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形容词副词比较等级

高中英语语法复习专题讲解-形容词副词

一、考点聚焦

1、形容词和副词的比较等级

(3)比较级的用法。

①对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级+ than”的结构表示。如:

This picture is more beautiful than that one.

②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级+ than”的结构表示。如:

This room is less beautiful than that one.

③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如even、a lot、a bit、a little、still、much、far、yet、by far等修饰。如:

He works even harder than before.

注意:英语的比较级前如无even、still或yet等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“…一些”或不译出,一般不可有“更”。如:

She is better than she was yesterday

Please come earlier tomorrow.

另注意:by far通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。如:

He is taller by far than his brother.

He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语+ 谓语),the + 比较级(主语+ 谓语)”的结构(意为“越……越……”)。如:

The harder he works, the happier he feels.

⑤不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级+ and + 比较级”的结构。如:

The weather is getting colder and colder.

The girl becomes more and more beautiful.

⑥某些以-ior结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。这些词有inferior(劣等的,次的)、superior(较好的,优于……)、junior(资历较浅的)、senior(资格较老的)、prior(在……之前)等。

He is superior to Mr. Zhang in chemistry.

⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that指物,one既可指人又可指物。that可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而one只能代替可数名词。

The book on the table is more interesting than that(或the one)on the desk.

A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood.

⑧倍数表达法。(A)A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)。The new bui9lding is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍)。(B)A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times a s large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。(C)A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)tha n B. Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.

(4)最高级的用法。

①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。如:

Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.

He works(the)hardest in his class.

②最高级可被序数词以及much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、nothin

g like等词语所修饰。如:

This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like th

e biggest.

How much did the second most expensive hat cost?

③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如excellent、extreme、perfect等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如:

He is the tallest(boy)in his class.

⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如:

Of all the boys he came(the)earliest.

(5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。

①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加冠词。

②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比较,表示“非常”。如:

He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very)

The film is most interesting.(most=very)

③表示两者间“较……的一个”比较级前加the。如:

who is the older of the tow boys?

④在“the + 比较级…,the + 比较级…”结构中。

⑤在same前一般要加the。

⑥有些形容词前加the 成为名词。如the poor、the rich 等。

(6)由as / so组成的形容词或副词短语。

①as much as + 不可数名词数量。

Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons.

She could earn as much as ten dollars a week.

②as many as + 可数名词数量多达

I have as a many as sixteen reference books.

③as early as早在

As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island.

④as far as远到;就……而知(论)

We might go as far as (走到)the church and back.

As far as I know(就我所知),he has been there before.

⑤may (might, could)as well不妨、不如

Then you might as well stay with us here.

⑥as … as can be到了最……的程度,极其

They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。

⑦as … as one can

He began to run, as fast as he could.

⑧as … as possible

Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible.

(7)重要的词语辨析。

so … that … 与such … that … 的区别。

so + 形容词/ 副词+ that …

so + 形容词+ a(n)+ 单数可数名词+ that …

so + many / much / little / few + 名词+ that …

such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词+ that …

such + 形容词+ 不可数名词+ that …

such + 形容词+ 复数名词+ that …

注意:下列结构中只能用so不可用such,当名词前有many、much、little、few等表示“多、少”的词修饰时,如so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples等。但当little表示“小”时用suc

h。如:These are such little boys that they can?t dress themselves.下列so的用法是错误的:so a dif ficult problem, so difficult problems, so hot weather。

二、精典名题导解

选择填空

1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.(NMET 2001)

A. an art much as

B. much an art as

C. as an art much as

D. as much an art as

2. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ______known for his plays.(NMET 199

8)

A. the best

B. more

C. better

D. the most高考英语比较级典型陷阱题分析

3. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard _____ voice.

A. a better

B. a best

C. the better

D. the best

4“I?ve never found a better job.” “_______.”

A. I don?t think so

B. Too bad

C. Congratulations

D. Don?t worry

5“What do you think of the service here?” “Oh, ______. We couldn?t have found a better place.”A. too bad B. sorry

C.wonderful

D. impossible

6 Boris has brains. In fact, I doubt whether anyone in the class has _____IQ.

A. a high

B.a higher

C. the higher

D. the highest

7 How cold it is! We?ve never had ______ this winter.

A. the colder day

B. a cold day

C. the coldest day

D. a colder day

8. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is _____ known for his plays.

