定式作宾语。如:: allow; permit; arange; want; ask; cause; encourage; inspire; force; invite; order; warn; tell; consider (认为); require; advise; teach; urge; wish; expect; think; believe; prove等。

2.不定式作目的状语和结果状语的不同。如:

He got up early to catch the first bus,only to find it had gone.

不定式to catch the first bus作目的状语,不定式only to find it had gone作结果状语,不定式作结果状语,常与only ,never连用,表示出乎意料的结果和令人失望的情绪。

3.如何断定非谓语动词的形式

根据非谓语动词的动作与主句动作发生时间的先后,断定非谓语动词的形式。若非谓语动词的动作与主句动作同时发生或晚于主句动作发生,用to do sth.;to be doing; doing。如:

He was busy writing a story, only stopping once in a while to smoke a cigarette.

Having writen the letter,he went to post it.

The problem to be discussed this afteroon is important.

Listen! The song being sung is very popular with the students.

若非谓语动词的动作先于主句动作发生,用to have done; having done

She was praised for having helped the old man.

Yu Dan’s books are said to have been translated into several languages.

根据非谓语动词的动作与逻辑主语的关系,断定非谓语动词的形式。

当非谓语动词的逻辑主语与非谓语动词的动作为主动关系时,用现在分词或不定式、动名词的主动式;当非谓语动词

的动作与非谓语动词的逻辑主语为动宾关系时,用不定式、动名词的被动式或过去分词。如:

He sent me an E-mail,hoping to get furher information.

The teacher answered all the questions raised by the students.

He left home in 1990, never to be heard from.

Having been translated into Chinese,the book is widely read among young people.

4.独立主格结构

如果作状语的分词的逻辑主语与主句主语不一致,即构成独立主格结构。这种结构可以做时间、原因、条件、方式和伴随状语。如:

Mr Cook being away from home,his wife has to do all the housework. (原因状语)

Work done,they went out to play football. (时间状语)

More time given,the work can be done much beter (条件状语)

The tourists visited many scenic spots in Beijing,the guide acting as interpreter. (方式状语)

The students rushed out of the cassroom,each carrying a number of new books under his arm. (伴随状语)

There being no buses,we had to walk back home. (原因状语)

5.分词或分词短语作状语

分词或分词短语作状语时,表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式、伴随等。如:

Not knowing anything about the accident,he went to work as usual. (原因)

The teacher came into the lab,followed by some students.(伴随)

The cup dropped to the ground,breaking into pieces. (结果)

Excited and happy,he came running in. (方式或伴随)

6.感官动词和使役动词have后面的三种宾补形式。即不带to 的动词不定式,现在分词和过去分词。现在分词表主动或正在进行,过去分词表被动或完成。如:

I heard her sing an English song just now.

I heard her singing an English song when I passed by her room yesterday.

I heard the English song sung many times.

注意:不及物动词的过去分词作宾补表完成和状态。如:

I looked down at my neck and found my necklace gone.(状态)

I was surrised to find my hometown changed so much.(完成)

7.当表示人的内心情感的词修饰expression,look,face,smile,voice时,应根据上下文的含义,来确定用现在分词还是过去分词。如:

an exciting voice令人兴奋的声音

an excited voice兴奋的声音

a puzzling look令人迷惑的表情

a puzzled look困惑的表情

The frightened child began to cry after he saw a frightening film.

看了一场可怕的电影后那个受到惊吓的孩子开始哭了起来。

The excited crowd rushed into the president's office and interested passers-by soon gathered around the building.

激动的人群冲进总统办公室,感兴趣的过路人不久便把大楼围得水泄不通。

8. 分词的形容词化

He found Alice ____ at the piano with her hands arrested on the keys.

