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语法知识点剖析(1)

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非 谓 语 动 词

非谓语动词:不能作谓语的动词形式,可以作除谓语动词外的任何成分,即主谓宾表定状补。

三种基本形式:doing, done, to do

Doing:

一、作主语

1.doing作主语,位于句首,谓语动词用单数形式。doing表示经常性、习惯性的动作。

Climbing mountains is a good way to keep fit.(保持健康)

主 系

Walking dog is his hobby.

主 系

2.当doing作主语太长时,用it作形式主语代替doing放在句首,doing放在句尾。(避免头重脚轻)

Crying over the spilt milk is no use.

→It is no use crying over the spilt milk.

形式主语 真正主语

固定句型:

1.It is no use / no good / useless / senseless doing…

2.It is worth doing sth…

3.It is a waste of time doing…

4.It is fun / enjoyable / pleasant /a good pleasure doing…

例:It’s no use _____ with him since he has made up his mind. (2010)

A. to argue

B. arguing

C. to be argued

D. argued

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二、作宾语

1.动词 + doing

consider(考虑), suggest(建议), look forward to(盼), excuse(原谅),

admit(承认), delay/put off(推迟),得,fancy(想象),

avoid(避免), miss(错过), keep(继续), practice(练),

deny(否认), finish(完成),就, enjoy/appreciate(欣赏),

forbid(禁止), imagine(想象),才, risk(冒险),

stand(忍受), mind(介意), allow/permit(准), escape(逃亡).

固定搭配:

1. advise / forbid / allow, permit + doing sth

建议 禁止 两允许 sb to do sth

2. need/want/require + doing

需要 to be done

例:⑴He enjoys _____ pop music while I prefer classical music. (2010)

A. to listen to

B. to listen

C. listening

D. listening to

⑵The garden requires_____ . (2009)

A. watering

B. being watered

C. to water

D. having watered

⑶I appreciate____ to your birthday party. (2003)

A. to be invited

B. to have invited

C. having invited

D. being invited

⑷I don’t mind____ out for a walk in such a bad weather. (2006)

A. go

B. to go

C. going

D. gone

⑸I don’t mind ____ in the office.

A. to smoke

B. smoked

C. his smoking

D. smokes

注:1.doing的被动形式:being done (第3题只有被动的含义)

2.doing的复合结构:

在doing前面加 形容词性物主代词: his smoking

名词所有格: Tom’s smoking

代词的宾格形式(口语):him smoking

(doing动作的发出者)

如果his smoking与him smoking同时出现,选择更加正式的his smoking.

3.doing的否定形式:紧挨着doing前加not : not doing

例1:I’m sorry for not being there.

例2:⑴No one can avoid____ by advertisements. (2008)

A. influenced

B. influencing

C. to influence

D. being influenced

⑵What is the reason for ____ on time? (2012)

A. not your coming

B. you not come

C. your not coming

D. you not to come

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2.作介词宾语(所有的介词后跟动词的-ing 形式)

介词:at, for, against, on, by, to, (in)…

⑴to为介词的短语:(~ to doing)

be/get used to = be accustomed to 习惯于 get down to 开始做…

pay attention to 关注 contribute to 有助于

devote oneself to 投身于be addicted to 沉溺于

look forward to 盼望object to 反对

stick to 坚持lead to 导致

the key to …的关键confess to 坦白

☆prefer的用法:

prefer + doing (长期的动作)

to do (一次性的动作)

prefer to do A rather than do B = prefer doing A to doing B 宁愿做A而不愿做B 例:I prefer walking______. (2007)

A. to drive

B. to driving

C. than drive

D. than driving

⑵省略介词in的短语:

sb spend 时间 (in) doing sth 花(时间)做…

sb be busy (in) doing sth 忙于

sb have trouble/difficulty/a problem/a hard time (in) doing sth 做…有困难

There is no point (in) doing… 做…是没有用的。

sb lose no time (in) doing sth 不失时机做…

succeed in doing 成功做…(in不可省略)

例:⑴As a lawyer he spent a lot of time_____ investigations. (2006)

A. conducted

B. to conduct

C. conduct

D. conducting

⑵There is no____ arguing about it, just do as you are told. (2005)

A. reason

B. way

C. point

D. meaning

3.既跟doing 又跟to do 的词:

