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Unit 1


explore(v.勘探,探测) transmit(v.传送,传递,传播) resource(n.资源) emerge(v.出现,为···所公认) yield(v.产生,出产,屈从,让步) pose(v.摆姿势,导致) assume(v.认为,假定,假设) confidence(n.信任信赖,自信心) inherit(v.沿袭,秉承,继承) comprehensive(a.综合的,多方面的)

1. Given the chance to show his ability, he regained confidence and began to succeed in school.

2. It is so difficult to explore the bottom of the ocean because some parts are very deep.

3. It was about 30 seconds before Alex emerged from the water; we were quite scared.

4. We often assume that when other people do the same things as we do, they do them for the same reasons; but this assumption is not always reasonable.

5. There is widespread concern that the rising unemployment may pose a threat to social stability.

6. After a(n) comprehensive physical exam, my doctor said I was in good condition except that my blood pressure was a little high.

7. It is well known that China is a country with rich natural resources and a very big population.

8. Some people believe that the earth can yield enough food to support at least twice its present population.

9. Sam inherited the gift of imagination from his family, but he lacked the driving power to take action.

10. A bee that has found honey is able to transmit to other bees the information they need in order to collect the honey.


attain赢得,获得,得到 fascinating迷人的,吸引人fulfill履行,执行

pursue追求,致力于 available可获得的可利用的 qualify使合适,合格

raise提升,增加 passion强烈的爱好,热爱 virtually实际上

classify分类归类 acquire获得,取得,学到 fashionable流行的

especially特别的 sample样品,标本 prosperous繁荣的

University students come from different parts of the country with various purposes. However, a closer look at their reasons for studying at the university will enable us to (1)classify them roughly into three groups: those who have a(n) (2)passion for learning, those who wish to (3)attain a bright future, and those who learn with no definite purpose. Firstly, there are many students who learn simply because they (4)pursue their goal of learning. Some read a wealth of British and American novels because they are keenly interested in literature. Others sit in front of the computer screen, working on a new program, (5)virtually day and night, because they find some computer programs (6)fascinating, and they dream of becoming a "Bill Gates" one day. Secondly, there are students who work hard mainly for a better and more (7)prosperous future. It seems that the majority of students fall into this group. After admission to the university, they read books after books to (8)acquire knowledge from all of the resources which are (9)available to them, and finally, to succeed in the future job market. Thirdly, there are still some students who learn without a clear goal. They take courses, finish homework, enjoy life on campus, but don't want to (10)sample anything new

or challenging. They have no idea what they will be doing after college. And they may end up with nothing in their lives.


open the door to 给···以机会 in advance 预先,提前

all at once 同时,一下子 reap the benefits (of) 得享(某事物)的好处make the most of 最大限度的利用某物 over time逐渐地,慢慢地

get by过活,活的去 stand a chance (of)有(做成某事)的希望

remind ... of 使某人想起 take pleasure in乐于做某事

1. My family got by on my father's unemployment benefit after he lost his job.

2. Many subway riders read books or listen to music in order to make the most of their time on the way to work.

3. In order to make sure he would be able to attend the meeting, I called him up two weeks in advance.

4. Experts say our company is amazing in that sales have been increasing steadily over time .

5. In order to reap the benefits of the physical exercise, you have to exercise regularly, and for at least half an hour each time.

6. They all tried to talk all at once , but I couldn't hear anything they said.

7. Yellow flowers in the field always remind me of my childhood in the countryside.

8. We have been practicing for so long and so hard that our team should stand a chance of winning the game.

9. Research on genes will open the door to exciting new medical treatments.

10. Every one of you has made a contribution and I take pleasure in acknowledging what each of you has done to make this academic convention such a success.


Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying t he fundamentals (基础) of modern Western philosophy. He is a mysterious figure known chiefly t hrough the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of h is most famous student Plato. Socrates has become well known for his contri bution to the field of ethics. His method of teaching, known as the Socrat ic Method, by asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to explain ideas remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of disc ussions. He also made important and lasting contributions to the field of e pistemology (认识论) and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a stron g foundation for Western philosophy that followed. Socrates was the most col orful figure in the history of ancient philosophy. His fame was widespread

in his own time, and his name soon became a household word although he co nstructed no philosophical system, established no school, and founded no sect (宗派).