A. having seated

B. seated

C. being seated

D. seating

分词的形容词化, 主要集中在过去分词。在通常情况下,当过去分词作状语、表语、定语及补语时,分词与其逻辑主语之间在语态上已不再体现被动含义,而只表示主语存在的某种状态。说明逻辑主语的特征和状态。

常见的形容词化的分词有:located (位于),dressed (表示衣着情况),lost(消失、陷入、迷路等),faced with(面对),seated(坐着的),born(出生的),pleased(高兴的),delighted(快乐的),tired(疲劳、厌烦的),confused (迷惑的),amazed (惊奇的),excited (激动的),devoted(热爱、忠实的、专心致志于、献身于),interested(感兴趣的),bored(烦恼的),annoyed(厌烦的),upset(心烦意乱的),impressed(铭记在心的、感人的),satisfied(满意的),worried (担心的),surprised (惊讶的),embarassed (尴尬的、难为情的),amused(高兴、开心的),depressed (抑郁的),astonished (惊异的、吃惊的),frightened(惊吓、害怕的),relaxed(放松的)等. 例如:

Faced with so much trouble,we failed to complete the task on tme.

Dressed in a white uniform,he looks more like a cook than a doctor

八、名词性从句

使用名词性从句时的注意事项:

1.宾语从句的否定转移

在think,believe,imagine,suppose等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如:

We don't think you are here.

I don't believe he will do so.

注意:这类句子后若带有附加疑问句,应采用肯定形式来反问,反问部分主语应与从句主语一致。例如:I don't believe she knows it,does she?

2.that,whether和if的用法。

that 引导名词性从句,往往表示一个statement 或fact。

whether和if往往表示疑问意义。

用Whether,if, that填空。

①I doubt ____ he will come and help us tomorrow.

②_____ we will attend the lecture has not been decided.

③It's still uncertain ____ he is coming.

④The problom is _____ he will be here tomorrow.

⑤We don't doubt ____ they can complete the task ahead of time.

答案:whether/if; Whether; whether/if; whether ; that

讲解:考查whether,if引导名词从句的异同。

①引导宾语从句可以通用,但介词后只用whether。

②引导主语从句时,if不能用于句首。但若it作形式主语时,whether和if均可引导主语从句。

③引导同位语和表语从句只能使用whether。

④Sb. doubt / be not sure / be uncerain / be doubtful whether/if…

sb. doesn't doubt / be sure / be certain / be not doubtul that

3. that、what与which的区别

that在引导名词性从句时,只起连接作用,不充当任何成分,没有任何意义,但不能省略。

what在引导名词性从句时,既起连接作用,又在从句中可充当主语、宾语或表语,有实际意义,表示"所做的事"、"所说的话"等; what引导的名词从句可与带定语从句的名词短语相互替换。

例题中的what = the thing that/which或all that

which在引导名词性从句时,也作成分,也有实际意义,但表选择。

如: He told me what he had seen in his hometown.

That he had spoken about his hometown in his speech made us interested.

Here are 5 books. Can you tell me which you would like to buy?

4. reason作主语时,后面的表语从句用that引导。

The reason for his being late for the meeting was that his wife was ill.

The reason why he was late for the meeting was that his wife was ill.

----Why was he late?

--Because his wife was ill.

5. 同位语从句和定语从句的区别

同位语从句通常位于某些抽象名词后面,如:advice,demand,doubt,fact,hope,idea,information,message,news,order,problem,promise,question,request,suggestion,truth,wish,word等,进一步说明该名词的具体内容。that不做成分,不省略。而that作为关系代词,引导定语从句时,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略。例如:

The news that he told us is exciting.

The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill.

6. wh- 引起的名词性从句与wh-ever引起的名词性从句的区别

Who/what/which引导名词性从句,表―未知的人和事物‖,有疑问意义。

Whoever/whatever/whichever引导名词性从句,表―凡是,任何,全部‖,没有疑问意义;引导状语从句,等于no matter who/what/which…(无论谁/是什么/哪一个)

Whoever comes will be welcomed.

Who will be invited hasn’t been decided.

应用:whoever(whatever)=no matter who(what)?

1. I’ll be your true friends, _____ happens.

A. whatever

B. no matter what

2. ______ I see him, he is busy with his research work.

A. Whenever

B. No matter when

3. He liked reading very much. ____ he went, he took a book with him.

A. wherever

B. no matter where

4. _______ difficult the problem may be, I’ll work it out by myself.