⑴用法相同: start/begin doing

to do

⑵用法不同:

a. love/like/hate + doing (长期的动作)

to do (一次性的动作)

b. forget doing 忘记已经做过某事(失忆)

to do 忘记去做某事(健忘)

remember doing 记得曾经做过某事

to do 记住要做某事

regret doing 后悔做过某事

to do 遗憾要去做某事

c. stop doing 停止正在做的事

to do 停下来做另一件事

go on doing 继续做同一件事

to do 接着做另一件事

d. try doing 尝试着做某事

to do 努力做某事

mean doing 意味着做某事

to do 打算做某事

can’t help doing 情不自禁做某事

(to) do 不能帮助做某事

e. feel like doing 想做某事

would like to do 想做某事

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三、作表语

doing 作表语,对主语进行解释说明或表示主语的特征。

例:My aunt’s job is laying eggs. (主语等于表语)

The music sounds exciting. (doing表主语的特征,译为“令人…的”)

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四、作定语

1.doing作定语,放在名词前,表示该名词的用途,或doing的动作由该名词发出。

dining room (餐厅) reading room (阅览室) walking stick (手杖)

boiling water (正沸腾的水) sleeping baby (正在睡觉的婴儿) developing country (发展中国家)

2.doing作定语,放在名词前,表示该名词的一种客观状态,译为:“令人…的” exciting, boring, tiring, puzzling, confusing, moving…

例: an exciting voice 一个令人兴奋的声音

a puzzling expression 一个令人困惑的表情 囧

a moving movie 一部令人感动的电影

doing 作表语→ The movie is moving.

3.doing短语作定语,放在名词后,表示该名词与doing构成主动进行的关系。

⑴The girl is my ex. ↘

The girl wears a pink hat. ↗ The girl wearing a pink hat is my ex.

⑵They live in a mansion.(豪宅) ↘

The mansion faces north. ↗ They live in a mansion facing north.

⑶The man is Baldhead Strong. ↘

The man is being beaten. ↗ The man being beaten is Baldhead Strong.

注:being done作定语时:表示“正在被…”

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五、作状语

1.doing 作状语,句子中有“,”表示主句主语与非谓语动词构成主动进行的关系。

考题形式:⑴非 ⅹⅹ,SVO.

SVO, 非 ⅹⅹ. 主语S与非谓doing构成主动进行的关系。

S, 非 ⅹⅹ,VO.

⑵(With)+名词 非,SVO. 名词与非谓doing构成主动进行的关系。

注:形式⑵被称为独立主格结构。

例1:Weather permitting(允许), we will visit you tomorrow.

例2:⑴_____ in Beijing, he was met by his good friend.

A. He arrived

B. Arriving

C. Being arrived

D. Arrived

⑵He lived in Beijing, ____ as a writer.

A. worked

B. being worked

C. working

D. work

⑶My uncle, ____ in Beijing, is a doctor.

A. he lives

B. living

C. being lived

D. lived

⑷The day ____ hot, we decided to go swimming.

A. was

B. being

C. been

D. be

2.doing 与 having done 的区别:

两者都表示主动,但是having done强调非谓语动作明显先于主句谓语动词动作发生。

例:⑴____dinner, he went to the restroom.

A. Had

B. Having

C.Having had

D. To have

⑵____several times, the dog died at last.

A. Deserting

B. To desert

C. Having deserted

D. Having been deserted

注:doing的被动形式为being done, 作状语时表示:“正在被…”

doing的完成形式:having done(主动)

doing的被动完成形式:having been done

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六、作补足语(见非谓语总结)

Done:过去分词(done不作主语,宾语)

一、作表语

done 作表语,主语通常是人,done表达一种主观感受,译为:“感到…的”,此时done相当于adj.

excited, bored, tired, confused, annoyed…

例:The movie is boring, so I feel bored. (bore)

I am tired of the tiring work. (tire)

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二、作定语

1.单个过去分词作定语时,位于名词前,表示已经完成的动作或状态。

boiled water 开好的水 fallen leaves 已经落下的叶子

boiling water 正沸腾的水 falling leaves 正在落下的叶子

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developed country 发达国家

developing country 发展中国家

2.done的短语作定语时,位于名词后,表示该名词与非谓语动词之间构成被动完成的关系。

考题形式:名词 非 ⅹⅹVO. 或 SVO 非 ⅹⅹ.

例:⑴The first textbook____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. (2013)

A. having written

B. to be written

C. being written

D. written

⑵I’ve never seen the young man____ next to the director. (2006)

A. sits

B. sat

C. sitting

D. to sit

⑶David sent his girlfriend a ring____ by his grandmother for all her life.

A. have kept

B. kept

C. has kept

D. has been kept (2013)

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三、作状语

1.done 作状语,句子中有“,”表示主句主语与非谓语动词构成被动完成的关系。

考题形式:⑴非 ⅹⅹ,SVO.

SVO, 非 ⅹⅹ. 主语S与非谓doing构成被动完成的关系。

S, 非 ⅹⅹ,VO.

⑵(With)+名词 非,SVO. 名词与非谓doing构成被动完成的关系。

例:⑴_____ the park, we found it beautiful.

