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Unit 1

Part II Text A

lexf Organization

Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas

Part One Paras 1-2 Introduction — Both Napoleon's and Hitler's military

campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian


Part Two Paras 3-11 Napoleon's military campaign against Russia

Part Three Paras 12-20 Hitler's military campaign against the Soviet Union

Part Four Para 21 Conclusion—the elements of nature must be rekoned with

in any military campaign.


Sections Paragraphs Main Ideas

Section One Paras 12-13 Hitler's blitzkrieg against Russia and Stalin's scorched

earth policy

Section Two Paras 14-18 the battles fought at Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad

Section Three Paras 19-20 the Russian

counter-offensive and the outcome of the war Vocabulary

I. 1. 1) alliance 2) at the cost of

3) stroke 4) limp

5) minus 6) regions

7) declarations 8) siege

9) raw 10) bide his time

11) have taken their toll 12) in the case of

2. 1) is faced with 2) get bogged down

3) is pressing on / pressed on 4) drag on

5) get by 6) dine out

7) have cut back 8) get through

3. 1) The rapid advance in gene therapy may lead to the conquest of cancer in the

near future.

2)Production in many factories has been brought to a halt by the delayed

arrival of raw materials due to the dock workers’ strike

3)Sara has made up her mind that her leisure interests will/should never get in

the way of her career.

4) Obviously the reporter's question caught the foreign minister off guard.

5)The introduction of the electronic calculator has rendered the slide rule out

of date /obso lete.

4.1) Being faced with an enemy forces much superior to ours, we had to give up the

occupation of big cities and retreat to the rural and mountainous

regions to build up our bases.

2) Unity is crucial to the efficient operation of an organization. Failure to reckon

with this problem will weaken its strength. In many cases,work may be

brought to a halt by constant internal struggle in an organization.

3) The Red Army fought a heroic battle at Stalingrad and won the decisive victory

against the Germans. In fact, this battle turned the tide in the Second World

War. During this famous battle, the Soviet troops withstood the German siege

and weakened the German army by launching a series of counterattacks.

II.More Synonyms in Context

1) During the First World War, battles occurred here and there over vast areas. Some

of the most dramatic fighting took place in the gloomy trenches of France and


2) Elizabeth made careful preparations for the interview and her efforts / homework

paid off.

3) I spent hours trying to talk him into accepting the settlement, but he turned a deaf

ear to all my words.

4) Pneumonia had severely weakened her body, and I wondered how her fragile body

could withstand the harsh weather.

III. Usage

1) But often it is not until we fall ill that we finally learn to appreciate good health.

2) A rich old lady lay dead at home for two weeks—and nobody knew anything

about it.

3) It's said he dropped dead from a heart attack when he was at work

4) Don't sit too close to the fire to keep warm—you could easily get burned,

especially if you fall asleep.

5) In those days people believed in marrying young and having children early.

6) Little Tom was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes. Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


1. invasion

2. stand in the way

3. Conquest

4. catching... off his guard

5. launching

6. declaration

7. campaign 8. drag on

9. reckon with 10. bringing...to a halt


1. allow

2. reckoned

3. highly

4. forecasts

5. rapidly

6. instant

7. delivery 8. advantage

9. observing 10. Powerful

II. Translation

1. Mr. Doherty and his family are currently engaged in getting the autumn harvest in on the farm.

2. We must not underestimate the enemy. They are equipped with the most

sophisticated weapons.

3. Having been cut of a job/Not having had a job for 3months, Phil is getting

increasingly desperate.

4. Sam, as the project manager, is decisive, efficient, and accurate in his judgment.

5. Since the chemical plant was identified as the source of solution, the village

neighborhood committee decided to close it down at the cost of 100 jobs.

The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a

gamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees

Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered.

Unit 2Text A


I. 1. 1) expansion 2) automated 3) vapor 4) take control of 5)

hazards 6) satellite 7) vibrated 8) magnetic 9)

bunched 10) in the air 11) got/was stuckin

12) approximately

2. 1) send out 2) stand up for 3) pass for 4) were closing in on

5) starting up 6) went through 7) fill out 8) fall into

3. 1)… incorporates all the latest safety features

2) …two trees ten feet apart

3) … awarding lucrative contracts to his construction site

4) … the prototype of a new model before they set up a factory to make the cars.

