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英语(一)完形填空(1)

第一课A simplified form of the English language based on 850 key words was developed in the late 1920s by the English psychologist Charles Kay Ogden and 1 publicized by the English educator I. A. Richards. Known as Basic English, it was used mainly to teach English to non-English-speaking persons and 2promoted as an international language. The complexities of English spelling and grammar, however, were major 3 obstacles to the adoption of Basic English as a second language.

The fundamental principle of Basic English was that any idea,4 however complex, may be reduced to simple units of thought and expressed clearly by a limited number of everyday words. The 850-word primary vocabulary was 5 composed of 600 nouns (representing things or events), 150 adjectives (for qualities and 6 properties ), and 100 general "operational" words, mainly verbs and prepositions. Almost all the words were in 7 common use in English-speaking countries. More than 60 percent of them were one-syllable words. The basic vocabulary was created 8 in part/ partially by eliminating numerous words which have the same or similar meanings and by 9 extending the use of 18 "basic" verbs, such as make, get, do, have, and be. These verbs were generally combined with prepositions, such as up, among, under, in, and forward. For example, a Basic English student would use the expression “go up”10 instead of "ascend

第三课New York City has a highly centralized municipal (urban<->rural) government. The mayor, chosen by a citywide electorate for a four-year term, has wide 1 executive powers. The mayor has a leadership role in budget-making, authority to organize and reorganize administrative agencies and to 2 appoint and remove their heads, a strong veto (否决权), and all powers not specifically otherwise granted. The comptroller (审计官) , elected on a citywide basis for a four-year term, recommends financial policies and advises the mayor and the city council in the preparation of the 3 budget.

There are nine major administrative agencies, called administrations. The police and fire departments are not 4 classified as administrations, but are also principal (major) agencies. Certain important city agencies include the board of education, the board of higher education, the health and hospitals corporation, and the housing authority.

5 In addition two major agencies are bi-state or regional in character (nature): the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which controls airports and interstate buses, and the Transportation Authority, which controls subway and bus operations in the city and railroad service in New York and Connecticut.

Legislative authority is 6 granted by the city council, made up of 51 members, who are elected from 7 individual districts for four-year terms. The 8 presiding officer is the public advocate, chosen for a

four-year term by a citywide electorate. The advocate can vote only to9 break a tie . The most powerful member of the council is the speaker (spokesman), who is chosen by a 10 majority of the members and appoints the heads of the various council committees. The council introduces and legislates all laws and approves the budget; it can override a mayoral veto by a vote of two-thirds of all the members.