A. See

B. Seeing

C. Seen

D. Saw

⑵The teacher came into the lab, ____ by some students.

A. following

B. followed

C. follow

D. having followed

⑶The park, ____ from the building, is very beautiful.

A. See

B. Seeing

C. Seen

D. Saw

⑷With the hard work ____, he went to bed.

A. finishing

B. having finished

C. finished

D. finishes

2.done 与 having been done 的区别:

两者都表示被动,但是having been done强调非谓语动作明显先于主句谓语动

词动作发生。

例:⑴A new technique____ , the output as a whole increased by 20 percent. (2012) A. working out B. having worked out

C. to have been worked out

D. having been worked out

⑵____ many times, he still repeated the same mistake.

A. Told

B. Being told

C. Having been told

D. Having told

☆一个知识点:

compare A with B 变被动→ A is compared with B

所以A与compare为被动关系。

Compared with B, A…

同理的还有:Covered with B, A…

四、作补足语(见非谓语的总结)

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To do: 不定式

一、作主语

1. to do 作主语,位于句首,谓语动词用单数,表示一次性具体的动作。

例: To finish so much work in a short time is impossible.

2.当to do 作主语太长时,用it 作形式主语代替to do放句首,真正的主语to do放句尾。(避免头重脚轻)

例: It is impossible to finish so much work in a short time.

[固定句型]

1. It takes sb + 时间 + to do sth. “花费某人多长时间做某事”

例:It took him ten years to learn English.

2. It is + adj. + for sb to do sth. “对于某人来说,做…是…的”

此类adj.有:important, possible, difficult(hard), necessary, interesting, easy…

其中adj.是形容to do sth.的。

例:It is easy for me to learn English.

3. It is + adj. + of sb to do sth. “某人做某事是…的”

此类adj.有:wise, polite, kind, clever, honest…

其中adj.是形容sb的。

例:It is very kind of you to teach me how to play Plants VS Zombies.

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二、作宾语

1.动词 + to do

decide/determine(决心), learn(学会), want(想), expect/hope/wish(希望),

refuse(拒绝), manage(设法), demand(要), pretend(假装),

promise(答应), offer(提供), choose(选), plan(计划),

agree(同意), ask/beg(请求), help(帮一帮).

注:help (to) do wish to do hope to do

help sb (to) do wish sb to do hope sb to do (ⅹ)

例:⑴I couldn’t understand why he pretended_____ in the garden. (2006)

A. not to see me

B. not see me

C. to see me not

D. to see not me

⑵When his mother came into the room, the boy pretended____ books.

A. to read

B. reading

C. being read

D. to be reading

注:⑴ to do的否定形式:not to do

⑵to do的进行式:to be doing,表示谓语动作发生时,不定式的动作正在进行。

2. it 作形式宾语,把真正的宾语to do 放在句尾。

(在英语中,有且只有it可以充当形式宾语/形式主语)

结构:主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补

主 + 谓 + it + 宾补 + to do

例: I consider to obey the laws important.

I consider it important to obey the laws.

注:此类常见的动词有:believe, consider, find, regard…

3.作介词宾语

“do巴do”原则

当介词but, except, besides前有实义动词do(译为“做”),后无to;前无do, 后有to.

以but为例: 有do + but do

无do + but to do

例:⑴The departure time of the plane has been postponed, so we have nothing to do now but_____ . (2006)

A. wait

B. to be waiting

C. to wait

D. waiting

⑵That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but ____ the police. (2010)

A. called in

B. calling in

C. call in

D. to call in

4.固定句型:

⑴had better (not) do sth. 最好(不)干…

⑵Why not + do(动原) 为什么不…?

⑶sb happen to do 某人碰巧…

⑷would rather (not) do 宁愿做…

⑸would rather do A than do B = would do A rather than do B

⑹平行结构 rather than : to do rather than (to) do

例:I decided to write rather than make a phone call.

5. 疑问词 + to do 也可作宾语

疑问代词:what, which, whom

疑问副词:how, where, when, why

例:I don’t know what to do.

注:疑问代词中to do 的do为vt./vi. + 介词

疑问副词中to do 的do为vi.

例:I don’t know whom ____ .

A. work

B. to work

C. working

D. to work with

I don’t know what to do. what 与to do为动宾关系,即:to do what

I don’t know whom to work with. whom 与to work with为动宾关系,即:to work

with whom 三、作表语

to do 作表语,表示一次性具体的动作。

doing 作表语,表示经常性抽象的动作。

His job is to paint the walls. 他这次的工作是刷这些墙。

His job is painting walls. 他平时的工作是刷墙。

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四、作定语

1.to do与to do前所修饰的名词构成动宾关系。

例:⑴I have a lot of work to do.

a lot of work 与 to do为动宾关系,即:to do a lot of work

⑵The Browns have a house to live in.

a house与 to live in为动宾关系,即:to live in a house

2. to do 表将来,与所修饰名词构成将来被动的关系。形式为:to be done

例:⑴The meeting ____ tomorrow is very important.