孔子是中国历史上著名的思想家、教育家,是儒家学派(Confucianism)的创始人,被尊称为古代的"圣人"(sage)。他的言论和生平活动记录在《论语》(The Analects)一书中。《论语》是中国古代文化的经典著作,对后来历代的思想家、文学家、政治家产生了很大影响。不研究《论语》,就不能真正把握中国几千年的传统文化。孔子的很多思想,尤其是其教育思想,对中国社会产生了深远的影响。在21世纪的今天,孔子的学说不仅受到中国人的重视,而且也越来越受到整个国际社会的重视。

Confucius was a great thinker and educator in Chinese history. He was the founder of Confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient "sage". His words and life story were recorded in The Analects. An enduring classic of ancient Chinese culture, The Analects has had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after Confucius. Without studying this book, one could hardly truly understand the thousands-of-years' traditional Chinese culture. Much of Confucius' thought, especially his thought on education, has had a profound influence on Chinese society. In the 21st century, Confucian thought not only retains the attention of the Chinese, but it also wins an increasing attention from the international community.

Unit 2



1. He has a special feeling for the brilliant birds, and each spring he eagerly awaits their return.

2. Thanks to the efficiency of air transport, everyone is free to go anywhere at any time.

3. John believes that the donation of food to the hungry is more helpful than giving money.

4. Mary was a careful speaker; every word seemed to have been polished before it was allowed to escape through her lips.

5. When she heard it was snowing in the city they were going to, she stuffed two more sweaters into her bag.

6. During our stay in Europe we visited many places of historical interest, including several castles.

7. The wedding ceremony of my sister was a very emotional experience for our family.

8. He was embarrassd when he discovered that he didn't have enough money to pay for the red wine he had ordered.

9. The local government is pressed to find new places to waste. 10. The new system designed to dump harmful emissions (排放物) from factories will be put into use soon.

10. The new system designed to curb harmful emissions (排放物) from factories will be put into use soon.


emotional令人动情的,感情脆弱的 romantic浪漫的多情的空想的

ridiculous可笑的,荒谬的 overwhelmed淹没压倒

embarrassment窘迫,难堪 appreciate感激欣赏增值

curious好奇的 awkwardness笨拙粗略难为情

cultivate耕作种植 reverse反转颠倒

parental父母的亲本的 therefore因此,所以

reduce减少缩小 beloved被热爱的,亲爱的


Parents and teenagers have different or even opposite things to worry about. For example, while a mother might have a hard time understanding why her teenagers' room is always a(n) (1)embarrassment of dirty stuff, the teenagers are more worried about their next exams and may think it is (2)ridiculous for their mother to insist on keeping a clean room. It is therefore important for you to (3)appreciate the differences and learn to communicate with your teenagers properly. (4)otherwise, your teenagers may say nothing and shut you out of their personal lives. Their refusal to talk with you may even create (5)emotional stress in your life.Learning effective ways to communicate can (6)reverse the situation of a difficult relationship,(7)reduce the stress of your life, and lead to a friendly relationship with your teenagers. First, you should learn to discuss serious problems in daily conversations. So, important topics, such as driving a vehicle and building a(n) (8) romantic relationship, could be dealt with through daily conversations.Second, learn to be an active listener. Many parents are so (9)overwhelmed with their work that they could hardly take some time for their (10)beloved children. Spend your time listening carefully to what your children like to talk about, and make sure your children feel they are being taken seriously. This will increase the chances of good communication.


make it获得成功,准时到达 with open arms热烈地,欣然

strip off揭开去掉脱掉 keep back抑制,控制,隐瞒

free of/from无···拜托了···的 after all毕竟终究

straighten up直起身,把···弄整洁 throw away扔掉丢弃

1. After 10 years of full-time training, she has finally make it as a professional dancer.

2.After all , what is the point in taking part in the competitive event if the result is only to prove how incompetent you are?