5) … are correlated in all racial groups

4.1) the application, remote, has turned into a reality, are poised to

2) that vibrate, can detect, frequency

3) lanes, are mounted in, alert a, hazard

II. Word Formation

Clipped Words Blends

Kilo kilogram Medicare medical care

Memo memorandum email electronic mail

gym gymnasium comsat communications satellite

lib liberation newscast news broadcast

doc doctor skyjack sky hijack

vet veterinarian Eurodollar European dollar

prep preparatory brunch breakfast and lunch

auto automobile telecast television broadcast

flu influenza Oxbridge Oxford and Cambridge

III. 1. swimming pool 2. drawing board 3. enriched Middle English 4.

disturbing change 5. fully developed prototype 6. Canned foods 7.

working population 8. puzzling differences Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


1) computerized 2) start up 3) be poised to 4) alert 5)hazards 6)

monotonous 7) take control of 8) steer 9) lane 10) decrease 11) calculate 12) eliminate 13) getting stuck in 14) mounted 15) detect 16) vapor


1) generates 2) related 3) revolutionized 4) enabled

5) opportunities 6) overall 7) manufacturing 8) dependent 9)

interact 10) fatalities

II. Translation


1) There was an unusual quietness in the air, except for the sound of artillery in the


2) The expansion of urban areas in some African countries has been causing a

significant fall in living standards and an increase in social problem.

3) The research shows that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are closely correlated

with global temperatures.

4) The frequency of the bus service has been improved from 15 to 12 minutes recently

5) The diver stood on the edge of the diving board, poised to jump at the signal from

the coach.


Automobiles have, since their invention, revolutionized transportation, changing forever the way people live, travel, and do business. On the other hand, they have brought hazards, especially highway fatalities. However, today

the application of computer technology and electronic sensors in designing and manufacturing cars makes it possible to eliminate most of traffic accidents. For example, electronic sensors mounted in your car can detect alcohol vapor in the air and refuse to start up the engine. They can also monitor road conditions by receiving radio signals sent out from orbiting satellites and greatly reduce your chances of getting stuck in traffic jams.

Unit 3 Text A

Content questions

1. He runs a manufacturing company.

2. Almost all of them were no.

3. This applicant was ill prepared for the job he was applying for and therefore ill


4. Prepare to win.

5. They now have to switch jobs frequently.

6. A 90-year-old tennis player who wanted to work on his weakness -- backhand


7. Believing in yourself, even when no one else does.

8. Because he will mention a cab driver who is different.

9. His efforts to make a difference.

10.He was offered a ride on a day when Minnesota was hit with one of the worst

snowstorms in years and the international airport there was closed for the first

time in decades.

11. Because there were no tracks left in the snow, which means he was the first

person to take off from there.

12 Carlson was excited about being first, which is exactly what the writer

recommends to job applicants.

Text Organization


Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas

Part One Paras 1- 6 An ill-prepared college graduate failed his


Part Two Paras 7-27 Four pieces of advice on being a successful


Part Three Paras 28-31 Make your own tracks in whatever you do.


Suggestions Examples

1) Prepare to win. 1) Michael Jordan

2) Never stop learning. 2) a 90-year-old tennis player

3) Believe in yourself,even when no one else does 3) the four-minute mile, the New

York Marathon and

the Vietnam


4) Find a way to make a difference. 4) a New York cabdriver. Language Sense Enhancement


(1) checked with (2) interview (3) grill (4) clippings

(5) be right for (6) follow up (7) indicating (8)hand-delivered

(9) prepared (10) prospective

Language Focus

I. 1.

1) rude 2) physically 3) structure 4) made a difference 5) blurted (out) 6) chuckling 7) measurable 8) prospective 9) preparations 10) sparkled 11) took a crack at 12) partner


1) go after 2) look back at/on 3) be put up 4) stood for 5) build in 6) follow up 7) be hooked up to 8) closed up


1) grilled her about where she had been all night

2) beyond Cinder ella's wildest dreams that she could one day dance in the King’s palace

3) will be in readers’ hands soon

4) do your homework before going on an interview.