A. to hold

B. held

C. holding

D. to be held

⑵If the building project____ by the end of this month is delayed, the construction

company will be fined. (2007)

A. being completed

B. is completed

C. to be completed

D. completed

3. 由the first/second…the last, the best, the only, the next修饰的名词,后跟不定式

作定语。

例:He was the first one to come and the last one to leave.

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五、作状语

1.to do不定式作状语,有将来意味,表目的或结果。

例:⑴____ a seat, he got up early.

A. Grabbing

B. To grab

C. To be grabbed

D. Having grabbed

⑵He hurried to the hospital, only _____ his father had just died. (2010)

A. to tell

B. to be told

C. telling

D. told

注:only to do表示出乎意料的结果。

类似的有:only to find/notice

only to be told/informed

2.固定搭配

⑴主 + 谓 + too + adj./adv.(原形) + to do… “太…而不能…”

例:I’m too tired to stay up longer.

⑵主 + 谓 + adj./adv.(原级) + enough to do “足够…可以…”

例1:He is old enough to go to school.

例2:He is _____ join the army. (2010)

A. too young to

B. enough young to

C. very young to

D. young enough to

⑶in order to do = so as to do

(句中,句首) (句中)

例:Bob took down my telephone number in order not to forget it.

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六、作补足语(见非谓语的总结)

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非 谓 语 的 总 结

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一作状语

doing (主动进行) having done (主动,该动作明显先于谓语动词)

done (被动完成) having been done (被动,该动作明显先于谓语动词)

考题形式:(有“,”出现)

⑴非 ⅹⅹ,SVO.

SVO, 非 ⅹⅹ. 主语S与非谓doing的主被动关系

S, 非 ⅹⅹ,VO. 或doing与谓语动词的动作先后

⑵(With)+名词 非,SVO. 名词与非谓doing的主被动关系。

2.to do

⑴to do不定式作状语,有将来意味,表目的或结果。

⑵only to find/notice

only to be told/informed

固搭:too…to… enough to do in order to do = so as to do

3.补:插入语作状语

Generally speaking (一般来说), Frankly speaking = To be frank (坦白地说),

To be honest = To tell (you) the truth (说实话), Believe it or not (信不信由你),

Judging from/by (根据…来判断), Given… (考虑到,鉴于),

Provided (that)… = Providing (that)… (如果,假如)

Compared to/with… (与…相比)

4.补:There be 句型的非谓语形式为There being

例:_____ nothing to talk about, he said good-bye and went out of the room.

A. There was

B. There being

C. Being

D. There been (2005)

二、作补足语

1.作主语补足语

主动:to do主动将来

sb/sth be said / reported / believed / known / considered to have done已发生 被动:to be done被动将来

be have been done已

发生的被动此句型相当于:It is said / reported / believed / known / considered that + 句子(主语

从句) 例:⑴He is said____ two trips to China in the last two years. (2002)

A. to be making

B. to make

C. to have made

D. to have been making

⑵Many of his novels are reported_____ into several foreign languages last year.

(2006) A. to be translated B. to translate

C. being translated

D. to have been translated

2.作宾语补足语

⑴感官动词see, watch, observe, notice, hear的宾补:

以see为例: doing sth 看见…正在做…

see + 宾语 + do sth 看见…做了…(动作的全过程)

done 看见…被做

注:see + 宾语 + do结构为主动,变被动时,要将do变为to do:

例: We heard him sing this song in that room.

→He was heard to sing this song in that room.

⑵使役动词make, let, have, get

make + 宾 + do 让…做

done 让…被做

let + 宾 + do 让…做

be done让…被做

have + 宾 + do 让…做

done 让…被做

doing 让…一直做

get + 宾 + to do 让…做

done 让…被做

doing 让…开始做

注:find + 宾 + doing 发现…正在做

done 发现…被

keep + 宾 + doing 让…一直做

done 让…被

leave + 宾 + to do 留下…去做

doing 留下…一直做

catch sb doing sth 撞见某人正在做某事

例:⑴His English was so poor that he found it difficult to make himself_____. (2006)

A. understood

B. understand

C. be understood

D. to understand

⑵Are you going downtown this afternoon? I am going to have these letters____.

A. mailed

B. mail

C. to mail

D. mailing (2009)

⑶When the little girl awoke, she found herself _____ by a group of soldiers.

