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【Chapter 1】

7. tart: loose woman bloke: fellow

gat: pistol swell: great

chicken: coward blue: fight

smoky: police full: drunk

dame: woman beaver: girl

8. haply = perhaps albeit = although

methinks = it seems to me eke = also

sooth = truth morn = morning

troth = pledge ere = before

quoth = said hallowed = holy

billow = wave/ the sea bade = bid


Denizens Aliens Translation loans Semantic loans

kettle die wall skirt husband confrere

pro patria






black humour

long time no see


【Chapter 2】


The Indo-European Language Family is one of the most important language

families in the world. It is made up of most of the languages of Europe, the Near East and India. English belongs to this family and the other members of the Indo-European have more or less influence on English vocabulary. A knowledge of the Indo-European Language Family will help us understand English words better and use them more appropriately.

2. Indo-European Language Family

Balto-Slavic Indo-Iranian Celtic Italian Hellenic Germanic

Roumanian Hindi Breton Spanish Greek English

Lithuanian Persian Scottish French Swedish

Prussian Irish Italian German

Polish Portuguese Norweigian

Slavenian Icelandic

Russian Danish

Bulgarian Dutch


When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Most of the content words are either of Greek or Latin origin. What are left are mostly functional words. This shows that Greek and Latin play a very important part in the English vocabulary.

8. eventful [Latin + English] hydroplane [Greek + Latin]

falsehood [ Latin + English] pacifist [Latin + Greek]

saxophone [German + Greek]

heirloom [ French + English]

joss house [ Portuguese + English] t elevision

[Greek + Latin]


amateur (late) finacé (late) empire (early) peace (E) courage (E) garage (L)

judgement (E) chair (E) chaise (L)

grace (E) servant (E) routine (L)

jealous (E) savaté (L) genre (L)

gender (E) début (L) morale (L)

state (E) chez (L) ballet (L)


allegro, f轻快

andante, j 行板

diminuendo, g 渐弱

largo, d 缓慢

pianoforte, a轻转慢

alto, i女低音

crescendo, b渐强

forte, e 强

piano, h轻

soprano, c女高音


cherub (Hebrew) snorkel (G)

coolie (Hindi) tulip (Turk)

lasso (Sp) wok (Ch)

shampoo (Indian) chocolate (Mex) tepee (Am Ind) jubilee (Gr)

kibitz (G) Sabbath (Heb) chipmunk (Am Ind) tamale (Mex)

cotton (Arab) voodoo (Afr)

loot (Hindi) sauerbraten (G)


a. alligator

b. loco

c. rodeo

d. bonanza

e. igloo

f. blitzkrieg

g. wigwam h. canoe

i. hurricane j. boomerang

k. panchos

【Chapter 3】

1. a. morpheme b. allomorph

c. bound morpheme

d. free morpheme

e. affix

f. informational affix

g. derivational affix h. root

i. stem j. base

3. individualistic

individualist + ic [stem, base]

individual + ist [stem, base]

individu + al [stem, base]

in + dividu [root, stem, base]


un + desirable [stem, base]

desir + able [root, stem, base]

free morpheme = free root

morpheme bound root

bound morpheme inflectional affix

affix prefix

derivational affix

suffix 【Chapter 4】


5. non-smoker incapable impractical

disobey insecurity irrelevant

immature inability/disability unofficially

unwillingness illegal disagreement illogical disloyal inconvenient


6. harden horrify modernize

memorize falsify apologize

deepen glorify sterilize

lengthen intensify beautify

fatten sympathize

a. apologized

b. beautify

c. lengthening

d. sympathized

e. fatten

f. falsify

g. memorizing h. Sterilize

7. a. employee b. politician c. participant

d. waitress

e. conductor

f. teacher

g. pianist h. examinee/examiner


trans- = across: transcontinental, trans-world

mono- = one: monorail, monoculture

super- = over, above: superstructure, supernatural

auto- = self: autobiography, automobile

sub- = bad, badly: malpractice, malnutrition

mini- = little, small: minicrisis, miniwar

pre- = before: prehistorical, preelection

ex- = former: ex-teacher, ex-filmer


heartbeat [S + V] brainwashing [V + O]

movie-goer [place + V] baking powder [ V +adv]

far- reaching [V + Adv] dog-tired [adv + a]

lion-hearted [adv + a] love-sick [adv + a]

boyfriend [S + complement] peace-loving [V +O]

snap decision [V + O] easy chair [ a + n]

on-coming [V +adv] tax-free [adv +a]

light-blue [a + a] goings-on [V +adv]