5) was in the neighborhood of 150 dollars.


1)applicants,veteran, the prospective

2)From his standpoint,has made every endeavor to go after

3) as the saying goes, to have a crack at, barely

II. Words with Multiple Meanings

1. behave

2. used to avoid repetition

3. Clean

4. get along

5. perform/complete

6. perform/complete

7. study

8. be enough


be acceptable

III. Usage

1. There is so much to say and it is hard to know where to begin. OK, I’ll talk about

myself first.

2. Thank you very much, John, for your beautiful Christmas card. By the way, I have

something here for you.

3. The new computer language can be quite easily understood by anyone who can read

the daily newspaper. Now, why is this an advantage?

4. I’m going to work out the outline and will let you know how it goes. By the way, I

will see you in February, as I plan to attend your seminar in Shanghai.

5. OK, you got the job. Now, how to maximize your profits with as little effort as


6. Chris is back from Australia. Incidentally, those pictures you sent me are wonderful. Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


(1) prospective (2) As I see it (3) done your homework (4) beforehand

(5) endeavor (6) structure (7) partners (8) Respond (9) take a crack (10) from the standpoint (11) make a difference (12) follow up


(1) encouraging (2) inquiry (3) relevant (4) samples

(5) references (6) advice (7) preparing (8) seriously

(9) probably (10) exhibit

II. Translation


1) Despite the inadequate length of the airstrip in this emergency landing, the veteran

pilot managed to stop the plane after taxiing for only a short while.

2) Grilled by the reporters, the movie star eventually blurted (out) that she had

undergone two plastic surgeries.

3) We have the technology and our partner has the capital. Wo rking together, we’ll have

the future in our hands.

4) If I had known beforehand that you would bring so many friends home, I would have

made better preparations. You see, I have barely enough food and drinks for a snack.

5) People gave generously upon learning that new school rooms with stronger structures

were to be built in the earthquake-stricken area.


Well begun, half done, as the saying goes. It is extremely important for a job applicant to do his homework while seeking employment. From my standpoint, whether or not one has done his homework clearly makes a differences in his chance of success.

I have a friend who is earning somewhere in the neighborhood of 100,000 dollars

a years in a large computer software company. He told me that from his own experience the decision makers who interview prospective employees like people who are well prepared. Those who make no endeavor to learn as much about his prospective employer as possible don't have much of a chance of success.

Unit 4

Text A

Text rganization 1.







1) advantageous 2) let alone

3) witnessing/vanishing 4) landmark

5) entitled 6) displace

7) Establishment 8) patriotic/strengthen

9) contradictions 10) aspires

11) divorced 12) pendulums

2. 1) come to 2) dozed off

3) believed in 4) was set apart

5) take in 6) sucks in

7) clean up 8) turn away


1) For me, it makes no/little difference whether we go there by train or by bus.

2)Toyata has overtaken General Motors as the world’s biggest car maker.

3)Shortly after their marriage, Mr. Chambers was at odds with his wife over money matters.

4)Henry has been at the forefront of nanotechnology research.

5)She doesn’t even know how to boil potatoes, let alone cook a meal.

5.a) is increasingly/to accelerate/their investment

b) economy/make an earnest/domestic/strike a balance between

c) a handful of/be endorsed by/on a large scale


III. Usage

1. An unusual present, a book on ethics, was given to Henry for his birthday.

2. The reason(he gave) that he didn’t notice the car till too late was unsatisfactory.

3. Football, his only interest in life, has brought him many friends.

4. Cloning had been raised as a possibility decades ago, then dismissed, something that

serious scientists thought was simply not going to happen anytime soon.

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


1. academics

3.a variety of

5. vanish

7. endorsing

9. sweeping aside

11. erasing


1. aided



4. connected

5. invested

6. features

7. prevailing

8. qualitatively 9. volume 10. Distinguishing

2. networking 4. growth 6. facilitate 8. outlook 10. patriotic 12. strike a balance



Unit 5 TextA oganization 1.