A. the best

B. more

C. better

D. the most。

9. You are _____ careful than your brother. You two can?t do the work that needs care and skill.

A. not more

B.no more

C. not less

D. no less

【分析】要做对此题,首先要正确理解以下结构的含义:

not more … than = 不如……

no more … than = 和……一样不(否定两者)

not less … than = 不如……不(即指不如less 后形容词的反面)

no less … than = 和……一样(肯定两者)

比较以下各句的意思:

You are more careful than he is. 你比他仔细。

You are not more careful than he is. 你不如他仔细。

You are no more careful than he is. 你和他一样不仔细。

You are less careful than he is. 你不如他仔细(你比他粗心)。

You are not less careful than he is. 你比他仔细(你不如他粗心)。

You are no less careful than he is. 你和他一样仔细。

通过以上分析,再结合句子语境,可知此题最佳答案为B。

10. “Oh, how fat he is!” “But I think he is ____ than fat.”

A. short

B. shorter

C. more short

D. shortest

【分析】C。要弄清此问题,得先从比较句型的两种不同类型说起:

(1) 异类同质比较:即指两个不同的人或事物(异类)在同一方面(同质)进行比较。如:

My room is smaller than yours. 我的房间比你的小。

Our country is more powerful than theirs. 我们的国家比他们的国家更强大。

(2) 同类异质比较:即指同一个人或事物(同类)在两个不同的方面(异质)进行比较,这类句子常译为“(更多的)是……,而不是”、“与其……不如……”等。如:

He was more lucky than clever. 他是靠运气而不是靠聪明。

She was mare surprised than angry. 她感到更多的是惊讶而不是生气。

This is more a war movie than a western. 这更应当说是一部战争片,而不是西部片。

按英语习惯,在进行同类异质比较时,只能用more构成比较级,不能用-er形式,即使是单音节词也是如此。比较级和最高级的常用句型

名称句型例句

相等as 原形as (as 原形+名词as ) The train travels as fast as the 3:55 train.He has not as much money as his friend.

不及not as(so) 原形as (not as[so ]+名词+原形as ) She is not as (so)beautiful as her sister. 比较级+ than Health is more important than wealth.

超越the +比较级+of the two两者中较… 的一个He is the taller of the two.

用于否定no +比较级+than和…一样不He is no richer than I.他和我一样不富有。

用于否定最…不过His work couldn't be worse.他的工作再糟糕不过了。

程度递增er and er,more and more+多音节词原级(越来越…) higher and higher more and mor e i mportant

两种情况同时变化the +比较级,the+比较级(越…,越…)The quicker you get ready, the soon er we'll be able to leave.

三者或三者以上比较the +最高级+of/in+比较范围(…之中最…)Of all things in the world, peopl e are the precious.

比较级结构的修饰语

1.用于原级之前:

almost, nearly, just, exactly, quite, half , twice, three times , a third, etc.

John is almost as tall as you.

The river is three times as long as that one.

We have a third as many students as we had last term.

2.用于比较级前

many, a few (用于"more +可数名词"前)

It takes many more hours to go there by train than by plane.

a lot, much , a bit, even, a little , still, a great deal, far, rather, two years, ten percent,three t imes etc.

It's cold this year, but it's even colder last year.

We produced 6% more grain this year than we did last year.

3.用于形容词和最高级前

the very , much the ,by far the ,the first/second

This hat is by far the largest in the world.

Gold is the very most valuable of all materials .

四、形容词的比较等级

1.形容词原级的用法

(1)需要注意的形容词的原级用法:

①"数词+times +as+形容词原级+as"(是……的几倍).例如:

This tree is twice as short as that one.

这棵树比那棵树矮一倍.

My scores are three times as many as yours.

我的分数是你的三倍.

This road is four times as wide as that one.

这条马路的宽度是那条的四倍.

②"half +as+形容词原级+as"(……的一半……).例如:

My English is not half as good as yours.

我的英语不如你的一半好.

This town is half as big as ours.