3. Redecorating the house is a challenging task. It's necessary to strip off the wallpaper first.

4. I never really had any problems with change. On the contrary, I welcome change with open arms .

5. A lot of what we throw away is made from raw materials which are not renewable.

6. Megan and John realized that their house was too messy for a new baby, so they decided to straighten up their house before the baby was born.

7. Jennifer couldn't keep back her tears when she saw the sick children at a new blood cancer center in Virginia.

8. We want to give all children a world free of/from violence.


Christmas is a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated on December 25 by millions of people around the world. It commemorates (纪念) the birth of Jesus Christ. The festival dated from as early as 336 AD. Gradually it evolved into a religious as well as secular (非宗教的) celebration, celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians. Today Christmas

is observed as an important festival and public holiday around the world. Christmas customs differ in different countries. Popular modern customs of the holiday include an exchange of Christmas cards and gifts, Christmas singing, church attendance, the display of various Christmas decorations and trees, family gatherings, and a special meal preparation. To small children, the festival is full of fantasy and surprise. Legend (传说) has it that Santa Claus will enter each house through the chimney and bring gifts to well-behaved children on Christmas Eve. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival heighten economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has also become a significant event and a key sales period for businesses.


每年农历(Chinese lunar calendar)八月十五是我国的传统节日——中秋节(the Mid-Autumn Festival)。这时是一年秋季的中期,所以被称为中秋。中秋节的一项重要活动是赏月。夜晚,人们赏明月、吃月饼,共庆中秋佳节。中秋节也是家庭团圆的时刻,远在他乡的游子,会借此寄托自己对故乡和亲人的思念之情。中秋节的习俗很多,都寄托着人们对美好生活的热爱和向往。自2008年起,中秋节成为中国的法定节假日。

According to the Chinese lunar calendar, August 15 of every year is a traditional Chinese festival — the Mid-Autumn Festival. This day is the middle of autumn, so it is called Mid-Autumn. One of the important Mid-Autumn Festival activities is to enjoy the moon. On that night, people gather together to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival, looking up at the bright moon and eating moon cakes. The festival is also a time for family reunion. People living far away from home will express their feelings of missing their hometowns and families at this festival. There are many customs to celebrate the festival, all expressing people's love and hope for a happy life. Since 2008, the Mid-Autumn Festival has become an official national holiday in China.

Unit 3


response反应,响应 transform使改观,使变形

focus焦点重点,集中于··· analyze分析,剖析

estimate估计,估算 competitive竞争性强的,有竞争力的

compensate补偿,弥补 adopt采用采纳收养

typical典型的有代表的 regulate调整校准调节

1. To make our companies competitive in the market, we have to be more creative and productive.

2. People are beginning to realize that to transform nature at will is the biggest mistake that man has ever made.

3. It is difficult to conclude what a(n) typical student does in his spare time because

every student has different interests.

4. A month ago I wrote to the store complaining about its bad service, but I haven't gotten a(n) response yet.

5. Some of your suggestions have been adopted , but others have been turned down as they are not workable.

6. All of a sudden, he lost his interest in engineering, and focused his attention on learning

a foreign language.

7. If a company decreases health benefits for its employees, they should increase salaries to compensate the workers.

8. I failed to pass the exam although I had worked very hard. I should analyze the causes of my failure.

9. When you do yoga, try to regulate your breathing. Don't breathe too fast and make sure you breathe only through your nose.

10. It was difficult to estimate how many people had been wounded in the earthquake.


complex复杂的 access享用权,享用机会

preferred提出,提升 require要求

undergraduate大学生大学的 accountable可解释的可说明的

acquire获得得到 tranmits传输传送

indispensable不可或缺的 creativity创造性,创造力

referred提及,针对 seeks 寻找,追求

post邮件,张贴,快速行进 connectivity连通性


There have been increased demands for higher education to provide students with better courses and more opportunities. To deal with this (1) complex issue, colleges and universities are turning to the Internet for quick (2)access to its rich educational resources. Now the Internet has been accepted as the (3)preferred technology to many other methods in colleges and universities. Many teachers now routinely (4)post their teaching materials online. A growing number of schools offer at least some (5)courses over the Internet. There are two different models of making use of the Internet for higher education. The first model (6)undergraduate to improve existing courses by using the Internet. This model provides high-speed Internet (7)connectivity to all students, faculty, and staff. While this model uses the Internet, it doesn't (8)require many changes, and it keeps most existing institutional structures unchanged. A different, more revolutionary model regards the Internet as (9)indispensable to an important change in higher education, for it is believed that the Internet can (10)transform teacher-centered instruction into student-centered learning. This, as a result, will bring about basic change to our university education.


