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Flexible Manufacturing

Flexible Manufacturing Defined

The evolution of manufacturing can be represented graphically as a continuum. Manufacturing processes and systems are in a state of transition from manual operation to the eventual realization of fully integrated manufacturing. The step preceding computer-integrated manufacturing is called flexible manufacturing.

Flexibility is an important characteristic in the modern manufacturing setting. It means that a manufacturing system is versatile and adaptable, while also capable of handling relatively high production runs. A flexible manufacturing system is versatile in that it can produce a variety of parts. It is adaptable because it can be quickly modified to produce a completely different line of parts. This flexibility can be the difference between success and failure in a competitive international marketplace.

It is a matter of balance. Stand-alone computer numerical control machines have a high degree of flexibility, but are capable of relatively low-volume production runs. As the opposite end of the spectrum transfer lines are capable of high-volume runs but they are not very flexible. Flexible manufacturing is an attempt to use technology in such a way as to achieve the optimum balance between flexibility and production runs. These technologies include automated materials, handling, group technology, and computer and distributed numerical control.

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is an independent machine or group of machines in a service automatic material handling systems. It is controlled by computer and has the right tools to deal with capacity. As it has the ability and tools to deal with by computer control, this system can be continuously re-configured to create a more diverse components, this is it is called flexible manufacturing system causes. A manufacturing system to become a flexible manufacturing system must have the elements:

1. Computer Control

2. Automated material handling capacity

3. Tool capacity

FMS make an important step to the full integration of the goal of creating. It is the fulfillment of the automated manufacturing process integration. In FMS, automated manufacturing machines (such as lathes, milling, drilling) and automated material handling systems make an instant communication through the computer network. This is a small-scale integration.

Flexible Manufacturing Profiles

Through integrating several automation manufacturing concepts, Flexible-manufacturing systems make an important step to the comprehensive integration of the goal of creating. These concepts are:

1. Machine independent computer numerical control

2. Manufacturing System Distributed Digital Control

3. Automated material handling system.

4. Group Technology (Part Family)

When these automated processes, machines and synthesis of the concept of an integrated system, they have a flexible manufacturing system. Flexible manufacturing systems and the computer has played an important role. Of course the manual labor than the much smaller manufacturing system. However, people still play a critical role in flexible manufacturing operation of the system

People's mandate includes the following aspects:

1. They seized equipment, maintenance and repair

2. Transform Tool and set up three.

3. Installation and removal system

4. Data transmission

5. Parts of the transformation process

6. Program development

Flexible Manufacturing System equipment, like all the manufacturing equipment, must be supervised to avoid disorders, machinery procedural error, and failure. When a problem is identified maintenance personnel must determine the root of the problem,

then is given the right measures. People should also take specific measures to repair abnormal operation of machinery. Even when all systems are functioning, regular maintenance is necessary.

According to the operators but also the need for machine tools, other tools, and the re-allocation system. Flexible Manufacturing System Tool handling capacity weakened, but did not eliminate, transform and the tools still need human setting. FMS works as well as in the system. Once the raw materials have been sent to the automated material handling system, it will in the manner provided in the system to mobile. However, Installation of early material handling system is completed by the operator; finished the demolition is the same.

Computer and human exchanges still need to complete. Parts procedures were developed through computer-controlled flexible manufacturing system. When the re-allocation of FMS creates another type parts they still need time to transform the process. In Flexible Manufacturing System labor-intensive components diminishing, but they are still very important.

Flexible manufacturing systems are different levels of control by the computer to complete. Tools in flexible manufacturing system are independent of CNC machine tools to control. The entire system is controlled by the DNC. Automated material handling system is computer controlled, the other functions such as data collection, system monitoring, and computer controls control tool, Transport Control. HCI FMS is the key to the system.

FMS history

FMS produced in the 20th century in 60 mid-British Mullins made by the Company or on the 24th system. On the 24th is a real system of FMS. However, it was from the outset doomed to failure. Because automation, integration, and computer controlling technology have not just to be able to support the system, FMS is a progressive development. Therefore, the ultimate result could not work and was abandoned

In the 20th century, the 1960s and 1970s, the rest of the time, FMS is still an academic concept. However, as the complexity of the computer control technology in the 20th century, the late 1970s and early 1980s the emergence FMS will become possible. In the United States the first major user of the automobile, truck and tractor manufacturers.