这个城镇有我们城镇的一半大.

The rivers in the north aren't half as many as those in the south. 北方的河流不如南方的一半多.

③"as…as"结构中,若形容词作定语修饰可数名词单数,不定冠词a(an)应置于形容词与名词之间.例如: English is as important a subject as maths.

英语是和数学同样重要的一门学科.

Uncle Wang is as good a man as my father.

王叔叔是与我父亲同样好的一个人.

This is as famous a school as ours.

这是一所与我们学校同样著名的学校.

④"as…as"结构若指同一个人或物,则并无比较意义,而只是说明某人或某物具有两种性质.译为"又……又……"或"不但……而且……".例如:

This computer is as good as it is cheap.

这台电脑又好又便宜.

The boy is as strong as he is brave.

这个男孩又健壮又勇敢.

The city of Suzhou is as beautiful as it is clean.

苏州城既美丽又干净.

2.形容词比较级的用法

(1)表示两者之间比较时,用"形容词比较级+than"或"less…than"两种句型.例如:

Your mother looks healthier than before.

你妈妈看上去比以前健康了.

I'm less interested in basketball than you.

我没有你对篮球感兴趣.

(2)形容词的比较级还可以用于以下句型中.

①more and more… 越来越…….例如:

The park is getting more and more beautiful.

这个公园变得越来越美了.

China had become stronger and stronger.

中国已变得越来越强大了.

②the more…the… 越……就越…….例如:

The more books we read, the cleverer we will become.

我们读的书越多,就会变得越聪明.

The more trees, the better. 树越多越好.

The sooner, the better. 越早越好.

The more exercise we take, the healthier we are.

我们越锻炼,身体就越健康.

③"the+比较级+of the two…"两个中较……的一个.例如:

I'd like to go to the farther of the two places.

我愿意去两个地方中更远的那个地方.

She is the fatter of the two girls.

她是那两个女孩中较胖的一个.

④"比较级+than any other+单数名词"比其他任何……都…….例如:

Li Lei is taller than any other boy in his class.

李雷比他班上其他任何一个男孩都高.(暗指李雷最高)

The population of China is larger than any other's in the world. 中国的人口比世界上其他任何国家的人口都多.(暗指中国人口最多)

五、几种常见的形容词句型

1.形容词+介词+名词(或代词或动名词)

I'm not interested in playing computer games.

我对打电脑游戏不感兴趣.

My parents are pleased with my studies.

我父母对我的学习感到满意.

2.It is(was)+形容词+of/for+名词(或代词)+不定式

It's foolish of me to make such a mistake.

犯这样的错误,我真是太傻了.

It was kind of the driver to send the old man home.

这位司机把老人送回家,他真是太好了.

It's difficult for me to finish the work in a day.

对我来说,一天之内完成这项工作很难.

3.形容词+不定式

常用于这种句型的形容词有:able, sure, lucky, ready, happy, likely等.例如:

She is sure to pass the exam.

她一定会通过考试的.

I'm lucky to meet you here.

我真幸运,能在这儿碰到你.

几个无比较意义的比较级句型归纳

1. no more than =only 只有,仅仅,只不过

There are no more than a hundred people in the hall. 大厅里只有100人。

2. not more than=at the most 不超过,至多

There are not more than a hundred people in the hall. 大厅里至多100人。

3. no less than 多达,不少于

He made no less than£500. 他赚了多达五百英镑的钱。

He walks no less than five miles to school. 他上学至少要走五英里。

4. less than 不到,不太,极不

I won…t take less than $5000 for my car. 我的汽车低于5000美元不卖。

The boys were less than happy about having a party. 开晚会男孩子并不很高兴。

Doctors have been less than successful in treating this condition.

医生在治疗这种病时极不成功。

5. more than 多于,超过(=over,后接数词);不只是(=not only,后接名词、动词或副词);非常,十分(=very,后接形容词、副词、动词或分词);难以,完全不能(用于more than…can…)

He was more than seventy years of age. 他有七十多岁了。

He more than smiled, but laughed. 他不只是微笑而是大笑。

They were more than glad to help. 他们非常乐于帮忙。

That is more than I can tell. 那我就不知道了。

6. more or less (=almost, nearly, about) 基本上,差不多,大约

The work is more or less finished. 工作基本上完成了。

The repairs will cost $30, more or less. 修理费大约要30美元。

7. sooner or later 迟早,早晚,总有一天

You should tell her because she…ll find out sooner or later.