keep up with保持,同步,和朋友保持联系 set up建立设立创立

fire off开枪,匆忙发出 take the lead树立榜样,带头

add to增加,增添 stand out显眼,突出,出色

in large part多半,在很大程度上 visit with叙谈闲谈

account for占据,是···的原因,解释 at a disadvantage处于不利地位的

1. I fired off a letter of complaint to the manager of the store as soon as I found they had sold me a pair of mismatched shoes.

2. People browse the Internet, read newspapers and watch TV to keep up with what is happening in the world.

3. The university has set up another large laboratory for students to design more complicated robots.

4. I find it very difficult to account for the fact that two of our best students failed the exam.

5. In the current economy, with unemployment high and competition for jobs fierce, your resume needs to stand out for all the right reasons.

6. She is getting popular since she appeared in a TV interview last month. Her new movie will no doubt add to her growing fame.

7. The developed countries should take the lead in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (排放) and provide support for the developing nations to follow.

8. If your spoken English is not very good, then you may be at a disadvantage when you are looking for a job.

9. Their success was due in large part to their well-conceived (周密策划的) plan.

10. He has been so occupied with his work these days that he barely has time to visit with his friends.


The London Underground is a rapid transit (交通运输系统) system in the United Kingdom, serving a large part of Greater London. The underground system is also known as the Tube, due to the characteristic shape of the subway tunnels. It all started in the mid-1800s. The Tube w as the world's first underground train system, with the first section openin g in 1863. Since then it has grown to an underground masterpiece (杰作) of 12 lines, 275 stations, and over 250 miles of rail track, 45% of which is underground. It is the fourth largest metro system in the world in terms of route miles. It also has one of the largest numbers of stations. As an affordable and easy way to get around London, the Tube remains the first choice for millions of commuters each day, as well as tourists visiting the city on holidays. The Tube has been an international icon for London. The London Underground celebrated its 150 years of operation in 2013, with various events marking the milestone (里程碑).


中国航天业开创于1956年。几十年来,中国航天事业创造了一个又一个奇迹。1970年,中国成功发射了第一颗人造地球卫星,成为世界上第五个独立自主研制和发射人造地球卫星的国家。1992年,中国开始实施载人航天飞行工程(manned spaceflight program)。2003年,中国成功发射了"神舟五号"载人飞船,使中国成为第三个发射载人飞船的国家。2007年发射了"嫦娥一号",即第一颗绕月球飞行(lunar-orbiting)的人造卫星。2013年,第五艘载人飞船"神舟十号"发射成功,为中


China's space industry was launched in 1956. Over the past decades, China's space industry has created one miracle after another. In 1970 China launched its first man-made earth satellite, ranking China the fifth country in the world to independently develop and launch man-made earth satellites. In 1992 China began to carry out the manned spaceflight program. In 2003 China launched Shenzhou-5, a manned spaceship. The successful launch made China the third country to launch manned spaceships. In 2007 Chang'e-1, the first lunar-orbiting man-made satellite, was sent to space. In 2013 Shenzhou-10, the fifth manned spaceship, was launched successfully, laying the foundation for building the Chinese Space Station.

Unit 4


Subsequent后来的,随后的 distinct明显的,清楚的

Intense热烈的,强烈的 respond回答,响应

Advocate提倡,拥护 involve包含,使参与

Confine限制,局限于,禁制 fulfill履行,执行

Circumstance环境,境遇 reconcile使和好

1. Fortunately, the accident didn't involve many people, for there was little traffic

at that hour.