FMS reasons

In manufacturing, productivity and flexibility that often exists between coherence problems. In the field of high-end productivity is low but continuous flexible production lines; in the field at the other end is able to provide maximum flexibility independent of the computer numerical control machine tools, But it can only low-productivity manufacturing. Flexible Manufacturing is in the middle at this continuum. Manufacturing is always the need for a system, the system than the individual machine can create a greater amount and more for the manufacturing process, but still maintains its flexibility.

Continuous production line can produce a lot of high productivity parts. This production line needs a lot of preparation work, but it can create a lot of the same parts. Its main shortcoming is that even if a component in the design of a small change can cause the entire production line shutdown and structural change. This is a fatal weakness, which means no cost, lengthy lay-off and continuous changes in the structure of production lines is not to create different parts, even from the same part family. Flexible manufacturing capability to its basic manufacturer offers many advantages:

1. In one part family has a Flexible.

2. Free feed components.

3. Meanwhile producing different parts.

4. Preparation time and product design to production startup time reduction.

5. Tool use more effective.

6. Direct and indirect human cost.

7. Able to process different materials.

8. If a machine failure to continue with production.

Modular manufacturing

Modular manufacturing facilities in the factory is organized into communities and parts production planning concept. Machine factory divided into many units, each for a part family.

The first method is to obtain the lowest possible number of units, each for a variety of major components, so that each unit has a redundant, or the core of the machine. Core multifunction machine usually CNC machine tools, with the necessary machine tools used in the external modules to provide complete machining of parts.

Even in the absence of direct digital control and automation work, this method can also provide basic flexibility, streamline the workload and to achieve a balanced modular manufacturing inherently fair share of the savings. In the follow-up phase may show such characteristics.

The second method is the use of modern machinery and technology to control every (smaller) unit processing a small part family. This method can provide very effective parts production, it will help with time synchronization of project planning, and one unit can compensate the next module. In a smaller unit within a balanced workload may be larger than the one next to the unit more difficult to do so.

Parts operations as quite fragmented (too many processes), and only a few of the local machine, pipeline method may be applicable. Here, parts along circular or straight lines from one point moved to another station. If it is linear, work piece can be transmitted through the conveyor belt and a reciprocating movement of a piece of equipment or to send a track installed in a robot to do the work. This device right prismatic parts effectively. If the work piece carrier rounds use of a fixed base of common robots, robot plane is on quite a big swing.

Especially for rotating parts, multifunctional machines are usually assigned a robot, two robots for loading and unloading machine tools and spare parts to put comprehensive checkpoints. Modules may be turning the center two or two grinder or a turning center plus a grinder.

Under certain circumstances, Lathe and can choose exactly the same in a lathe machining a part in the second Taiwan lathe machining parts Another; or for more than two parts of the lathe while processing for both busy with the same work; install or use two locations, robot not only allow transmission of the work piece and the work piece location between two rotating their ends reversed.

For a long cycle parts, the above-mentioned tasks may not use robots all the time. Robot BTA will be able to help, to do the work burr, and even the implementation of a supplementary work.

For larger, heavier parts or larger lathe, a lathe or configuration or several lathes mix, this may also be adjusted to the use of flags of the bench robot. For smaller, lighter parts, the use of whole-installed in the machine mechanical arm to dump the loading might be.

Machining Center

Processing center in the 20th century was known as the 1960s or ATC, rooted in its ability to transform the work piece on the cutting tools for the various processes of capacity. This started a manufacturer of the conversion between tools and additional features or performance changes by improving and enhancing options staggered with a processing center so that it may gradually improve. Even in this early, "Lathe 1.60", the processing center has been started to affect the processes. In many cases, they used to play NC people shop doors role. Their high efficiency often forces people to rethink parts scheduling and processing needs. The statistics show that they have as an independent category of machines is a good recognition.

Today, the machining center uses have expanded from independent workshops of flexible modules and flexible manufacturing systems. However, the application of automation to enhance the utilization and higher metal cutting rates, of the modules within the system or the most value-added components produce more wear and tear, stress and strain.