However B. No matter how

5. I won’t let you in, ______ you may be.

A. whoever

B. no matter who

6. ______ leaves the room last should remember to turn off the light.

A. Whoever

B. No matter who

7. I’m too busy to buy you a present, so you can use the money I give you to buy ____ you like.

A. whatever

B. no matter what

8. I’ll give the ticket to _______ really wants to see the film.

A. whoever

B. whomever

C. no matter who

(1—5 AB全对;6—8 A对。)

九、状语从句

学习状语从句,应注意:

1.近义连词辨析

如:because, for, since,now that和as

because强调原因;回答why提出的问题时;能用于强调句型中;because之前可以加上simply,only,just等强调词;不能与so并存。

如:

It was because he was ill that he didn't go with us.

You should't get angry just because some people speak ill of you.

for是并列连词,它引导的句子只能后置。

It must have rained last night,for the ground is wet this moring.

since和as引导的句子,重点在主句的内容,其原因或理由在说话人看来已很明显,或已为听话人所熟悉,since 和as, now that只是一种附带的说明原因,不是对原因进行强调,意思是"既然; 鉴于"。如:

Since/now that he can't answer the question,you may ask someone else.

As he is working hard,he is likely to succeed.

2.before在不同语境的意义

It won’t be long before you regret what you have done.

Think before you speak.

He rushed out of the room before I could say a word.

3.特殊的名词词组或副词引导的时间状语从句。如:the moment,the minute,the time,the day,the year,every time, next time,immediately,instantly,directly等。

I recognized him the moment I saw her.

4.特殊句式

例题:_______, I think, and your dream will _____ .

A. If yo u double your efforts…come true

B. A bit more efforts…come true

C. Making greater efforts…come truely

D. So long as you keep up your spirits…realize

答案: B

讲解:考查固定句式及并列连词的用法:―祈使句或名词短语+ and/or/otherwise + 陈述句(多含will)‖。

在该结构中,祈使句或名词短语相当于引导的条件状语从句,后面的陈述句相当于主句,其谓语动词时态用一般将来时。如果祈使句与陈述句为顺承关系,则用并列连词and连接。如果祈使句与陈述句为否定关系,则用并列or/otherwise连接。句意为―如果你再努力一点,你的梦想就会实现‖

= If you make a bit more efforts, you'll succeed.

十、定语从句

学习定语从句,注意以下要点:

1.Which、that引导定语从句指物时的不同。

只用which的情况

1 )在介词后面

2)在非限制性定语从句中

The pen with which I did my homework just now is not here now.

I have lost the pen,which I like very much.

只用that的情况

1 )当先行词是all,everything,anyhing,something,nothing,none时;

2)当先行词有最高级或序数词修饰时;

This is the first time that I have seen the film;

3)当先行词有only,any,no,little,few,all,the same ,the very等词修饰时;This is the only thing that I can do for you.

4)当先行词既有人又有物时;

We talked about the persons ,and the things that we saw in that countr.

5)先行词是be的表语时或关系词在从句中作表语时

It's a book that will help you a lot.

He is no longer the man (that) he used to be.

2.当表示时间、地点、原因的名词,如day, time, place, factory, reason等作先行词,如何确定用关系代词that/which 还是用关系副词when,where,why 引导定语从句。

填空:①I’ll never forget the days we spent together in Beijing.

②I’ll always remember the days we worked together in Beiing.

③This is the school she used to study.

④This is the school she built last year.

⑤The reason _____ he is absent is that he is ill.

⑥The reason _____ he gave us is that he is ill.

答案:①which/that② when③where/in which④that/which⑤why ⑥that/which

从上例可知:判断which/that还是when/ where/why,要根据关系词在从句子中的作用而定。如果作主语或宾语,就要用which/that; 如果作时间/地点状语/原因状语则用when或where/ why.

3.as与which引起的定语从句的异同

as与which都可指代主句中的一部分或整个句子的内容,在从句中作主语、宾语、或表语,一般可互换。如:The cap looks like a cat,as /which anybody can see.