2. She fulfilled her ambition of becoming a fashion designer after years of hard work.

3. They kept on trying their best to develop their business, but in such intense market

competition, they had no idea if success would come along one day.

4. As music plays an important role in our life, many music teachers and educators advocate

taking up a musical instrument at a young age.

5. This rule should be entirely clear in the minds of everyone and should not be

misunderstood under any circumstances.

6. My daughter was shy; she was afraid to ask questions,respond to questions in class,

or talk with other children.

7. I got from him only a letter, which was put on my office desk;subsequent to the receipt

of this letter I have never heard from him.

8. The duties to provide services for children in need are not confine to the local social

services department.

9. We pray that all nations be reconciled and that all people around the world live in


10. He suggested a small but distinct improvement on our former plan; I really appreciate



involve包含,使参与 remarkable异常的,引人注目的

focusing调焦,集中 showered似雨般降落

intense热情的 applying应用,致力于

pushed推,推动 commitment承诺,许诺

tragedy悲剧,惨剧 advocate提倡,拥护

hailed下冰雹 tender纤弱的,温柔的


In January 2011, Daniel Hernandez saved congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords' life in a mass shooting in Tucson. He kept her alive by (1)applying pressure to her wounds and speaking

(2)tender words of sympathy until medical people arrived. He was (3)hailed as a hero by

the public. Although his devotion to public service is (4)remarkable, in his book They Call Me a Hero: A Memoir of My Youth, Hernandez insists that he is not a hero. Hernandez said that he initially resisted the idea of writing a book about his experience on that day of enormous (5)tragedy. "I had been(6)pushed by a few publishers after the incident,"

he said. "I thought heroes should be people who make a lifetime (7)commitment to helping others." However, Hernandez, now a school board member, had come to realize that he would be interested in writing a book (8)focusing on his public service."As a young official, I've faced some big challenges, and I want young people to know that they need to face challenges and (9)involve themselves in their communities." When asked if he had any plan with a second book, Hernandez said his major purpose at present was to continue to serve his community and pursue his passion as a(n) (10)advocate for education. "But I'm not going to say no," he said.


in sb.'s words/in the words of sb.用某人的话来说

count on依靠指望 make sense of理解,弄懂某事

reserve for预留,保留 shield from使···免受

call on呼吁,号召 sum up概括总结

relate to理解,认同 in need在困难时,在贫困之中

be/get caught up in被卷入,陷入

1. She held her hand above her eyes to shield them from the sun so that she could see

more clearly the man in front of her.

2. The boy studied the signs for over an hour, but still could not make sense of them,

so he turned to his teacher for help.

3. They called on the developed countries to commit more money to protecting the


4. We will continue to care for those in need and work to establish a society that is

generous and prosperous.

5. Many people are/get caught up in careers and raising kids so that they forget that

their marriages also need to be taken good care of.

6. My most favorite program is the one that deals with scientific subjects that ordinary

people can relate to .

7. Finally, I would like to sum up by saying that it has been a tremendous pleasure to

work with you all.

8. He is a person that you can always count on when you need help.

9. Betty loves reading.In her words, "Reading is the most wonderful thing in the world."

10. This restaurant is very popular because it has some separate, smaller rooms reserved

for families with small children.


As one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia through China, Marco Polo is perhaps the most well-known foreign merchant and voyager to the Chinese people. He traveled extensively (广泛地) with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295.

He remained in China for 17 of those years. His book The Travels of Marco Polo depicts

his journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the Far East, including China, India, and Japan. From his written accounts the Westerners learned of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, printing, paper money, and silk for the first time. The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries during the age of the European voyages of discovery and conquest (征服). In the centuries since his death, Marco Polo has received the recognition that failed to come his way during his lifetime. Marco Polo's story has inspired countless other adventurers to set off and see the world.


