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维京词汇

3 The Vikings usually live in A.D. 800-1066 all the Scandinavian people. Today's Denmark, Norway, sweden. When the Europeans called Northman

4 Invasions(侵略)and conquests(征服)were quite common during the first

millennium(第一千年)millennium[英][m??leni:?m]

AD in Britain (Baugh 76). From the ninth century the Vikings came to England invading from every corner of the secluded(隐蔽的)island of Britain, changing the English language forever.

in fact,without these invasions the English language would have never accumulated(积累)into the internationally accepted language that is today.

5 Their language has great influence on Old English

6 skill 1175 entered the English, directly derived from ancient Scandinavian

skil, meaning distinction, insight; originally Proto-Germanic skaljo-, meaning apart, distinguish, segmentation.

10 From the above list can be seen, Scandinavian had a great influence on the English language formation and development, but mainly in vocabulary and idiom, no significant changes in grammar and sentence structure

The Vikings changed the grammatical and

lingual(舌音的)uses of more than sixty-

five percent of Old English vocabulary.

Since the ninth century AD the Viking

language has flourished(兴旺的)and it

has held its strength through almost another

millennium and still holds strong throughout

the English language and the world today. It

was primarily taking the place of the “sc-”

and “sh-”sounds of Old English (OE). The

“sk-”sound, as in scrape(挂掉)and skin,

was one of these sounds adopted(接受).

Since the Vikings had a close relation with the people of England it led to a mutual(共同的)mixture(混合的)of the language throughout the land of England. Finally it lead to the loss of certain prefixes(前缀)as for example ge, je, and v that was often used in Old English to signal(标志)the past participle(过去分词)of verbs. Some of these grammatical ideas were that of

grammatical principles such as using: pronouns, infinitive markers(不定式标志), prepositions, adverbs, negatives, and

quantifiers

Some of these words included: anger, axle, bag, bait, berserk, birth, blunder, bore, bulk, by-law, call, cast, club, crawl, creek, die, dirt, dregs, egg, get, gift, give, gosling, haggle, hit, husband, knife, lad, lathe, law, loose, low, mistake, muck, mug, oaf, odd, plough, raft, ransack, reindeer, root, rune, scarf, scrap, scrape, seem, skate, skill, skirt, skin, sky,

slaughter, sleuth, snub, stagger, steak, stumble, take, they, their, thrift, troll, ugly, wand, want, weak, whirl, whisk, window and

wing