1) In a way 2) in accordance 3) vacancy 4) in good condition 5) transparent 6) rub 7) spicy 8) hitherto

9) with (a) bad grace 10) instinct 11) pawned 12) current


1) turned up 2) will stick to 3) brought back 4)go about

5) driving at 6) put away 7) over 8) took aback


1) has a very weak constitution --- she may not be able to survive the operation.

2) was taken aback by the insurance company’s rejection of my compensation claim

3) was something of a surprise when we ran into each other in a place like that.

4) needs trimming/ to be trimmed ---it’s gett ing too long.

5) are often seceptive


1) Oddly enough /went broke /wrinkled / he had gone all to pieces

2) definite / is capable of /her vanity

3) too mild / sipping / stroke

II. Usage

1. Except for

2. except that

3. except

4. except when

5. except to

6. except what

7. except where

8. except that




Comprehensive exercises



1). insane 2).current 3). candid 4). capable 5). was taken aback 6). in good condition 7). constitution 8). go all to pieces

9). Gone broke 10). vacancy 11). mild 12). deceptive


1). suspected 2). pleading 3). confirmed 4)stunned

5)lucrative 6). jewellery 7). wealthy 8). urge 9). spell 10). arrested



1)I have an instinct that Henry will seek to join the expedition, because he is

something of an adventurer.

2)He is capable of sticking to the task at hand, even if he is exposed to noises.

3)The trademark was registered in accordance with the laws hitherto in force.

4)Oddly enough, many people volunteered to help organize the meeting, but only a

few turned up.

5)The teacher’s affectionate words, along with his candid comments, changed the

way Mike perceived the society and himself.


For my own part, I find that appearances are all too often deceptive. For instance, you might be wrong if you judged by appearances only people like Edward Hyde Burton. In appearance, he seemed a man all of a piece. He was a tiny little fellow with white hair and mild blue eyes, gentle and candid. Nevertheless, he turned out to be very cruel. He insulted and fooled Lenny who was down and out and made him commit himself to an insane venture. What was still more surprising was that he was completely indifferent to Lenny’s death. Without doubt, Burton was a man with a heart of stone.

Key to Unit6, Book4 “The Pace of Life”

Vocabulary 1

1) appliances 2) comparative 3) multiply 4) distribution

5) prosperity 6) decorate 7) famine 8) large quantities of/ a large quantity of

9) streamline 10) fax 11) pointed the way to 12) bewildered

Vocabulary 2

1) eat into 2) cling to

3) stand out/ stood out 4) wears away

5) set about 6) switch off

7) will be turned loose 8) poured in

Vocabulary 3

is forecast to be below average next year, which at the moment is 4 percent.

to enter the building and find the baby girl proved futile as rescuers were driven out by the heat and flames.

was urged to divert some of its attention from expanding production and get more involved with issues of market demand.

can really eat heavily into your profits when you are selling suits at £900 and dresses at £2,000.

has toiled endlessly over the exercise machine for the last twenty years in order to keep her body in shape.

Vocabulary 4

reaction to; discontent; provoked

convention; evading tax; the confines of

a burden; are always on the go/ seem forever on the go; to cope

II. Confusable Words

1. 1) nervousness 2) tension 3) stress; stress 4) tension

2. 1) honorary 2) Honorable 3) honorable 4) honorary 5) honorable 6) Honorary

III. Usage

Dealing with the extinction crisis is no simple matter. Is it sensible, we may ask, to spend large sums of money to save some species – be it an elephant or an orchid –in a nation in which a large proportion of the population is living below the poverty line?

This new technology could be used anywhere large numbers of people need to be quickly screened --- at airports, train stations, bus terminals or border crossings. However, experts suspect, there is also the risk that people will learn to fool the machine the same way they try to fool polygraph readings by controlling their breath or taking drugs to relax themselves.

With a high percentage of marriages ending in divorce, often due to financial difficulties, you would say that money is a big factor in making a good marriage. But, believe it or not, it isn’t money that ensures you a happy marriage; it is your philosophy of life that does.

