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当前位置:文档库 > 【托福听力备考】TPO16 听力文本——Lecture 1

【托福听力备考】TPO16 听力文本——Lecture 1

【托福听力备考】TPO16 听力文本——Lecture 1

众所周知,托福TPO材料是备考托福听力最好的材料。相信众多备考托福的同学也一直在练习这套材料,那么在以下内容中我们就为大家带来托福TPO听力练习的文本,希望能为大家的备考带来帮助。

TPO 16 Lecture 1 geology

Narrator: Listen to a part of lecture in a geology class.

Professor: Now there are some pretty interesting caves in parts of the

western United States, especially in national parks. There is one part that has

over a hundred caves, including some of the largest ones in the world. One of

the more interesting ones is called Lechuguilla Cave. Lechuguilla has been

explored a lot in recent decades. It’s a pretty exciting place I think. It was

mentioned only briefly in your books. So can anyone remember what it said?

Ellen?

Male Student: It’s the deepest limestone cave in the U.S.?

Professor: That’s right. It’s one of the longest and deepest limestone caves

not just in the country but in the world. Now, what else?

Male Student: Well, it was formed because of sulfuric acid, right?

Professor: That’s it. Yeah, what happens is you have deep underground oil

deposits and there are bacteria. Here let me draw a diagram.

Part of the limestone rock layer is permeated by water from below. Those

curly lines are supposed to be cracks in the rock. Below the water table and

rock is oil. Bacteria feed on this oil and release hydrogen sulfide gas. This

gas is hydrogen sulfide, rises up and mixes with oxygen in the underground water

that sits in the cracks and fissures in the limestone. And when hydrogen sulfide reacts with the oxygen in the water, the result of that is sulfuric acid, Ok? Sulfuric acid eats away at limestone very aggressively. So you get bigger cracks and then passageways being formed along the openings in the rock and it’s all underground. Ah yes, Paul?

Male Student: So that water... It’s not flowing, right? It’s still? Professor: Yes, so there’s two kinds of limestone caves. In about 90 percent of them, you have water from the surface, streams, waterfall or whatever - moving water that flows through cracks found in the limestone. It’s the moving water itself that wears away at the rock and makes passageways.

Also, in surface water, there is a weak acid, carbonic acid, not sulfuric acid, but carbonic acid that helps dissolve the rock. With a little help from this carbonic acid, moving water forms most of the world’s limestone caves. When I was researching this for a study a few years ago, I visited a couple of these typical limestone caves, and they were all very wet, you know, from streams and rivers. This flowing water carved out the caves and the structures inside them.

Male Student: But not Lechuguilla?

Professor: Dry as a bone. Well, that might be a bit of an exaggeration. But it’s safe to say that it’s sulfuric acid and not moving water that formed Lechuguilla cave and those few other ones like it. In fact, there is no evidence

that flowing water has even gone in or out of the cave. So, it’s like a maze.

You have passageways all around. There are wide passages, narrow ones at all different depths, like underground tunnels in the limestone. And, since they were created underground and not from flowing surface water, not all these passageways have an opening to the outside world.

And.. .and there is other evidence that flowing water wasn’t involved in Lechuguilla. We’ve said that sulfuric acid dissolves limestone, right, and forms the passageways? What else does sulfuric acid do? Paul?

Male Student: Ah, leaves a chemical residue ... um...

Female Student: Gypsum, right?

Professor: Yep, you’ll find lots of gypsum deposited at Lechuguilla. And, as we know, gypsum is soluble in water. So if there were flowing water in the cave, it would dissolve the gypsum. This is part of what led us to the realization that Lechuguilla is in that small group of waterless caves.

And Lechuguilla is pretty much dormant now. It’s not really forming any more.

But, there is other ones like it, for example, in Mexico, that are forming. And when cave researchers go to explore them, they see and smell, the sulfuric acid

and gases of...er...phew...now, something else, think of rotten eggs. And, it’s

not just the smell. Explorers even need to wear special masks to protect themselves from the gases in these caves. OK? Paul.

Male Student: Yeah, how about what these caves look like on the inside?

Professor: Well, the formations.. .there is really something. There’s such variety there, like nothing anywhere else in the world, some of them are elaborate looking, like decorations. And a lot of them are made of gypsum and could be up to 20 feet long. It’s pretty impressive.