郑和是中国历史上最著名的航海家(maritime explorer)。公元1405 年,明朝的统治者为了稳固边防(border defense)和开展海上贸易,派郑和下西洋(the Western Seas)。在此后的28 年里,郑和带领船队七下西洋,前后出海的人员有10 多万人,访问了30 多个国家和地区。船队纵横南亚、西亚,一直到非洲大陆。郑和下西洋是世界航海(navigation)史上的壮举,它展现了郑和卓越的航海和组织才能,同时展现了明朝的国力和国威(national strength and prestige),加强了明朝和海外各国之间的关系。

Zheng He was the most famous maritime explorer in Chinese history. In 1405 AD, the ruler of the Ming Dynasty sent Zheng He on a voyage to the Western Seas in order to strengthen border defense and develop trade by sea. In the following 28 years, Zheng He led his fleet, made seven voyages to the Western Seas with over 100,000 crew members in total, and visited more than 30 countries and regions. The fleet traveled far into South Asia and West Asia, and made all the way to the continent of Africa. Zheng He's voyages to the Western Seas were a great feat in the world's navigation history. It showed Zheng He's outstanding navigation and organization talents; meanwhile, it exhibited the national strength and prestige of the Ming Dynasty, and strengthened the relationships between the Ming Dynasty and the overseas countries.

Unit 5


substantial大量的多的,物质的 annual一年一度的,每年的

amateur业余爱好者,业余爱好的 assemble集合收集,组装装配

react作出反应 furnish提供,供应

distinction优秀,差别,卓越 contract契约,合同

apparent表面的,可看见的 magnificent宏伟的,壮观的,华丽的

1. The annual conference which I attend every year is going to be held in London in

January next year.

2. According to the terms of your contract , you must give three months' notice if

you intend to leave this company.

3. We were honored that so many people of distinction and talent were present to discuss

the issues.

4. The local government has been providing substantial support to them, without which

they couldn't have been so successful.

5. The secret agent promised that the information he furnished was obtained from

reliable sources.

6. Whether amateur or professional, American football is perhaps the most popular

sport in the US. It attracts a total attendance of over 40 million and is watched by many more millions on television each year.

7. Shops try to meet the DIY (do-it-yourself) fashion by offering consumers parts and

hardware which they can assemble at home.

8. I wonder how she will react to the news if I tell her she is not going to get a

raise this year.

9. It was apparent that the professor's lecture failed to impress the students as

some of them had left before it was over.

10. We all admitted that the trip was worthwhile after we saw a(n) magnificent palace

and a fantastic museum.


Amateur业余爱好者,业余的 endurance耐久持久,忍耐力

Individual个人的,个人 independent自主的,不相关联的

Present现在的,目前的 despite不管,尽管

Developed先进的,发达的 contests争夺竞争

Remarkable异常的,引人注目的 coined创造

Insurance保险 inherent固有的,内在的,天生

Established已建立的 contracts契约


For several centuries, cricket (板球) has been a very popular sport in England. It has been enjoyed by both professional and (1)(amateur) players. This super-popular game is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players. It can provide you with health benefits like building (2)(endurance), balance, and physical fitness.

But for a team sport, cricket also places (3)(individual) players under unusual pressure because every team player is (4)(independent)of each other. Cricket might have started in early 16th-century England. Written records (5)(present)evidence of

a game known as creag being played by Prince Edward at Newenden, Kent in 1301; and

it is possible, (6)(despite) no hard evidence, that this was a form of cricket. By the end of the 18th century, cricket had (7)(developed)into a national sport of England.

The growth of the British Empire led to cricket being played abroad and by the mid-19th century the first international(8)(contests)were held. Cricket has had a(n)

(9)(remarkable) impact on popular culture in England. It has had an influence on the

vocabulary of the English language, with such phrases as that's not cricket (10)(coined) to describe unfair behavior in general.


regardless of不管 give away暴露

fall ill生病 pass away去世

up to达到,至多 have no intention of doing sth.不打算做某事

leave behind把···抛在脑后忘记拿走 might (just) as well还不如

in attendance出席 to this day直到现在

1. I felt terribly sorry to learn that his sister (passed away) after having fought

against cancer for three years.

2. The Chinese swimmer was (left behind) at the beginning of the women's 100-meter

freestyle final, but she didn't give up and finally took the lead.

3. The rich man thinks that he will die in disgrace if he does not (give away) his

money for the public good.

4. They (had no intention of) letting him go and would like him to stay on after

his present contract expires.