你还是告诉她吧,因为她早晚会发觉的。

8. what‘s more而且,此外,还有,更有甚者

I missed the bus and had to walk home. What…s more, it was raining and I got all wet.

我赶不上巴士,不得不走回家,而且那时正在下雨,我全身都湿透了。

9. no sooner…than… 一……就……

巩固训练

1. It takes a long time to go there by train. Ifs_______by road.

A. quick

B. the quickest

C. much quick

D. quicker

2. ---if you don't like the red coat, take the blue one.

---Ok, but do you have _______size in blue? This one's a bit tight for me.

A. big

B. a bigger

C. the big

D. the bigger

3. ---Are you satisfied with her answer?

---Not at all. It couldn't have been_______.

A. worse

B. so bad

C. better

D. the worst

4. He made the _______ mistakes in the dictation exercise.

A. less

B. least

C. fewer

D. fewest

5.She doesn't speak _______ her friends, but her written work is excellent.

A. as well as

B. as often as

C. as much as

D. as good as

6.The horse is getting old and cannot run _______ it did.

A. as faster as

B. so fast than

C. so faster as

D. as fast as

7.Children shouldn't stay up _______ grown-ups do.

A. as later as

B. so late than

C. so later as

D. as late as

8.---How did you find your visit to the museum?

---I thoroughly enjoyed it. It was _______ than I expected.

A. far more interesting

B. even much interesting

C. so more interesting

D. a lot much interesting

9.He had never spent a _______ day.

A. more worry

B. most worrying

C. more worrying

D. most worried

10.John has three sisters. Mary is the _______ of the three.

A. most cleverest

B. more clever

C. cleverest

D. cleverer

11.Among us Zhang Hong swims_______.

A. the fastest

B. the most fast

C. most fastly

D. the most fastly

12.The salesman showed her several bags and she chose _______ one as she didn't want to spend too much money on it.

A. the less expensive

B. less expensive

C. the least expensive

D. least expensive

13.Which is_______country, Canada or Australia?

A. a large

B. large

C. a larger

D. the larger

14.Of the two shirts. I'd like to choose_______one.

A. the less expensive

B. the most expensive

C. less expensive

D. most expensive

15.If the manager had to choose between the two, he would say John was_______choice.

A. good

B. the best

C. better

D. the better

16. Its believed that _______ you work, _______ result you'll get.

A. the harder; the better

B. the more hard; the more better

C. the harder; a better

D. more hard; more better

17.The climate of Shanghai in summer is not so hot as________.

A. Nanjing

B. of Nanjing

C. that of Nanjing

D. in Nanjing

18.If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with _______ money and _______

people. (1990)

A. less; less

B. fewer; fewer

C. less; fewer

D. less; few

19. Some people are against the plan, but _______ support it.

A.many more

B.much more

C.no more

D.any more

20. Paper produced every year is _______ the worlds production of vehicle.

A. the three times weight of

B. three times the weight of

C. as three times heavy as

D. three times heavy as

21.After the new technique was introduced, the factory produced ________tractors in 1988 as the year before.

A. as twice many

B. as many twice

C. twice as many

D. twice many as

22. This ship measures________that one.

A. as twice as long

B. as twice long as

C. twice long as

D. twice as long as

23.The story sounds _______.

A. to be true

B. as true

C. being true

D. true

24.These oranges taste _______.

A. good

B. well

C. to be good

D. to be well

25.John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes ________.

A. open

B. to be opened

C. to open

D. opening

26.What he said sounds_______.

A. nicely

B. pleasantly

C. friendly

D. wonderfully

27.We don't care if a hunting dog smells _______, but we really don't want him to smell _______.

A. well; well

B. bad; bad

C. well; badly

D. badly; bad

28. ---Mum, I think I'm _______ to get back to school.

---Not really, my dear. You'd better stay at home for another day or two.