(2010)

A. surround

B. be surrounded

C. being surrounded

D. being surrounding

⑷I had a lot of trouble_____ the car_____ this morning. (2002)

A. to get, started

B. to get, starting

C. getting, started

D. getting, starting

固定句型:

⑴主 + find + n. + adj. + to do →为vt. / vi. + 介词

I find English hard to learn.

⑵主 + be + adj. + to do

English is easy to learn.

例:They found the lecture hard_____ . (2009)

A. to understand

B. to be understood

C. being understood

D. understood

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定 语 从 句

定语的位置:1.形容词作定语前置:形容词+名词

2.短语或句子作定语后置:名词+短语/句子(定语从句)

She is the girl. ╲

The girl lives next door. ╱ She is the girl living next door.

who lives next door.

关系词

?一.定义:在英语句子中,用于限定名词或代词的句子,叫做定语从句。

二、构成: 先行词+关系词+定语从句(一般情况下,三者紧挨着,顺序不可变)

例:She is the girl who lives next door.

先行词 关系词 定语从句

注:1.被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词。

2.关系词指代先行词,两者为同一事物。

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三、关系词

主 宾 定语

关系代词:指人who/that whom/that whose

指物which/that which /that whose

关系副词:作状语,先行词为 时间when

地点where

原因why(reason)

☆注:关系词的选择

当从句缺少成分(主、宾、表)时,用关系代词。

当从句不缺少成分时,用关系副词。

判断缺不缺成分以“五大基本句型”为标准。

例:⑴Is this the factory B he worked last year?

⑵I like the place C E I visited three years ago.

⑶He is the star D E we love.

A. when

B. where

C. which

D. whom

E. that

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四、如何找定语从句:

从____后开始找,如果有一个谓语动词,____后都是从句。

如果有两个谓语动词,____与第二个谓语动词之间的为从句。

例:⑴The girl B E my father is talking to is my girl friend.

⑵The work A E has just been finished is very important.

⑶I’ll never forget the day C we first met each other.

A E we spent together.

A. which

B. whom

C. when

D. who

E. that

F. where

注:若____前有名词,通常考定语从句。

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五、whose的使用:1.从句不缺成分

2.先行词与从句主语构成从属关系

3.从句的主语前没有the

例:⑴This is the scientist C achievements(成就) are well known.

A. who

B. whom

C. whose

D. of whom

⑵This is the house, D the window was broken last night.

A. which

B. whose

C. that

D. of which

注:whose + n. = of which/whom + the + n. = the + n. + of which/whom

例:This is the house, the window of which was broken last night.

This is the house whose window was broken last night.

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六、关系代词which与that的使用:

a.只用that不用which的情况:

1.当先行词是something, everything, anything, nothing, some, all, a little, little, a

few, few等不定代词或被这些词修饰时,用that,不用which.

2.当先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词或有the only, the very(正好,正是), the last,

just修饰时,用that,不用which.

3.当先行词既有人又有物时,用that, 不用which.

4.当主句主语是Who或Which的疑问句时,用that, 不用which.

例: ⑴Do you have anything that you want to say.

⑵This is the best movie that I’ve ever seen.

⑶Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about?

⑷Who is the boy that won the gold medal(金牌)?

b.只用which不用that的情况:

1.当关系词前有介词时,用which, 不用that

例:This is a house in which Lu Xun once lived.

注:此时,介词+关系代词 相当于 关系副词,且介词要与先行词或从句动词构成搭配。

如上句:This is a house where Lu Xun once lived.

例:⑴This is the factory _____ he worked last year.

A. which

B. in that

C. in which

D. of which

⑵John is the boy ____ he talked yesterday.

A. whom

B. with whom

C. of which

D. of who

2.在非限制性定语从句中,用which, 不用that

定语从句的分类:

限制性定语从句:This is the book that/which I want to read.

非限制性定语从句:This is New York, which I have visited for several times.

注:1.限制性定语从句中无“,”且从句不可去掉,否则语义不完整。

非限制性定语从句中有“,”从句去掉,语义也完整,从句只起补充说明作

2.在限制性定语从句中,当关系词作宾语时,可以省略。

例:This is the book (that/which) I want to read.

3.在非限定性定语从句中,只是不用that,其他关系词可以用:

例:⑴She has fallen in love with Jack,_____ I find hard to imagine. (2009)

A. who

B. that

C. whom

D. which

⑵Mr. Zhang, ____ came to see me yesterday, is an old friend of my father’s.

A. which

B. that

C. who

D. whom (2006)

七、当先行词为the way(方式,方法)时,且当从句不缺成分时,

关系词有三种情况:that / in which / 不填

例1:⑴The way that/in which/不填 he explained the sentence to us was simple.