Machining Center as turning centers can be divided into two types of vertical or horizontal. Vertical Machining Center continues to be widely recognized and used,

mainly used as mold and mold parts of a single work piece such a flattened face, and the need for the three-axis machining. Horizontal Machining Center has been widely recognized and used, especially for large, bulky parts of the Square. When the unit or flexible manufacturing systems used, they help to facilitate the transfer of reciprocating for pallets. Choice of horizontal or vertical machining center depends on the main parts of the types, size, weight, and applications and in many occasions personal preference.

Processing center structure has been improved to adapt to a higher spindle speed, Feed and overall output and higher utilization and the need to improve performance. For most parts, machine bed is still very traditional cast iron or welded pieces of steel plating. However, the use of finite element analysis as to the final structure of the computer simulation has become more and more prevalent. Therefore, it is now within the general casting rib and has been optimized shape with the precut steel pillars of the characteristics, when the machine is loaded or cutting state prefabricated steel pillar shape with only a small amount of distortion.

Now, some chine tool suppliers provide a horizontal-vertical axis. These machines are similar in appearance already used to change the direction of 90 degrees axis Cartesian axis of the device. This kind of machine continues to be recognized by a very dominant, because they do not reduce the value-added time and set up the work piece handling time and increase the value-added processing chip time. Generally speaking, there is a marked increase in spindle more features trend, not only for the processing and rotation. This means that the first axis is normally has become increasingly complicated.

Spindle machining center of a modern high-performance knife material properties include the hardness, rotating precision (beating), axial load-bearing capacity, thermal stability and thermal expansion of the axial freedom. Although the most important needs is the speed. In some cases, the spindle speed of 6000-7000rpm over the scope it depends 1,000 manufacturers and application needs.

According to this definition, processing centers to include automatic tool change. Tool and Tool Storage transform institutions with various tool vendors and change,

some are front, side or above installed. Knife and stored in its main task of separating the benefits of flying debris have been less pollution and better protection operatives replace the processing tool. Although the tool clamping bodies of the design pattern with the manufacturer to change, however, two 180-degree arms was still the most common method.

Modern processing center needs more tools, which means that the need for greater storage capacity tool. Modules and system processing needs of the reserve needs to provide online tools to replace the damaged tools. Tool or damaged before the tool cannot be reused to replace. Stored in the processing center tool loading machine tools matrix memory or independently within the toolbox. Toolbox design from the rotating disc inside the simple processing of the hole, and installed in the chain respectively processing toolbox connected to the plastic toolbox.

Flexible Manufacturing System Software general structure and requirements

Driver software is flexible manufacturing system the main factor is not visible. Requested by the FMS software has two basic levels: 1.2 operating system software. Application software. OS software is the highest level of computer manufacturers as well as the special provisions of application software for the supervision and control. Application software is usually a system vendor to develop and provide, and includes all FMS specific procedures and routine procedures.

FMS application software is very complex and is very proprietary. For many companies, it reflects the hundreds of years of development efforts of workers of crystallization. It is usually composed of several modules. Each module is again a series of internal operating system and the various functions related to the computer program and routine procedures. These include downloaded from the mainframe FMS part of the process of NC machine tool controller, transportation and materials management, the sequencing of the development, and parts of the process, modeling and management tools. All of these software modules must be well designed and can be predictable, reliable, Interaction running for FMS to achieve maximum operational

efficiency and acceptable level. Poorly designed software manufacturers FMS are not sufficiently flexible and potential.

Despite all the separate development of the FMS software modules must eventually cooperate together to run the whole system, However, the software module design and development of three major advantages: 1. Put the needs of the software division into a module for the development, Once this whole system requirements and technical requirements set down, we can work simultaneously, which can save a lot of time. 2. Module software design and development phases to allow for the installation, this enables the user part of the software is still in development or testing of the implementation can begin to use the system. 3. Can be quickly and easily search and positioning, improve or modify.

However, the module structure is fundamental to the understanding of FMS software capable of providing a simple method. To better understand, we may be a direct or distributed numerical control (DNC) system as a comparison. In this system DNC NC computer control procedures to download CNC controller Remote operation-one (RTE) components for loading procedures, management tools and management information reports. DNC is the only part of a complete software system FMS subset of real-time, FMS software multifunctional many parallel activities to be undertaken. For example, system administrators may be operating procedures or plan to help activate one or more machines. While production control officers can question the work order, NC data is also possible from the tape to FMS computer conversion process.