5. (Up to) seven million students are graduating from university this year. This will

undoubtedly add to the employment pressure in the job market.

6. If he is determined to do something, he will do it (regardless of) what other

people will say.

7. The movie was a complete waste of time. I (might (just) as well) have stayed at


8. The authorities promise to introduce an effective health service so that people

do not need to spend too much money when they (fall ill) .

9. Thousands of people were (in attendance) at yesterday's strike, which caused

great confusion.

10. They got to know each other in their 20s and (to this day) they are still in

close touch with each other.


The first written records of the ancient Olympic Games date to 776 BC . The ancient Olympics were held every four years between August 6 an

d September 19 during a religious festival honoring Zeus (宙

斯). The first modern Olympics were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896.

The Olympic symbol consists of five interlaced rings of equal dimensions, representing the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. The Olympics truly took off as an international sporting event after 1924, when the 8th Olympic Games were held in Paris.

Some 3,000 athletes from 44 nations competed that year, and for the first time the Games featured a closing ceremony. The Winter Olympics debuted (问世) that year, including such events as figure skating, ice hockey, bobsledding and the biathlon.

Eighty years later, when the 2004 Summer Olympics returned to Athens for the first time in more than a century, nearly 11,000 athletes from 201 countries competed, breaking the then record of participating countries.



太极拳(Tai Chi)是一种武术(martial arts)项目,也是一种健身运动,在中国有着悠久的历史。太极拳动作缓慢而柔和,适合任何年龄、性别、体型的人练习。太极拳既可防身,又能强身健体,因而深受中国人的喜爱。太极拳在发展的过程中,借鉴并吸收了中国传统哲学、医术、武术的合理内容(element),成为特色鲜明的一项运动。作为中国特有的一种运动形式,太极拳也越来越受到众多外国朋友的喜爱。

Tai Chi is a kind of martial arts, and a fitness exercise as well. It has a long history in China. With slow and gentle movements, Tai Chi is suitable for people of any age, sex, or body type to practice. It can be used to provide self-defense as well as build the body. Therefore, it has become very popular among Chinese people. During its development, Tai Chi borrowed and absorbed desirable elements from traditional Chinese philosophy, medicine, and martial arts, and it has developed into a sport with unique features. As a unique sport in China, Tai Chi is also gaining increasing popularity among many foreign friends.

Unit 6


Controversial引起争论的,有争议的 assess评价,评定

resolve解决,下定决心 decrease减少

alter使变化 abandon放弃,抛弃

indicate表明,指示 undermine逐渐削弱,逐渐损害

compromise危及,损害。妥协和解 conventional常例的,传统的

1. Studies (indicate) that children who often take part in cooperative programs

benefit a lot more than other children.

2. They are such a(n) (conventional) family —they must have been shocked when

their son dyed (染) his hair pink.

3. Testing students by examinations has long been regarded as a reliable way to

(assess) students' ability.

4. Many power stations have been modernized to give off less pollution, or they

were moved further away from the living areas in order to (decrease) the damage.

5. Unemployment has come down slightly, but this does not (alter) the fact that

it is still a major problem.

6. Mr. Smith is not doing well; the doctor told us that several colds (has

undermined) his health.

7. The best way to deal with problems at home is to talk things out calmly and

honestly and try to reach a(n) (compromise) .

8. Darwin's theory of evolution remains (controversial)partly because it

challenges the religious belief that God created man.

9. It was reported the president had (resolved) to fight if war was necessary,

even if it meant destroying his chances of re-election.

10. I had to (abandon)one of my email accounts as it was filled with junk mail.


Withdraw撤走拿走 reliable可靠的,可信赖的

Committing保证,承诺 decline下降,辞谢,谢绝

Opportunity机会 contrasting对比对照

Interfering干预妨碍 schedules安排,时刻表进度表

Consistent一致的,连续的 burning燃烧的发热的

Decrease减少,减小 flexible灵活的,易弯曲的

Compromising妥协,退让 generate形成,造成,产生


Nowadays college education cost is rising sharply. More and more college students have to work in order to (1)(generate) income to support themselves. But how can you prevent working from (2)(interfering)with your study? Firstly, plan your class and work (3)(schedules) as far ahead as possible. Arrange your classes in

