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中考英语定语从句讲解及练习

定语从句讲解及练习

在复合句中修饰名词和代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫做先行词。

引导定语从句的关系代词有who, whose, whom, which, that 。

引导定语从句的关系副词有when, where, why。

关系代词在定语从句中做主语,宾语,定语。关系副词在定语从句中做状语。

一、who引导的定语从句,who在从句中做主语(口语中也可做宾语),修饰表示人的先行词。

This is the man who helped me.

The boy who//whom we saw yesterday is John’s brother.

二、whom引导的定语从句,whom在从句中作宾语,修饰表示人的先行词,口语中可以省略。

The doctor (whom) you are looking for is in the room.

The person (whom) you just talked to is Mr. Li.

=The person to whom you just talked is Mr. Li. (介词后whom不能省略)

The babies whom the nurses are looking after are very healthy.

(固定短语中的介词一般不能拆开,仍放在动词之后。look for / look after /take care of / put on / take off…)

三、whose引导的定语从句,whose在从句中作定语,修饰表示人或物的先行词。

Do you know the woman whose name is Mary. Pass me the dictionary whose cover is black.

He has a friend whose father is a doctor.

四、that引导的定语从句,that在从句中做主语或宾语、修饰表示人或物的先行词。作宾语时可省略,不能放在介词后面作宾语. (that指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which)

The letter (that//which) I received was from my father.

I can’t find the letter that//which came this morning.

Do you still remember the days (that//which)we spent together ?

This is the man that//who helped me.

The house (that//which) we live in is not large. =The house in which we live is not large.

The doctor (that//whom //who)you are looking for is in the room.

五、which引导的定语从句,which在从句中做主语,也可做宾语,或介词的宾语,修饰表示物的先行词。This is the book (which/that ) you want.

The building which//that stands near the river is our school.

The room in which there is a machine is a workshop.(介词后面的which不能省略)

The house (which/that) we live in is not large.

This is the watch (which/that ) he was looking for.

六、只能用that的情况小结:

1. 在there + be 的句型中,句子的主语是先行词,而且又是物。

There are two novels that I want to read.我要读的有两本小说。

There is no work that can be done now. 没有什么工作现在能做的了。

2. 当先行词为主句的表语

This is the book that was bought yesterday.这就是昨天买的书。

Our school is no longer the school that it used to be.我们的学校不再是以前的学校了。

3. 以Here is (are)开头的句子时。

Here is a film that will move anyone. 这是一部将使任何人受感动的电影。

Here are two books that I will buy. 这是我要买的两本书。

4. It is (high) time +定语从句中。

It is time that we should have a rest. 我们应该休息了。

It is high time that they started out. 他们该动身了。

5. 当先行词是way等词时,关系代词用that或者in which在定语从句中作方式状语时,在口语中,可省略。

This is the way that my father did this work.这就是我父亲做此工作的方式。

She admired the way in which I answered the questions.她羡慕我回答问题的方式。

6. 在双重限定性定语从句中,如果一个从句用who或者which引导时,那么另一个从句用that引导。

He is the student that I have ever see who can jump highest. 他是我曾经看到过跳得最高的学生。

My brother stu dies in the school which is the most beautiful in our city that isn’t far from here.

我的弟弟在我们的城市最美丽的学校读书,并且离这儿不远。

7. 当先行词被the last , the very 和the only修饰时。

This is the very pen that I am looking for. 这正是我找的钢笔。

The only book I want to read is missing. 我唯一想看的书不见了。

8. 在强调句子中,并且以who ,which, what开头时。

Who was it that was lost ?究竟是谁迷路了?

What was it that you did last week?你上周究竟做什么了?

9. 当先行词被序数词、数词、形容词最高级修饰时。

You are the first person that I want to ask for.你是我要见的第一个人。

This is the second book that I have ever written.这是我写的第二本书。

10. 当先行词被all, every, no , some, few , little, much, both等修饰时,

This is all that I want to say at the meeting.这就是我在会上要说的。

Have you any books that are worth reading?你有值的看的书吗?

11. 当先行词既指人又指物时。

The professor and his achievement that I heard about are admired by them .

Let’s talk about the persons and the things that we can remember.

12. 当先行词为anything、everything、nothing时,关系代词用that,不用which;但用something时,用which

或者that均可。

Everything we have seen in China is moving.我们在中国看见的东西件件感人。

I have nothing that is worth reading.

13. 当先行词是疑问代词who时。

Who that you have ever seen can beat him in chess?你曾见过谁能在棋艺上打败他?

七、由when 引导的定语从句,修饰表示时间的先行词,when为关系副词,做定语从句的时间状语。

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.

I still remember the day on which I first came to Beijing.

( 介词+which可以代替when)

I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

I remember the days which//that we spent together.

八、由where 引导的定语从句,修饰表示地点的先行词,where为关系副词,做定语从句的地点状语。This is the place where we lived for five years.

The factory where his father works is in the west of the city.

The factory in which his father works is in the west of the city.

( 介词+which可以代替where)

This is a place which/that I wanted to visit.

Shanghai is the city where I was born.

九、Why引导的定语从句,why做原因状语。

I know the reason why he came late. ( for+which可以代替why)

The reason why / for which he was late was that he was ill.

十、关系代词在从句中作主语,谓语动词的数与先行词保持一致。

The student who is good at English studies hard.

The students who are good at English study hard.

十一、定语从句可分为两大类,即限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

①限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,如果去掉的话,主句的意思就不完整,意义就表述不明。这种句型一般定语从句紧接先行词(不用逗号隔开)如:

I was the only person in my office who was invited.

②非限制性定语从句。它与主句的关系不十分密切,只是对先行词起补充、说明的作用,也就是说即便去掉定语从句,句意也不受影响。主从句之间常用逗号分开,且非限制性定语从句不能用that来引导。

This was the American Civil War, which lasted 4 years before the North won in the end.