4. well-bred/well-behaved culture-bound/homebound

needle work/homework praiseworthy/respectworthy

bar-woman/sportswoman nation-wide/college-wide

clear-minded/strong-minded military-style/newstyle

self-control/self-respect budget-related/politics-related water-proof/fire-proof once-fashionable/once-powerful news-film/news-letter mock-attack/mock-sadness

sister-in-law/father-in-law home-baked/home-produced

half-way/half-done ever-lasting/ever-green

age-conscious/status-conscious campus-based/market-based Conversion

7. a. stomach [n → v]

b. room [n → v]

c. wolf [n → v]

d. come/go [v → n]

e. familiar [a → n]

f. innocent [a → n]

g. flat [a → n]

h. ah/ ouch [int → v]

i. warm [a → n]

j. has-been/might-have-been [finite v → n]

k. Hamlet [proper n → v]

l. buy [v → n]

m. smooth [a → v]


motel (mo tor + ho tel)

humint (hum an + int elligence)

advertisetics (advertise ment + statis tics)

psywarrior (psy chological warrior)

hoverport (hover craft + port)

chunnel (ch annel + t unnel)

hi-fi (hi gh + fi delity)

cinemactress (cinem a + actress)


copter (heli copter) dorm (dorm itory)

lab (lab oratory) prefab (pref abricated house) gas (gas oline) prof (prof essor)

scope (tele scope) champ (champ ion)

sarge (serge ant) mike (mic rophone)

ad (ad vertisement) tec (de tec tive)


2. kg = k ilo g ram ft = f oo t cf = c on f er

cm = c enti m eter $ = dollar

ibid = ibid em etc. = et c etera

VIP = v ery i mportant p erson

OPEC = O rganization of P etroleum E xporting C ountries TOEFL = t eaching o f E nglish as a f oreign l anguage

3. a. SALT

b. radar



e. Laser

f. WHO

g. sonar

h. G-man


2. lase (laser)

escalate (escalator)

babysit (babysitter)

peeve (peevish)

orate (orator)

commute (commuter)

Commonization of Proper Names

a. tantalize—Tantalus

b. Argus-eyed—Argus

c. narcissism—Narcissus

d. sabotage—sabots

e. martinet—Martinet

f. yahoo—Yahoo

g. Shylock—Shylock

h. hoovering—Hoover

i. utopia—Utopia

j. Uncle Tommism—Uncle Tom

【Chapter 5】

6. apes—b birds—a

cattle—m cricket—n

doves—c foxes—j

geese—k sheep—f

wolves—g monkeys—e

pigs—l hyenas—h

turkeys—d swans—i

9. a. A scientist working in a project to develop industrial uses for nuclear

power might have all the positive associations with “atomic”, such as

“benefit, energy”, etc.

b. A Japanese resident of Hiroshima, victim of the atomic explosion at the end

of World War II, might h ave all the negative associations with “atomic”, such as “suffering, killing, death, horror", etc.

c. To a student of nuclear physics, “atomic” might be associated with “mystery,

science, knowledge”, etc.

10. talkative: implying a fondness for talking frequently and at length (neutral)

articulate: expressing oneself easily and clearly (positive)

gossip: indulging in idle talk or rumours about others (negative)

rambling: talking aimlessly without connection of ideas (negative)

fluent: speaking easily, smoothly, and expressively (positive)

mouthy: overtly talkative, especially in a rude way (nagative)


No Appreciative Neutral Pejorative

1 particular fastidious/fussy

2 critical fault-finding/picky

3 style/vogue fad

4 artful cunning/sly

5 unstable fickle/capricious

6 developing underdeveloped/ backward

7 encourage/ promote instigate

8 group clique/gang








bull cow calf +BOVINE

rooster hen chicken +GALLINE


【Chapter 6】



a piece of timber


dining table council table

food served at the table; meal supplied by the week or month



directors of a

company board


4. 1) Make both ends meat is a parody of make both ends meet which means “have

enough money for one’s needs”. Here the butcher cleverly uses the pair of homonyms meat and meet to make a pun. It makes a proper answer to the l ady’s question. (1) Butchers cannot make both ends meat (make whole sausages with all meat) because they cannot make both ends meet (If they made sausages with all meat, which is more costly, they would not earn enough money to survive.)( 2) Don’t complain. All the butchers do the same. I am not the only one who is making sausages with bread.

2) Swallow is a bird which is seen in summer. But by one swallow we see, we

cannot deduce that it is already summer time. Swallow can also mean a

mouthful of wine. On a cold winter day, if one has a swallow of wine, one may feel warm.

3) arms has two meanings: weapons; the human upper limbs. Since “a cannon

ball took off his legs”, the soldier was not able to fight on, so he “laid down his arms”, which means “surrender”. It can also mean he laid down his upper limbs.