但当引导词代表前边整个句子的内容并在从句中作主语且谓语动词为实义动词,只用which引导。如:

He came late,which made the teacher very angry.

只用as的三种情况:

1)位于句首2)表―正如,正像‖之意3)用于类似插入语的句式。

如:as you know,as is said above,as is known to us ,as it is等。

还要注意such…as 和the same…as搭配与such…that或the same…that的不同。

This is the same book as I lost yesterday.(同类异物)

This is the same book that I lost yesterday.(同物)

He asked such a difficult question as nobody can answer.(定语从句)

He asked such a difficult question that nobody can answer it.(状语从句)

4.介词/介词短语+ which / whom引导非限制性的定语从句

关系代词前面的介词使用是根据其与先行词的搭配关系。

We'll never forget the day on which we went camping. (on the day)

The woman to whom we spoke is from the USA. (speak to sb.)

His glasses,without which he was like a blind man,fell to the ground and broke.

含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如: look for,look afer,take care of等。This is the watch ( which / that)I am looking for. (正)

This is the watch for which I am looking. (误)

“介词(of)+关系代词”前还可有some,any,none,all,both,neither,many,most,each,few 等代词或者数词。如:

He loves his parents deeply,both of whom are very kind to him.

In the basket there are quite many apples,some of which have gone bad.

5.与强调句型、状语从句的区别

① --Where did you get to know her?

--It was on the farm ____ we worked.

② It was on the farm _____ they met each other.

③He bought a farm ______ he used to work.

A.that

B.there

C.which

D.where

答案:D (定从); A(强调句型); D(状语从句

十一、特殊句式(包括省略与替代、倒装句式和强调句型)

注意要点:

1.体现在状语从句中的省略

在时间、地点、条件、方式或让步状语从句中如果谓语动词含有动词be,主语又与主句的主语一致或主语是it 时,主语和be均可以省略。如:

Be careful when ( you are) crossing the street. (时间)

Once tasted (= Once it is tasted),the dish is hard to forget. (条件)

Rats should be wiped out where(they are)found .(地点)

Though ( he is )young, he knows a lot.(让步)

People always shake hands and say "How do you do?" when (they are) introduced to each other. (时间)

2.虚拟语气中if和should的省略。

如果从句中有were,should或had,可以把这些词放在主语前面构成倒装,而将if省去。表达为:― were/had/ should +主语‖

①Were I in school again,I would work hard.

②Should it rain tomorrow,I would not go shopping.

③Had you been here earier,you would have seen your mother.

The workers demanded that their wages (should) be increased.

3.不定式中to的省略和不定式符号to后面内容的省略

不定式中to的省略。如:

I heard someone sing in the next room.

但:Someone was heard to sing in the next room.

He did nothing but wait all the time.

但:He has no choice but to wait.

不定式符号to后面内容的省略

在同一语句或紧密相连的对话中,作宾语或宾补的不定式再次出现,to后内容省略,只保留to。

用于这类情况的常用动词有:love,like,mean,hope,wish等。

用带不定式作宾补的动词有:tell,ask,order,allow,permit,expect等。

形容词有:glad,happy,willing,able,ready等。

如:--Would you like to have a walk with me?

--I’d love to,but I am too busy now.(I’m glad to, but I am too busy now.)

Don’t touch anything unless your teacher tells you to.

4.替代性省略

not与think,suppose,beleve,guess,expect,be afraid等连用,代替否定的宾语从句,so代替肯定的宾语从句。如:

一Do you think he's got the meaning of the text?

一I expect so / I expect not

5.表地点(时间)的方位副词或介词短语作状语位于句首,引起全部倒装。这种倒装主语必须是名词,谓语常是表示方位或转移的不及物动词,如:lie,live,sit,stand,be,come,go,rise,walk,run等,主语若是人称代词或谓语不属上述动词之列,则不用完全倒装。例如:

Out rushed the boy with an apple in his hand.

On the top of the hill stands a temple where the old man once lived.

Here we are!

Then she went to the shop.