In short, the FMS software within the system to accomplish the following activities and functions:

1. Access customized management and reports on the status of critical data.

2. Data collection work.

3. System development activities on schedule and simulation.

4. Work piece load balance so as to effectively use tools and processing

equipment.

5. Long-distance carrier NC program to machine control unit.

6. through distance communication link remote parts of CNC machining.

7.NC procedures for the control and maintenance.

8. Automation tool and work piece carrier

9. Right fixture, pallets and adjustment tools for data management.

10. Identification and distribution of the work piece work order (line)

11. Automatic Inspection work piece

12. Work piece access control system

13. Use of system resources to control the overall

14. Display and output for the wrong diagnosis of system maintenance and

repair.

In order to make any of these functions in an FMS materialize, should meet certain requirements in order to enable the various FMS as a part of a system up operation. These requirements include:

1. FSM all components and the integrity of data line installation and operation.

2. Thoroughly tested and integrated software running three.

3. Completed and approved by the NC and CMM parts procedures

4. Installed and accredited by the fixture.

5. The availability of tools and materials.

6. Fixture and pallets of distribution and recognition

7. Completion of the sequencing of the establishment

The modular software design does not necessarily imply the use of the same or similar software modules of all systems is the same. FMS many users have a special and experts can understand the requirements appropriate to their own application and operating considerations. This may require some special FMS include software modules for connecting to a new FMS and the existing automatic deposit storage and retrieval system. Or, FMS directly from the mainframe to receive parts production process requirements and information.

In short, like other computer software, the FMS software, it is like the development and coding of people, independent of the characteristics. It is important in the production environment where it can do what it can and run.

柔性制造

柔性制造的定义

制造的演变用图可以表示为一个连续统一体,制造的过程和系统处在由手工操作到最后实现全面集成制造的过渡状态。计算机集成制造的前一步叫做柔性制造。

柔性在现代制造环境中是一个重要的特征。它意味着一个制造系统不但是用途多、适应性强,而且同时又能进行大规模的生产制造。柔性制造系统用途的用途有很多,这是因为它能制造多种多样的部件并且它适应性强,还能很快地加以改变来制造完全不同的另一种部件。

独立的计算机数字控制(NC)机床有着高度的柔性,但是只能处理批量相对较小的制造。虽然系列连续生产线能进行批量较大的制造,但是都不很灵活。柔性制造试图运用工业技术在灵活性与制造运行之间达到最佳的平衡状态。这些工业技术包括自动化的材料、处理、成组技术及计算机和分布数字控制。

柔性制造系统(FMS)是一个独立的机床或一组机床服务于一个自动材料处理系统。它是由计算机控制的而且具有对刀具处理的能力。由于它有刀具处理能力并受计算机控制,这样的系统可以不断地进行重新配置来制造更加多种多样的零部件,这就是它被称作柔性制造系统的原因。

一个制造系统要成为柔性制造系统必须具备的要素有:

1.计算机控制

2.自动处理材料能力

3.刀具处理能力

柔性制造向全面集成化制造的目标迈进了重要的一步。它实现了自动化制造过程的集成化。在柔性制造中,自动化的制造机器(如数控车床、数控铣床、数控钻床)和自动化材料处理系统之间,通过计算机网络进行即时的沟通。这是小规模的集成。

柔性制造的概况

通过综合几个自动化的制造观念,柔性制造系统向全面集成化的制造目标迈出了重要的一步,这些观念是:

1.独立机床的计算机数字控制

2.制造系统的分布式数字控制

3.自动化的材料处理系统。

4.成组技术(零件族)

当这些自动化工艺、机器和观念合成到一个集成的系统时,就产生柔性制造系统。在柔性制造系统中,人和计算机起了重要作用。当然人的劳动量比手工操作的制造系统要小得多。然而,人仍然在柔性制造系统的操作中起着至关重要的作用。

人的任务包括几个方面:

1.设备故检、维护和修理

2.刀具的变换和设置

3.安装和拆卸系统

4.数据输人

5.部件程序的变换

6.程序的开发

柔性制造系统设备像所有制造设备一样,必须有人监管以免出现失常、机器程序错误,以及故障。当发现问题时检修人员必须确定问题的根源,然后给出正确的措施。人还要采取指定的措施来修理运行不正常的机器。当所有系统都正常运转时,定期的维护也是非常必要的。