a way so that you have one or two days for work. Secondly, use time well instead

of (4)(burning)the midnight oil. Studying late until midnight may make you tired and take a(n) (5)(consistent) toll on your health. Use those 10 minutes waiting for the bus to read a few more pages. If your job has a lot of downtime (自由支配时间), use the (6)(opportunity)to do school assignments. Never try to cut corners by copying assignments from other students. Thirdly, set a goal for your academic performance. You'll probably have to (7)(decrease) your work hours, or even, if possible and necessary, (8)(withdraw)from the workforce to be successful in study.

After all, it is not a good idea to risk (9)(compromising)your student career with part-time jobs. Fourthly, inform all your professors, teaching assistants and employers about your situation so that they can be (10)(flexible)as well. Winning their support is the best way to keep them on your side.


take a toll on对···产生不良影响

in other words换言之,换句话说

drop out退出,脱离辍学 in turn相应地,依次地

at risk (of)处境危险,受到威胁 interfere with妨碍阻止

be accustomed to习惯 contribute to促成,造成

cut back on削减,缩减 hold on to继续感到,仍然相信

1. The new government has committed to (cutting back on)emissions of greenhouse


2. My parents do not object to my taking part-time jobs, but they remind me not

to let them (interfere with) my school work.

3. Anger, worry, disappointment, these negative emotions (take a toll on) your

heart, brain and body.

4. If a person adopts an unhealthy lifestyle, he will surely be (at risk of)

developing diseases.

5. Most people were ready to give up on him when he (dropped out)of school, but

later he returned and earned his degree.

6. Drinking too much can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure, which

(in turn) can lead to heart attack or stroke.

7. Low-cost airlines are emerging all over Asia; this will (contribute to) the

development of the world's air-travel market as a whole.

8. When you move to a new country, you may find the food there strange and you may

miss the familiar smells of the food you (are accustomed to) in your own country.

9. Although he kept trying and failing, I always (held on to) the belief that

he would succeed one day.

10. The tax only affects people with an annual income over $200,000 —(in other

words) , it will only affect the very rich.


Gap year (间隔年) refers to a period of time —not necessarily a year —in which students take time off and do something other than schooling, such as travel or work. The year ou t is most commonly taken after high school and before going to uni versity. During this time, a student might travel, engage in volunte er work or undertake (承担) a working holiday abroad. A new trend is to participate in int ernational education programs that combine language study, home stays, cultural exchange, community service, and independent study. The practice of taking

a year out developed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. It has grown very popular

among students in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. In the United States, however, the practice of taking a year off remains the exception (例外). But in recent years, taking a year out has become slightly more common for Americans. Some 40,000 American students participated in 2013 in gap year programs, an increase of almost 20% since 2006. Universities such as Princeton University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology have formal policies allowing students to defer (延期) admission.



改革开放以来,中国的教育事业得到了快速发展,取得了引人瞩目的成就。中国政府把教育摆在优先发展的地位,坚持科教兴国(revitalize the country),全面提倡素质教育(quality-oriented education)。同时,积极推进教育公平,保障人人有受教育的机会。

中国的教育成就反映在两个不同的层面:一个是全面普及了九年义务教育(nine-year compulsory education),另一个是实现了高等教育大众化(mass higher education)。教育的发展为中国的经济发展和社会进步作出了重大贡献。近年来,为适应社会、经济发展的需要,中国政府不断加快培养各领域的急需人才。

Since its economic reform and opening-up to the world, China's education has gone through rapid development and made remarkable achievements. The Chinese government gives top priority to the development of education, persists in revitalizing the country by science and education, and fully advocates quality-oriented education. Meanwhile, it actively promotes equality in education to guarantee everyone access to education. China's achievements in education can be reflected in two different layers: One is the popularization of the nine-year

compulsory education; the other is the realization of mass higher education. The development of education has made significant contributions to China's economic development and social progress. In recent years, to satisfy the needs of social and economic development, the Chinese government has sped up the training of qualified personnel urgently needed in various fields.