⑵The way that/which he explained to us was simple.

例2:I don’t like_____ you speak to her. (2013)

A. the way

B. the way in that

C. the way which

D. the way of which

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八、关系代词as, which的区别:

以下固定搭配用as :

1. such…as… “像…一样的”

the same…as… “和…一样的”

例:We have found such materials as are used in their factory.

The result is not the same as they had expected.

2.在非限定性定语从句中,as和which都可以代表前面一整句话的内容。

as引导的从句可位于主句前,主句中,主句后。但which引导的从句只能位于主句后。

此外,as用于以下固定搭配:

as we know(正如我们所知) as is often the case(像通常那样)

as has been said before(如上所述) as is reported(正如报道的那样) as is well known(众所周知) as was expected(正如预料的那样) as is known to everybody(众所周知)

例:⑴As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s health.

⑵Smoking, as we know, is harmful to one’s health.

⑶Smoking is harmful to one’s health, as we know.

⑷She married him, which was natural.

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九、其他要点(一)

1. one of + 复数名词 + 关系代词 + 动词复数

the only one of +复数名词 + 关系代词 + 动词单数

例:He is one of the boys who are handsome. (be)

先行词

He is the only one of the boys who is handsome. (be)

先行词

2.数词/代词 + of which/whom表示先行词的数量。

此类词有:all, none, both, neither, either, some, most…

例:⑴She has ten friends, ____ is a girl.

A. none of which

B. none of whom

C. who

D. some of whom

⑵I have two pens, ____ writes well.

A. none of them

B. none of which

C. neither of which

D. either of them

十、其他要点(二)

非地点意义的词,表“抽象地点”,如situation(局面), point(境界), case(事例),

position(境地), stage(阶段), condition(条件), circumstance(境况)…意思是“到了某种地步,在某种境况中”,关系词用where.

例:They have reached the point ____ they have to say goodbye to each other.

A. that

B. which

C. where

D. when

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十一、其他要点(三)

插入语I think, I believe, I guess, I suppose, I imagine, in my opinion通常放在关系词与从句谓语动词之间。做题时,不考虑插入语。

例:He made another wonderful discovery,_____ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is (2012)

C. which I think it

D. I think is

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十二、其他要点(四)

在先行词和关系词之间插入较短的成分,如时间状语,地点状语等时,从句叫做分割定语从句。对于这种题,找先行词是关键。

例:I was the only person in my office who was invited.

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名 词 性 从 句(充当名词的句子)

一、定义:具有名词作用的句子,叫做名词性从句。

注:在名词性从句中,

若_____在句首,从_____开始往后找,第二个谓语动词之前为从句。

若_____在句中,从_____开始往后画,画完即为从句。

二、分类

1.主语从句:一个句子放在主语的位置。(句子作主语时,谓语动词用单数。)

The book ╲

What I am reading ╱ is interesting.

2.宾语从句:一个句子放在宾语的位置。

a.作动词的宾语:

I don’t understand her words. The boy told me the reason.

what she said. why she hurt me. b.作介词宾语:

My teacher was satisfied with what I did.

注:介词后面不能跟that引导的宾语从句,除了以下固定搭配:

in that(在于), but that(除了), except that(除了)

例:We know nothing except that Joe is from America.

I could say nothing but that I was sorry.

☆区别:

He offered me what I wanted. (名从)

He offered me the book that/which/不填 I wanted. (定从)

3.表语从句:一个句子放在表语的位置。

The reason is a matter of money.

that I don’t have enough money.

4.同位语从句

The news that they won the match is true. (同位语从句)

The news that you told us yesterday is true. (定从)

注:The news = they won the match 两者为同一事物,叫同位语。

☆区分:

若_____前无名词,且句中无“,”为名词性从句。

若_____前有名词,有可能为定从或同位语从句。

当为同位语从句时,从句一定不缺成分,且前面的名词通常为抽象名词:

news, fact, idea, thought, hope, order(命令), information, truth, belief, theory(理论),

evidence/proof(证据), promise(承诺), faith(信念), conclusion(结论).

例:The idea that we invited her yesterday is quite good. (同位语从句)

The idea that you gave me is quite good. (定从)

The idea is that we should invite her. (表从)

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注:1. 固定句型:I don’t think/imagine/believe/suppose…否定形式在主句,否定 的焦点却在从句,译为“我认为…不…”

2. 固定句型:The reason (why… ) is that… “理由是…”

It/This/That is the reason why… “这就是的…原因”

It/This/That is because… “这是因为…”

It/This/That is why… “这就是…的原因”

例1:The reason was that he was ill.

That was the reason why he fell ill.

That was because he fell ill.

That was why he fell ill.