操作人员还要根据需要设置机床,换刀具,以及重新配置系统。柔性制造系统的刀具处理能力削弱了,但并没有消除,在刀具变换和设置上仍需人力。在装卸柔性制造系统时也是这样。一旦原材料被送到自动化材料处理系统上,它就会以规定的方式,在系统中移动。然而.初装到材料处理系统仍然是由操作人员完成的;成品的拆卸也是同样。

与计算机的交流仍需人力完成。人开发零件程序,通过计算机控制柔性制造系统。当重新配置FMS制造另一种类型零件时他们还在必要的时候变换程序。人在柔性制造系统中劳动力密集型的成分越来越少,但仍然是很重要的。

柔性制造系统中的各层控制都是由计算机来完成的。在刀具柔性制造系统中独立的机床是由CNC来控制的。整个的系统是由DNC来控制的。自动化的材料处理系统是计算机来控制的,其他的功能如数据收集、系统监控、刀具控制、运输控制也是计算机控制的。人机交互是柔性制造系统中的关键。

柔性制造的历史发展

柔性制造产生于20世纪60年中期,当时英国莫林斯有限公司升发了24号系统。24号系统是一个真正的FMS.然而,它从一开始就注定是要失败的.因为自动化、集成化和计算机控制技术还没有发展到能够恰好支持这一系统的程度、第一个FMS是超前的开发。因此,最终因不能工作而被放弃。

在20世纪60年代和70年代的其余时间里,柔性制造仍是一个学术观念。然而,随着复杂计算机控制技术在20世纪70年代末和80年代初的出现,柔性制造便成为可能。在美国最初的主要用户是汽车、卡车和拖拉机制造商。

柔性制造的理由

在制造中,生产率和柔性之间经常存在协调一致的问题。在该领域的一端是具有高生产率却低柔性的连续生产线;在该领域的另一端是能提供最大柔性的独立的计算机数字控制的机床、但它只能进行低生产率的制造。柔性制造处在连续统一体的中间在制造中总是需要这样一个系统,这个系统比单个机床能制造更大的批量并且能用于更多制造过程,但是仍然能保持其柔性。

连续生产线能以高生产率而制造大量的零件。这条生产线需要大量的准备工作,但却只能造出大量的相同的零件。它的主要缺点是即使一个部件在设计上有小的改变都能造成整个生产线的停产和结构改变。这是一个致命的弱点,因为这意味着没有高成本和变化连续生产线结构是不能制造出不同的零件的,即使是来自同一个零件族的零件。

柔性制造以其基本能力给制造者提供了许多优点:

1.在一个零件族内具有柔性。

2.随意进给零件。

3.同时制造不同的零件。

4.准备时间和产品设计到投产的时间减少了。

5.机床的使用更有效。

6.直接和间接的人力成本减少。

7.能加工不同的材料。

8.如一台机床出故障能继续进行部分生产。

制造单元

制造单元是组织工厂设施和进行成族零件生产规划的概念。工厂的机床分成许多单元,每个单元用于某个零件族。

第一种方法是为了获得尽可能少的单元,每个单元用于加工一个主要的零件种类。每个单元中的核心机床通常为多功能数控机床,带有必要的外围机床用来在单元内提供完整的零件加工。

即使没有直接数字控制和自动化工作处理,这种方法也能提供基本的灵活性、简化工作负荷的均衡并且实现制造单元内在的相当份额的节约。在工程的后续阶段可能会显示这种特征。

第二种方法是使用现代化的机器和控制技术使每个(较小的)单元加工一个小的零件族。这种方法能提供很有效的零件生产,它有助于与时间同步的工程规划,一个单元可以补偿下一单元。在一个较小的单元内保持均衡的工作负荷可能比在下一个较大的单元内这样做更难。

零件的作业内容相当分散(很多道工序)以及只需几台机床的地方,流水线方法可能适用。这里,零件沿一条直线或圆形线路从一站移到另一站。如果是直线,工件传送可以通过传送带和一台往复移动送件装置或一台安装在轨道上的机器人来进行。这种装置对棱柱形的零件有效。如果是圆形的工件传送利用有固定底座的通用机器人,机器人在水平面具有相当大的摆动。