Not all the risks on the Internet are sexual, you know. Sites promoting violence are just a click away, and may include instructions for making bombs and other destructive devices.

Cloze (Text-related)

1) switch off 2) obliged 3) on the go 4) cope

5) shortage 6) large quantity of 7) pouring in 8) by nature

9) fraction 10) futile

Cloze (Theme-related)

1) advantage 2) wisely 3) faithfully

4) waking 5) includes 6) schedule

7) sticking 8) priorities 9) set

10) respect


They are exploring the new frontiers of medical science in an attempt to find remedies for incurable diseases/ cures for diseases that are beyond remedy so far.

Her unique teaching methods apart, Ms Wilson, my math teacher, never tried to cram knowledge into my head.

The regular weather forecast by the Central TV Station keeps us up with the changes of weather wherever we go on a trip.

The appalling explosion started a big fire and caused the partial collapse of the building.

In the modern world, there are more ways than ever to waste away time, and all kinds of distractions are eating into our precious time.

Today we are under constant pressure to work longer hours, to produce more, and to possess more. Lots of people hold the wrong perception that happiness lies in working hard and earning well/ good money.

Many women today feel the same stress to work and get ahead and, at the same time, to nurture their offspring and shoulder the burden of domestic responsibilities.

Research shows that workaholism tends to distance us from our immediate families. It forces us to toil longer and longer hours, leaving a minute fraction of our time to be physically and emotionally available to our loved ones. Intimacy among family members is doomed to die in the process.

Unit 7 TextA



1) 1. divined 2. nerves 3. solidarity 4. sacred; mourn 5.


6. perish

7. hijack

8. grief

9. farewell 10. take

revenge on 11. revolves 12. denounced

2) 1. drop… off 2. applied for 3. went off 4. are gaining on

5. bring down

6. blotted out

7. think back on

8. picking at

3) 1. brought down the American housing market in 2008

2. what will happen after his son steps into his shoes?

3. not in the mood to go out

4. long before the market began to show signs of weakness

5. mourn the loss of the tranquil life we had in the countryside

4) 1. in the aftermath of; to blot our; the tragic

2. armed; at dust; accomplices; explosives

3. in the space of; no illusion

II. Collocation:

1. a little of

2. a few; most of // many of

3. much

4. few

5. many

6. many of

7. much of

8. little

9. few of 10. Some


1.As the boy grew older

2.she sings as beautifully as a nightingale // sings like a nightingale

3.they don’t see themselves as servants of the people

4.As she had left her key in the office

5.Just do as you are told

6.Areas once regarded as rural

7.as they do in China

8.As he was brave and loyal as well

Comprehensive Exercises:


1) Text-related

1. mood

2. tragic

3. in the (immediate) aftermath of

4. chaos

5. toppling

6. solidarity

7. take revenge on

8. thinking back on

9. mourning 10. perished

2) Theme-related

1. crashed

2. horrible

3. harsh

4. protect

5. remove

6. utterly

7. truly

8. justify

9. rewarded




1.Some high-ranking officers of the armed forces started a coup, toppling the

government and throwing the country into chaos.

2.The falling market shattered the illusion about getting rich quickly

3.Thinking back on the history of World War II, we can see that the formation of the

Allies was the natural product of the development of political and military circumstances then.

4.Paul felt stung when Jim called him a religious fanatic. But as he was in no mood

for q quarrel//not in a quarreling mood, he simply pretended not to hear it.

5.People say that time heals all wounds. But for those who have lost their loved

ones in the event, will time fill up the void in their hearts?


Today, long after the earthquake shook // hit my tome-town, I can still recall, in crystal detail, what I saw as I ran out of my home with my parents. The building just across the street toppled right before our eyes, debris flew everywhere and a cloud of choking dust blotted out the sun. Horror-stricken people ran in all directions, crying and screaming.

Now, many years after that tragic event, a new town has risen on the wreckage of the old one. In the town square, a memorial has been build to remember those killed in the disaster. It seems the wounds in people’s hearts have healed, but the memory will linger.