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同位语与定语从句的区别和练习

同位语与定语从句的区别和练习

注意,有的题不止一个答案。

1. (1) He made a promise ____ fooled the girl into believing him.

(2) Paul made a promise ____ he would be good to Helen after they got marrie

d.

A. that

B. which

C. what

D. who

2. (1) The proofs ____ you offered does not agreed with the fact.

(2) Many proofs ____ the Nansha Island belong to China have been discovered o n the right islands.

A. which

B. that

C. whether

D. 不

3. (1) We ought to often ask ourselves the question ____ we’ve made any prog re ss.

(2) She asked me a question ____ put me into a difficult position.

A. if

B. whether

C. that

D. 不填

4. (1) The reason ____ man cannot live on sea water is that it contains too muc

h salt.

(2) For his fault he gave me a reason ____ sounded reasonable but actually coul dn’t stand water(站不住脚).

A. that

B. which

C. why

D. 不填

5. (1) The arose the question ____ we were to get so much money.

(2) This the house ____ the great man Mao Zedong was born 110 years ago.

A. where

B. that

C. about which

D. in which

6. (1) God bless this ship and all that ____ in the ship.

(2) The information that all the ships ____ for Shanghai has been proved.

7. (1) During 1937 and 1945, Japanese aggressor troops killed more than 40 million Chinese, ____ is one in ten of the whole nation.

(2) During 1937 and 1945, Japanese aggressor troops killed more than 40 m illion Chinese, ____ we’ll never forget.

A. that

B. which

C. this

D. 不填

答案与简析:

1. (1) A/B (2) A。同位语从句前的名词常为question, idea, suggestion, news, order, message, thought, fact, plan, promise等,但这些名词也可以用作定语从句的先行词。它们的区别是:同位语从句说明先行词的内容,它们互为同位关系,即都指同一

个东西,如题(2)的从句“婚后他会好好地待海伦”就是先行词promise的内容,因此是同位语从句;而定语从句说明先行词的性质、特征、目的等,它们互为修饰和被修饰的关系,如题(1)中的从句“(这个诺言)使得那个姑娘上当受骗,相信了他”就是修饰先行词promise的,因此是定语从句。同时还需记住,同位语从句通常不用which引导,而定语从句大都可以用which引导(除特殊情况以外)。

2. (1) A/B/D (2) B。从上述关于两种从句的性质区别可知,题(1)是定语从句,题(2)是同位语从句。当引导词that或which在定语从句中作宾语时,可以省略;而引导同位语从句的that一般不能省。

3. (1) B (2) C。引导同位语从句要用whether,不用if。顺便补充一点:引导宾语从句时,既可以用whether也可以用if,例如:She asked me if / whether I had bee n to South Africa.

4. (1) A/C/D (2) A/B。说明reason 的同位语从句可由that,或why引导,也可以省略。但修饰reason的定语从句不能用why引导,而且在从句中作主语时,引导词that 或which不能省略。

5. (1) A (2) A/D。先行词与where, when概念一致时,是定语从句,如(2)中的house与where同表地点,且这个关系副词where或when可以用“介词+which”的形式代替。说明先行词内容的同位语从句的引导词where, when却与被说明的名词在概念上不一致。如(1)题中的question与where不表同一概念。

6. (1) B (2) B。定语从句的引导词作主语时,谓语动词的单、复数形式要与先行词保持一致,如(1)中的sail必须与all (= all the passengers)一致。同位语从句that 不充当成分,因此从句中的谓语动词的单、复数与前面被说明的名词无关,如题(2)中的sail与information无关。

7. (1) A (2) B。我们知道,非限定性定语从句不能用that引导,而且即使在从句中作宾语,which等引导词也不能省略(见题2)。而当逗号后面的从句表达的内容与前面的名词是同位关系时,则要用that引导,事实上,that is= that is to say,我们不妨把它叫做“非限定性同位语从句”,以便于记忆和区别。题(1)是同位语从句,意思是“在1937年至1945年之间,日本侵略者杀害了四千多万中国人,即(杀害了)全国人口的十分之一。