特别是对于旋转零件,多功能机器通常配一台机器人,机器人可以为两台机床装料和卸料并且把零件送到综合检查站。单元可能有两个车削中心或两台磨床或一个车削中心加一台磨床。

在某些情况下,车床完全相同而且可选择完全在一台车床上加工一个零件而在第二台车床上加工另一个零件;或者对于加工工作量比较大的零件在两台车床

上同时加工,让两者忙于相同的工作;或者使用两个安装位置,让机器人不仅传送工件而且使工件在两个安装位置间转动使其两端颠倒。

对于长周期零件,前面提到的任务可能不会利用机器人的全部时间。机器人也可以帮助排屑、做去毛刺的工作,甚至执行一项辅助的工作。

对于较大、较重的零件或较大的机床、或者一定的机床配置或几台机床的组合,也可能这样进行调整以使用悬挂的台架机器人。对于较小、较轻的工件,使用整体式安装在机器上的机械手来进行装料卸料也是可行的。

加工中心

加工中心在20 世纪60年代被称为ATC或者自动换刀装置,它们源于其能够在工件上通过变换自己的切削刀具来进行各种加工工序的能力。这样开始了一场在制造商之间刀具转换及附加特性或性能的变革,通过改进和增强交错排列的备选加工中心使其逐步提高。甚至在早此年“六角车床”时,加工中心就己经开始影响加工工序了。在很多情况下,采用它们为车间起到数控人门的作用。它们的高效率常常迫使人们去重新思考零件编排及加工的需求。从统计来看,它们已经作为独立的一类机器获得了较好的认可。

今天,加工中心的用途不断扩大,从独立的灵活车间到柔性制造单元和系统。然而,自动化应用所提高的利用率以及更高的金属切削率,将在单元或系统内最具附加值的零件上产生更多的磨损、撕裂、应力和应变。

加工中心像车削中心一样可以分为立式或卧式两类。立式加工中心继续得到广泛的认可和使用,主要用于像铸模和模具工件这样单一零件端面的平顶部分,以及需要三轴加工的地方。卧式加工中心也得到了广泛的认可和使用,尤其用于大型、四四方方的笨重零件上,因为当在单元或柔性制造系统内使用时,它们有助于方便地进行托板往复传递。选择立式或卧式加工中心主要取决于零件的种类、尺寸、重量、应用以及在很多场合下的个人偏好。

加工中心的结构已得到改进以适应更高的主轴速度、进给和输出功率以及总体更高的利用率与提高性能的需要。对于大多数零件来说,机器的床身依旧是传统的铸铁或焊接钢镀件。然而,使用如有限元分析对最终结构进行计算机模拟已经越来越普遍。因此,现在的铸件一般以内肋以及已经优化的预制钢外形与支柱为特色,当机床处于加载或切削状态时预制钢外形与支柱仅产生少量扭曲。

现在一些机床供应商提供了卧—立式主轴。这些机床在外观上类似于早已用过的改变主轴方向90度的直角主轴装置。像这样的机器继续得到认可而且很占优势,因为它们减少了没有附加值的设置时间以及工件装卸时间并且增加了具有附加值的切屑加工时间。总体说来,有一种明显的在主轴上增加更多特性的趋势,而不仅只是为加工而旋转。这就意味着主轴头通常会变得越来越复杂。

加工中心主轴对高性能的现代刀具其材料所需的特性包括硬度、旋转精度(跳动)、轴向承载能力、热稳定性以及热膨胀时的轴向自由度。尽管最重要的需求是速度。在某些情况下,主轴的速度超过了6000-7000rpm的范围,这取决千制造商以及应用的需求。

根据今天的定义,加工中心必须包括自动换刀装置。刀具存储和刀具变换机构随各种刀具供应商而改变,有些是前面、侧面或上面安装的。将刀具存储在与工作主轴分开的地方的优点包括较少受到飞屑的污染以及更好地保护操作工在加工时更换刀具。虽然刀具夹紧机构的各种式样的设计会随制造商而改变,但是双端180分度的机械手仍然是最常见的方法。