例2:⑴The reason is _____ he is unable to operate the machine. (2013)

A. because

B. why

C. that

D. whether

⑵We must get there before 7 o’clock. That’s_____ we have to start so early.

A. the reason that

B. the reason for why (2012)

C. why that

D. why

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考点一:引导词的选择

1.that在从句中不作成分,只起连接作用,无词意。(在宾语从句中才能省

略。)

2.whether/if在从句中不作成分,但具有“是否”的含义。

区别:whether能引导所有的名词性从句,而且能和or not连用。

If只能引导宾语从句,而且不能和or not连用。

3.特殊疑问词:

连接代词:what(物/主、宾) “…的事情/东西”

who(人/主、表) whom(人/宾)“谁”(有疑问语气)

which(物/主、宾、定语) “哪一个、哪一些”

连接副词:when“什么时候” where“哪里,…的地方”

why“为什么” how“如何”

☆连接词的选择原则:

在名从中,若从句缺少成分,用连接代词,连接代词的选择看句意。

若从句不缺成分,用连接副词/whether/if/that,选择看句意。

(若句中没有疑问语气用that)

例:⑴_____ you ought to do is to see a doctor. (2007)

A. How

B. What

C. Which

D. That

⑵There can be no doubt_____ someone had visited the house before they

arrived. (2007)

A. why

B. whether

C. how

D. that

⑶He kept silent, so I couldn’t know_____ he agreed____ not. (2012)

A. if; or

B. whether; or

C. either; or

D. neither; nor

⑷_____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. (2008)

A. That

B. Whether

C. If

D. Even if

注:1.当表示强调时,用who, whom, what, which, when, where, how + ever, 译为“无论…”

例:_____ has finished the work ahead of time will be rewarded though we don’t know who it will be. (2013)

A. Those who

B. Anyone

C. Whoever

D. No matter who

2.which必须译为“哪一个,哪一些”:作从句的主语/宾语

放在名词前作定语,译为“哪个…” 例:⑴He asked me which I liked best among all these toys.

⑵Have you decided ____ cell phone you should buy, SAMSUNG or NOKIA?

A. what

B. which

C. when

D. that

3.名从中的插入语

例:I will make friends with ____ (I think) is honest.

A. that

B. whom

C. who

D. why

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考点二:所有英语从句的语序都用陈述语序。

顺序为:连接词 + 主语 + 谓语动词 + 其他

例1:I don’t know what is his name. (ⅹ)

I don’t know what his name is. (√)

例2:⑴I didn’t hear____ because there was too much noise where I was

sitting.

A. what did he say

B. what he said (2012)

C. what was he saying

D. what for him to say

⑵Do you know ____ with her?

A. what the matter is

B. what is the matter

C. how the matter is

D. how is the matter

注:在宾从中,若从句为what is the matter或what is wrong, 语序仍然为疑问语

序。

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考点三:it 作形式主语/形式宾语

1. That light travels in straight lines is known to all.

↓主语换it

It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.

形主 真主

2. I consider that you should improve your pronunciation(发音) necessary.

↓宾语换it 宾补

I consider it necessary that you should improve your pronunciation.

形宾 真宾

注:形式宾语常见的情况:

1.It is said / reported / believed that + 句子

2.It is clear / obvious / apparent / evident that + 句子 “…是显而易见的”

☆注:宾语从句的时态一致性:

1.若主句为现在时,从句根据需要选择。

2.若主句为过去时,从句必须使用过去的某种时态。

例1:I know what he does.

I know what he did.

I know what he will do.

例2:I knew that he was lying.

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虚 拟 语 气

一、在虚拟条件句中的运用

If I were a bird, I would fly in the sky. (虚拟,不能实现)

If it is fine next week, I’ll go traveling. (真实条件句,可能实现,使用主将从现) 从 句 主 句

对现在的虚拟: If + 主 + did/were 主 + would/should/could/might + do

(与现在事实相反)

对过去的虚拟: If + 主 + had done 主+would/should/could/might+ have done (与过去事实相反)

对将来事实相反:If + 主 + did 主 + would/should/could/might + do

(与将来事实相反) were to do

should do

例:⑴If I ____ you, I ____ the chance to go abroad.

A. were; would have seized

B. were; would seize

C. had been; would seized

D. had been; were to seize

⑵If he had been in better health, he_____ more books. (2007)

A. can write

B. could have written

C. could write

D. have written

⑶If they ____ several children in the future, they ____ a happy family.