6.准确认定倒装部分。

only修饰状语从句位于句首时,将主句进行部分倒装。

not only…but(also)…连接两个分句,not only所引导的句子要倒装,但but(also)部分不要倒装。若not only…but(also)…连接两个主语,句子不要倒装。

So 形容词/分词(表语)be 主语that-clause句式中,将主句进行部分倒装,that-clause句式不要倒装。

Not until引导从句位于句首时,将主句进行部分倒装。

hardly…when…;no sooner…than…句型中,只把主句倒装。

例如:

Only when the rain stopped did the match start again.

Not only should we study science,but also we should pay attention to politics.

So excited was he that he remained awaken the whole night.

Not until he came back did I realize what trouble he was in.

Hardly had I entered the room when the phone rang.

No sooner had he finished his talk than he was surrounded(包围)by the workers.

7.强调句式与其它句式的综合使用

如:

In which TV play of Zhao Benshan’s is it that Xiedajiao appears?(强调特殊疑问词)

I don’t know who it was that broke the window.(强调结构用于宾语从句)

It was not until he took off his dark glasses that I realized he was a famous film star.

It was in the laborary where the scientist carried out the experiment that we held the meeting. (强调带定语从句的成分)

模块三高中英语学科教学设计

第一部分基本理论

葫芦岛市第一高级中学耿晓红

每一位教育工作者和教师都在实际工作中自觉不自觉地依据一定的教育思想和自己对教育、教学过程的理解,以各种方式、方法对教育的双边活动进行考虑和安排。教学工作主要是指课堂教学,但对教学的理解和把握,教师在走进课堂之前就已经开始了,而且在课后还有一系列的教学工作。教师的日常教学工作是由多项环节组成的一个系统,这个系统主要包括三个要素,即教学的设计、教学的实施和教学的评价。在进行实际教学和对教学进行评价之前,教师首先要对即将实施的教学活动进行周密的思考和精心的安排,也就是说,要对即将实施的教学活动进行设计。在此,我们将讨论教学活动实施之前的有关工作。

一、教学设计概述

教学设计涉及的内容相当丰富,对教学设计有关内容的阐释和认识,构成了教学设计理论。教学设计理论为教师的教学准备工作以及解决各类教学问题提供了一个科学的系统方法和程序,它把通常所说的备课、制定解决教学问题的方案和计划等活动纳入了科学的轨道。

(一)什么是教学设计

所谓教学设计,简单地说,就是指教师为达成一定的教学目标,对教学活动进行的系统规划、安排与决策。具体说来,教学设计是教师以现代教学理论为基础,依据教学对象的特点和自己的教学观念、经验、风格,运用系统的理论与方法,分析教学中的问题和需要,确定教学目标,建立解决问题的步骤,合理组合和安排各种教学要素,为优化教学效果而制定实施方案的系统计划过程。

由此可见,教学设计实际上是对教学活动进行构想。通过教学设计,教师可以对教学活动的基本过程有个整体的把握,可以根据教学情境的需要和教学对象的特点确定合理的教学目标,选择适当的教学方法和策略,采用有效的教学手段,创设良好的教学环境,实施可行的评价方案,从而保证教学活动的顺利进行。同时,通过教学设计,教师可以有效地了解与掌握学生学习的原有水平与学习的状态,从而及时调整教学策略与方法,采取必要的教学措施,为下一阶段的教学奠定基础。所以,教学设计是教学活动顺利进行的基本保证。

(二)教学设计的基本特征

尽管在具体的教学实践活动中,教学设计者形成的教学设计方案各不相同,但教学设计在教学活动中体现出的基本特征是普遍的,所起的作用是共同的。教学设计具有如下一些基本特征:

1、指导性

教学设计是教师为组织和指导教学活动而精心设计的教学预案,教师有关教学活动的设想都反映在教学设计中,所以教学设计的方案一旦形成并付诸行动,它就成为教师教学的基本依据,对教学活动起到指导、约束和控制的作用。为此,教师在进行教学设计时,一定要认真思考、全面规划。