3. avaricious: greedy

courteously: politely

emancipate: set free

customary: usual

width: breadth

adversary: opponent

gullible: deceived

remainder: residue

innocent: sinless

obstacle: obstruction

vexation: annoyance

5. a. identifiable b. safety

c. motivates

d. delicate

e. surroundings

f. artificial

g. prestige h. perspire

i. accomplishment j. silent

k. impressive l. evaporate

6. run move spin

turn whirl roll

7. a. stead b. gee-gee c. ripe

d. mature

e. effective

f. efficient

g. fatigued, children h. tired, kids

i. declined j. refused k. rancid

l. addled m. Penalties n. fines

o. rebuked p. accused


5. a. similar/same b. safe

c. sharp/ smart

d. send

e. stingy/ selfish h. simple

f. significant/sensible i. sure

g. skeptical/ suspicious l. smooth

j. slipshod/ slovenly/ sloppy

k. sleepiness/ sleep / slumber

m. subjective

n. sob/ scowl

6. a. old-fashioned b. completely

c. moisture

d. special

e. essential

f. similarity

g. innocent h. rigid

i. loosen j. clarity

k. deserted l. fruitful

m. peremptory n. depressed

o. indifferent

7. a. feed—starve, cold-fever b. wisdom—follies

c. haste—leisure

d. penny—pound, wise—foolish

e. speech —silence

f. absence —presence

g. admonish —praise i. wise men —fools

h. young —old private —public saint —devil j. mind —body k. foul —fair l. danger —security m. deliberate--prompt n. children —parents o. bully —coward p. head —tail


right —wrong single —return dry —sweet hard —easy strong —faint rough —calm light —dark cold —warm high —low/deep


3. furniture: desk, chair, table, bed matter: liquid, gas, solid meat: pork, beef, mutton go: run, fly, walk

4. profession workplace surgeon: clinic, hospital plumber: house, building lawyer: office, law courts mechanic: garage photographer: studio foreman: worksite, factory


6. In Sentence 1, got, furniture, recently are superordinates because they are general and convey a very vague idea whereas in Sentence 2, the three words are replaced

BEDROOM mattress dressing gown

clothes pyjamas carpet

rug mirror comb hairbrush pillows sheets



dressing table

wardrob bed

respectively by bought, cupboard, three days ago, which are subordinates, conveying a definite and clear idea. So Sentence 2 is better than Sentence 1.

In 3, it is said, magnificent building, destroyed, yesterday are superordinate terms, which are comparatively much more general than the news says, Royal Hotel, burnt down, last night respectively in 4, which can be described as subordinates.

Since 4 is clearer than 3 in meaning, it is better.

Semantic field

3. Group 1 is synonymously semantic field and Group 2 is semantic filed. The

difference lies: In 1 the words are synonyms, none of them covers the meaning of another, and they differ only in style and emotive values. In 2 the words are not synonyms, but each refers to a specific type of horse. Horse is a cover term or superordinate, and others are subordinates. These terms have no difference in style or affective meaning.

【Chapter 7】

4. 1) extension 2) extension

3) narrowing 4) degradation

5) elevation 6) narrowing

7) extension 8) extension

9) narrowing 10) elevation

11) narrowing 12) degradation

13) degradation 14) degradation

5. a. associated transfer

b. abstract to concrete

c. abstract to concrete

d. abstract to concrete

e. abstract to concrete

f. abstract of concrete

g. associated transfer

h. associated transfer

i. synesthesia

j. synesthesia

6. a. objective b. subjective, objective

c. objective

d. subjective

e. subjective

f. subjective

g. subjective h. subjective, objective

7. a. die b. graveyard

c. bedlam疯人院

d. old people

e. strike

f. Policeman

g. stupid pupil h. poor people

i. toilet j. fat person

k. unemployed mother

【Chapter 8】

2. a. to repair

b. measurement a nd determination of one’s position

c. predicament

d. injection

a. a single complete dividing part (of a rocket)

b. the theatre or acting as a profession

c. a particular point or period in a process of development

d. to plan, arrange and carry out

a. interchange and discussion of ideas, esp. for mutual understanding or


b. conversation

c. a written conversation (of a play, etc.)