现代加工中心需要更多的刀具,这意味着需要更大的刀具存储能力。单元和系统的加工需求需要备用刀具可以在线提供以替换损坏的刀具;或者在刀具损坏前将不能再用的刀具换下。存储在加工中心的刀具装人机床的存储器或刀具矩阵内独立的工具箱。工具箱设计从在盘形回转车内加工出的简单的孔,和装在链上分别加工的工具箱,到连接在一起的塑料工具箱。

柔性制造系统软件的一般结构和要求

软件是驱动柔性制造系统的主要的不可见的因素。FMS所要求的软件有两个基本的层次:1.操作系统软件2.应用系统软件。操作系统软件是最高层次,是计算机制造商特别规定的并对应用软件进行监督控制。应用软件通常是由系统供应商开发和提供的,它包括所有FMS的特定程序和例行程序。

FMS的应用软件是很复杂的,而且具有很强的专利性质。对于很多公司来说,它体现了几百名工人多年开发努力的结晶。它通常由几个模块组成。每个模块又是由一系列与系统内部运行的各种功能相关的计算机程序和例行程序组成。这些包括从FMS主机下载的NC部分程序到机床控制器、运输和材料管理、工

作顺序的开发、工件的工序、模拟和刀具管理。所有这些软件模块必须得到很好的设计,并且能够可预测地、可靠地、相互作用地运行以便FMS能达到最高的运行效率和可以接受的水平。设计不好的软件使制造商不能获得FMS的充分的柔性和潜能。

尽管所有单独开发的FMS软件模块必须最终一起相互配合来运行整个系统,但是模块软件设计和开发有3个主要的优点:

1.把需求的软件分割成一个个模块来开发,这样一旦整个系统的要求和技术

要求确定下来,就可同时工作,因而可以节省很多时间。

2.模块的软件设计和开发允许分阶段进行安装,这使得用户在一部分软件仍

在开发测试或执行的情况下就可以开始使用该系统。

3.能快速、简便地查找和定位问题,进行改进或修改。

然而,模块结构的确为人们了解基本的FMS软件能力提供了一个简便的方法。为了更好地理解,我们可以与一个直接的或分布的数字控制(DNC)系统作为对比。在这个系统中DNC计算机控制NC程序下载到CNC控制器,远程作业输人(RTE)加载以进行部件工作程序处理,刀具管理和管理报告信息。DNC 部分仅是完整的FMS软件系统的子集实时,多功能的FMS软件使很多同时进行的工作得以进行。例如,系统管理人员可能正在运行计划帮助程序或开动一台或多台机器,而同时生产控制人员可以寻问工作顺序情况,数控数据也可能正处在从磁带上转换到FMS计算机的过程中。

总之,FMS软件可在系统内完成下列活动和功能:

1.获取用户定制的管理和状况报告的关键数据。

2.工作数据收集。

3.对系统活动制定时间表和模拟。

4.工件负荷的平衡从而有效地利用加工设备和刀具。

5.远距离输送数控程序到机器控制单元。

6.通过远距离通讯连接进行远距离数控零件加工。

7.数控程序库控制和维护。

8.自动化刀具和工件传送

9.对夹具、托板和调整工具的数据的管理。

10.确定和分配工件工作顺序(路线)

11.自动检查工件

12.工件进出的系统控制

13.对系统资源利用的总体控制

14.输出和展示错误诊断用以对系统进行维护和检修。

为了使其中的任何一项功能在FMS得以实现,应满足一定的要求以使FMS 中的各个部分作为一个系统一起来运行。这些要求包括:

1.所有FSM部件和数据线的完整安装及运转。

2.彻底地测试和完整的运行软件

3.完成并经过认可的NC和CMM零件程序

4.装好并经认可的夹具。

5.可得到的刀具和材料。

6.夹具和托板的分配和确认

7.完成的工作顺序的建立

软件设计的模块化并不一定意味着使用相同或类似的软件模块的所有系统都是一样的。很多FMS用户有特殊的用途。只有专业人士和内行才懂的哪种软件模块适合于他们自己的应用和操作。这样的一些要求可能会包括特殊的FMS 软件模块来连接一个新的FMS和已存在的自动存储和检索系统。或者,使FMS 从主机上直接接收生产要求和零件工序信息。

总之,像其他计算机软件一样,FMS软件,就像开发和为之编码的人一样,独立而各具特点。重要的是在现有的生产环境下它能做什么并运行得如何。