2、系统性

教学是由多种教学要素组成的一个复杂系统,教学设计则是对这诸多要素进行系统安排与组合。以系统科学的方法指导教学设计,是科学的教学设计与经验的教学设计之间的重大区别。建立在经验基础上的教学设计往往只注重教学的某个部分,具有较大的局限性;而从系统科学的方法出发,就要求对由诸多要素构成的教学活动进行综合的、整体的规划与安排。为此,教学设计时应考虑全面,仔细分析每一个教学要素,以达到所有的教学要素在实现教学目标中的有机综合,成为一个完整的统一体。

3、操作性

教学设计为教学理论与教学实践的有效结合提供了现实的结合点,它既有一定的理论色彩,又有明确的教学实践指向。在成型的教学设计方案中,各类教学目标被分解成具体的、可操作的目标,教学内容的选择、教学方法的运用、教,学时问的分配、教学环境的调适、教学媒体的使用以及教学评价手段的实施等都作了具体的规定和安排,这一系列的规定和安排都具有很强的可操作性。

4、预演性

教师进行教学设计,实际上是对实际教学活动的预演,如同演员上台表演节目一样,在正式演出前,都要经过多次的排练。所以,教师在进行教学设计时,对整个教学活动过程的每一个环节、每一项步骤都要在头脑中进行预演,并要有如临真实教学情境的体验,从而为教学活动的顺利实施提供保证。

5、创造性

教学是一项创造性的活动,教学设计也是一项极富创造性的工作。教学设计的过程实际上是教师在深入钻研教材的基础上,认真分析学生的实际,并依据不同的教学目标要求,进行创造性地设计教学实施方案的过程。教学设计尽管使教学程序化、合理化和精确化,但它并不束缚教学实践的自由,更不会扼杀教师的教学创造性。相反,教学设计很强调具体情况具体对待,强调把教师个人的教学风格、教学经验和教学智慧等都要融入教学设计方案,这为教师个人创造性才能的发挥提供了广阔的空间。

二、教学设计的依据

教学设计是一项复杂的工作,成功的教学设计必须综合考虑多方面的因素。教学设计的依据一般可有以下一些:

(一)教学理论

理论的指导是教学设计由经验层次上升到理性、科学层次的一个基本前提。科学的教学理论就是对教学规律的客观总结和反映,依据教学理论和学习理论设计教学活动,实际上就是要求教学设计的方案和措施要符合教学规律。教学理论的指导可帮助教师摆脱狭隘的经验主义的窠臼,通过对教学过程的客观认识,全面考虑学生实际和教材内容的特点以及教师本人的实际,进行综合设计。

(二)学生特点

教学设计的基本特征之一是它既关心“教”又关心“学”。课堂教学是教师和学生双方共同活动的过程,在这个过程中有教师的“教”,也有学生的“学”,教是为了学,学是教的依据和出发点,教师的教必须通过学生的积极主动的学才能起作用。所以,教师在进行教学设计时,必须考虑学生的实际,必须把学生的身心发展特点和规律作为教学设计的一个重要依据加以认真对待。

(三)教学实际需要

教学设计从根本上讲是为了满足教学活动的实际需要,是为教学活动的实际展开提供行动方案。所以,离开了教学活动的现实需要,也就不存在教学设计。教学活动的实际需要主要体现在教学的任务和教学目标中,教师在进行教学设计时,要明确和分析教学任务和教学目标,并把它们分解成可操作的具体要求,全面考虑各种教学要素。

(四)教师经验

教学设计过程可能是教师个体创造性劳动的过程,也可能是教师群体创造性劳动的过程,在一套成型的教学设计方案中,凝聚着教师个体或群体的经验、智慧和风格,所以,教师的经验也是教学设计的依据和条件。在进行教学设计时,我们既不能全凭经验行事,也不能排斥教学经验的作用,而应将理论与经验结合起来,这样才能设计出既有理论指导又可实践操作,既有共性又有个性,既有科学性又有艺术性的行动方案来。

三、教学设计的程序与模式

作为教学实施前的准备活动,教学设计有着基本的设计步骤和设计模式。