A. so well

B. so good

C. well enough

D. good enough

29.________ box cannot be lifted by a boy of five.

A. So a heavy

B. So heavy a

C. A such heavy

D. Such heavy a

30._________,I went to the railway station to see my friend off.

A. After eating quickly my dinner

B. After my quickly eating dinner

C. After eating my dinner quickly

D. After eating my quickly dinner

31. It is a good way for you to memorize new words by seeing them ________.

A. properly

B. repeatedly

C. clearly

D. usually

32.It is well known that he has a _________ memory.

A. comfortable

B. remarkable

C. reasonable

D. visible

33.Look! The room is ________ lighted and full of guests.

A. brilliantly

B. clearly

C. warmly

D. constantly

34. This question is _________ easy.

A. completely

B. widely

C. fairly

D. mostly

35.I bought a shirt because it was good in quality and _________ in price.

A. reasonable

B. valuable

C. comfortable

D. enjoyable

36. The patient's progress was encouraging as he could _________ get out of bed without help.

A. nearly

B. only

C. hardly

D. badly

37._________,the medical team is made up of twelve doctors,

A. Altogether

B. Entirely

C. Completely

D. Wholly

38.Good technique in medicine means less pain and fewer death and,_________,it is our duty to master it.

A. altogether

B. therefore

C. otherwise

D. however

39.She is ________ to leave as soon as possible.

A. hurried

B. anxious

C. worried

D. nervous

40.If you are _________ about Australian cities, just read the book written by Dr. Johnson.

A. interested

B. anxious

C. upset

D. curious

41.Their cheerful voices showed that they were having a _________ discussion, (1997,上海)

A. noisy

B. serious

C. complete

D. friendly

42.Alice laid her baby on the sofa _________ and wrapped it in a blanket. (2000,上海)

A. silently

B. tenderly

C. friendly

D. comfortably

43.Fred is second to none in maths in our class, but believe it or not, he ________passed the last exam.

A. easily

B. hardly

C. actually

D. successfully

44.Our bodies are strengthened by taking exercise. _________ our minds are developed by learning.

A. Probably

B. likely

C. Similarly

D. Generally

45.hese oranges taste ________.

A. good

B. well

C. to be good

D. to be well

46.What he said sounds _________.

A. nicely

B. pleasantly

C. friendly

D. wonderfully

47.The students are _________ young people between the ages of sixteen and twenty.

A. most

B. almost

C. mostly

D. at most

48.--Excuse me, is this Mr. Brown's office?

--I'm sorry, but Mr. Brown _________ works here. He left about three weeks ago.

A. not now

B. no more

C. not still

D. no longer

49. --Will you give this message to Mr. White, please?

--Sorry, I can't. He ________.

A. doesn't any more work here

B. doesn't any longer work here

C. doesn't work any more here

D. doesn't work here any longer

50.――How _________ was Tom driving when the policeman stopped him?

――Eighty miles an hour.

A. rapid

B. long

C. far

D. fast

51.How________can you finish the drawing?

A. often

B. soon

C. long

D. rapid

52."________ have you been away from home?"

"I have been away from home for five months."

A. How much

B. What time

C. How long

D. When

53. When Smith was a young man, he stayed in Paris for ________.

A. some times

B. some time

C. sometimes

D. sometime

54. It was ________ late to catch a bus after the party; therefore we called a taxi.

A. too very

B. much too

C. too much

D. far

55. Those T-shirts are usually $ 35 each, but today they have a _________ price of $19 in the Shopping Center.

A. regular

B. special

C. cheap

D. particular

56. A piece of_________ music will make you happy.

A. fond

B. pleased

C. merry

D. glad

57. After the president made an official announcement, she expressed her _______ opinion.

A. personal

B. private

C. single

D. individual

58.This town has________bridge.

A.a stone old fine

B.an old stone fine

C.a fine old stone

D.an old fine stone

59.It is a beautiful car , but it is not _________the price that I paid for it.

A.cost

B.worthy

C.worth

D.valuable

60._________temple you visited yesterday was constructed by the ancient

Chinese.

A.The eight-centuries-old

B.The eight-century’s-old

C.The old-eight-centuries

D.The eight-century-old