3. a. synonym

b. explanation/ definition

c. antonym

d. example

e. relevant details

f. relevant details

g. relevant details

4. a. stop people drinking

stop drinking by themselves

b. a stone house which is big

a house built of big stones

c. a picture possessed by Betty

a photograph of Betty

d. aunts who are visiting

paying a visit to aunts

e. take Jane as his wife

preside over Jane’s wedding

f. a weapon that can fly over long distance and that it explodes when it h its the

thing it aims at

an object that is thrown at somebody in order to hurt him

【Chapter 9】

6. a—2) b—9) c—3)

d—6) e—1) f—8)

g—5) h—4) i—7)


7. a. stand out against

b. approve of

c. get … over with

d. looking into

e. come up with

f. comply with

g. cashed in on

h. go without

i. to profit by / from

j. dut down …to

8. a cool cat = a really calm person

blow one's stack = lose control over oneself

fly off the handle = become excessively angry

what's more = furthermore

get away with = commit an illegitimate act without penalty

of course = naturally

get on = get old

pepper and salt = grey (hair)

make up for = compensate for

lost time = time wasted

take it easy = relax, not worry

get up = rise from bed

turn in = go into bed

take care of = manage or look after

like a breeze = without effort or easily

time off = time for rest

get it made = be successful

this is it = be in a position or place, or have possession of an object beyond which more of the same is unnecessary

Sam is really a calm person. He never loses control of himself and hardly ever becomes too angry. Furthermore, he knows how to manage his business financially by using a few tricks… Needless to say, he, too, is getting older.

His hair is beginning to turn grey, but he knows how to compensate for wasted time by relaxing. He rises early, exercises, and goes to bed early. He manages his frankfurter dispensary without visible effort, until it is someone else's turn to work there. Sam is successful, he has reached his life's goal.

9. a. “Well, it's the old story of the stitch in t ime,” he said.

A stitch in time saves nine.

b. Fleur's head was lost in the tool-box, but her voice was heard saying: “Too

many cooks, better let me.”

Too many cooks spoil the broth.

c. But not many other people held that view discerning his finger still very large

in every pie — so much so that there often seemed less pie than finger.

have a finger in the pie

d. I’m thinking of putting up a “Silence is golden” placard in his offic

e. Nobody

can hear themselves think.

Speech is silver, silence is golden.

e. They four had one likeness: their appearance and their work was as it were a

wheel in the middle of a wheel.

wheel within wheels

f. He quotes them extensively nevertheless, together with other equally suspect

evidence, because otherwise he would have no straw with which to make his


make bricks without straw

10. wind and weather wheeling and dealing

waifs and strays town and gown

top and tail time after time

rules and regulations rise and fall

rags and tatters puff and blow

pick and shovel peace and quiet

over and above one and only

off and on neck and neck

shoulder to shoulder moan and groan

milk and water man and beast

11. a. 好奇伤身。

b. 闻声知鸟。/闻言知人。

c. 种瓜得瓜。/种豆得豆。

d. 美貌只是一层皮。/不可以貌取人。

e. 良药苦口。

f. 谨慎是安全之本。

g. 子为人之父。/从小看大。

h. 不满是前进的第一步。/不满就是进步的开始

i. 入乡随俗。

j. 吃一堑,长一智。

k. 烈火试真金,逆境炼意志。

【Chapter 10】

14.draft (AmE)—draught (BrE)

gaol (BrE)—jail (AmE)

aesthetic (BrE)—esthetic (AmE)

check (AmE)—cheque (BrE)

travel (AmE)—travell (BrE)

catalog (AmE)—catalogue (BrE)

16. subway (AmE) = underground/ tube (BrE)

subway (BrE): underground passage way across a road

public school (AmE) = private school (BrE esp. boarding school)

17. The information can be found in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

(New Edition 1987, reprinted almost yearly) p590.

18. The expressions can be found in Language Notes entitled Thanks in Longman

Dictionary of Contemporary English (New Edition 1987, reprinted almost yearly) p1097.

19. The information can be found in Collins COBUILD English Dictionary(1995

Britain; 2000 上海外语教育出版社)。

rich: ◆◆◆◆◇ = belonging to 1200

wealthy: ◆◆◇◇◇= belonging to 3200

affluent: ◆◇◇◇◇= belonging to 8100

These words can not be used interchangeably because they differ in intensity of meaning, in range of meaning and in formality. Generally the higher the frequency of use, the more common it is. Comparatively, affluent is the most formal, strongest and most infrequently-used word.

20. dull has 9 meanings; 5 synonyms; 4 antonyms; 6 superordinates (CCED 1987,


21. blurt has two meanings, for meaning 1, the information given in the Extra

Column is: V + O/REPORT-CL/QUOTE + A(out), or V + QUOTE; ≠bottle up.

That means blurt is a verb followed by object or object clause, or by direct quote (直接引语) followed by adverbial out; its antonym is bottle up.

For meaning 2, we find: V + O/REPORT/QUOTE + A (out).

22. on an empty stomach = Route to find information: empty (key word) →empty

stomach →EAT 12 (EAT has 14 meanings), meaning without having eaten anything.

corporal punishment= Route to find information: punishment →corporal punishment, meaning punishment by hitting usually with a stick.