A. had; would have been

B. had had; would have been

C. had; would be

D. have; would be

注:1.在虚拟条件句中可省略if,把从句中的were, should, had提到句首,变为倒装句式。

例:_____ tomorrow, he would be able to see the opening ceremony. (2010)

A. Would he come

B. If he comes

C. Was he coming

D. Were he to come

但是,否定词not不可提前:

Weren’t it for the expense, I would go abroad now. (ⅹ)

Were it not for the expense, I would go abroad now. (√)

2. if = provided (that) = providing (that) = supposing (that) = suppose (that)

译为“假如”,用法与if相同。

3.错综虚拟条件句(从句和主句虚拟的时间不一致,此时需看从句或主句的

时间状语。)

例:⑴If you had just followed my advice, you would be better now. (be)

⑵If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now. (study)

4.含蓄条件句

用以下词代替if引导的虚拟条件句:

with, without, but for(没有), but that(要不是), or/otherwise(否则)

+ 主句 现,将:情v. + do

过去: 情v. + have done

例1:⑴But for your help, I wouldn’t have passed the exam yesterday. (not pass)

⑵But that it rained yesterday, I would have finished the work. (finish)

例2:⑴I passed the test. I _____ it without your help. (2010)

A. would not pass

B. wouldn’t have passed

C. didn’t pass

D. had not passed

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二、在名词性从句中的运用

1.用在宾语从句中

⑴wish引导的宾语从句表示一种不可能实现的愿望。

主 + wish + (that) + 现在:did / were

过去:had done / could have done

将来:would / could / might do

例:⑴I wish that I were a millionaire. (be)

⑵I wish I had met/could have met the movie star yesterday. (meet)

⑶I wish that my son would become a person who has a strong sense of

responsibility(责任) when he grows up. (become)

例:I wish you_____ here last night. All of us were waiting for your arrival. (2006) A. came B. had come C. come D. will come

注:if only(要是…就好了)的用法:

If only + 句子 = How I wish + (that) + 句子

例:If only I had seen the film! = How I wish I had seen the film!

⑵用于表示建议、愿望、命令等动词后加宾语从句,句中为(should) do.

此类动词有:一坚持:insist

二命令:order, command

四建议:advise, suggest, propose, recommend

五要求:require, request, demand, desire, ask

宾从的结构为:主 + v.(以上词) + that + 主 + (should) + do (主动)

be done (被动)

例:⑴He asked that he____ an opportunity to explain why he’s refused to go there.

A. is given

B. must give

C. should give

D. be given (2013)

⑵Experiments____ that accurate measurements be made. (2003)

A. show

B. prove

C. demand

D. head

注:以上词的名词和形容词的形式后面的that从句中,谓语动词还是(should) do. 例:⑴My advice is that she _____to apologize to him. (2013)

A. go

B. where

C. which

D. when

⑵One of the requirements for a fire is that the material_____ to its burning

temperature. (2007)

A. is heated

B. will be heated

C. be heated

D. would be heated

⑶We are all for your proposal that the discussion______ . (2005)

A. be put off

B. was put off

C. will be put off

D. should put off

⑷It is requested that the rent for the house_____ in advance. (2002)

A. will have to be paid

B. has to be paid

C. should have to be paid

D. should be paid

⑶insist ①坚持要求(虚拟) suggest ①建议(虚拟)

②坚持认为(不用虚拟)②暗示(不用虚拟)

例1:⑴He insisted that he was right about his decision. (be)

⑵He insisted that we (should) set off at once. (set off)

⑶The teacher suggested that we (should) learn English well. (learn)

⑷The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. (be)

例2:The teacher insisted that we____ our homework before 9:00 o’clock. (2010)

A. finished

B. had finished

C. finish

D. was finishing

⑷would rather / would prefer / would sooner / would just as soon

+ (that) + 宾语从句 对现/将虚拟: did / were

对过去的虚拟: had done

例:⑴I would rather you_____ to the party with her. (2006)

A. go

B. went

C. will go

D. has gone

⑵Mr. Smith would just rather we____ now, but we must go to work. (2005)

A. not leave

B. didn’t leave

C. are not to leave

D. won’t leave

⑶I’d just as soon_____ those important papers with you. (2002)

A. that you won’t take

B. your not taking

C. please don’t you take

D. you didn’t take

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2.用在主语从句中

It is necessary / important / strange / natural / essential / vital / imperative(迫切的) / a pity + that 从句,句中为(should) do.

例:⑴It is necessary that he _____ the task by the end of next week. (2010)

A. fulfill

B. will fulfill

C. will have fulfilled

D. fulfills

⑵It’s necessary that the problem_____ in some way or other. (2006)

A. is settled

B. has been settled

C. be settled

D. was settled

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3.用在定语从句中

It is (high) time + (that) + V-ed

should do (should不可省略)

译为“(现在)是时候该……”

例:⑴It’s high time_____ about the traffic problem. (2008)

A. something was done

B. something is done