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人教版高中英语必修二 Module 5 Newspapers and Magazines 语言点知识梳理

Module 5 Newspapers and Magazines 语言点

学习目标

重点单词

replace, achievement, aboard, welcome, success, congratulation, evidence, delighted, produce

重点短语

now that, in total, take off,concentrate on

重点句型

序数词、最高级后接不定式

when用作并列连词

知识讲解

重点单词

replace

【原句回放】In the first sentence, the word when can be replaced with as soon as. 在第一句中,单词when可用as soon as代替。

【点拨】replace v. 取代,接替;更换,更新;把……放回原处

New laws will soon replace existing legislation.

新法律即将取代现行法规。

Please replace after reading.

阅毕请放回原处。

replace...with/by... 用……替换;以……接替

Teachers will never be replaced by computers in the classroom.

课堂上电脑永远不会取代老师。

【拓展】replacement n. 更换;替换的人(物)

replaceable adj. 可更换的;可替代的

take the place of /take one’s place 代替(动词短语)

in place of/in one’s place 代替(介词短语)

I will take the place of my father for a while.

我将暂时代替我父亲。

achievement

【原句回放】Yang’s space flight was “an important historical achievement”. 杨利伟的太空飞行是“一个意义重大的历史性的成就”。

【点拨】achievement n. 成就, 功绩

Success should not be measured solely by educational achievement.

成功与否不应只用学业成绩来衡量。

【拓展】achieve vt. 达到(目的);取得(胜利);完成

achieve one’s purpose 达到目的

achieve success 获得成功

achieve victory 获得胜利

achieve modernization 实现现代化。

He hopes to achieve all his aims soon.

他希望尽快达到所有目标。

The university has achieved all its goals this year.

这个大学今年已经实现了所有的奋斗目标。

Maurice has achieved his hope of becoming a doctor.

莫里斯实现了成为一名医生的愿望。

aboard

【原句回放】While he was travelling in space, Yang spoke to two astronauts aboard the International Space Station... 当杨利伟在太空中飞行时,他与两位登上国际空间站的宇航员讲话……

【点拨】aboard prep.在(船、飞机、火车)上;上(船、飞机、火车);adv.在船(飞机、火车)上;上船(飞机、火车)

After we went aboard, the plane took off immediately.

我们一上飞机,飞机就起飞了。

All aboard!

(对乘客)各位,请上船(火车或飞机)!

He was already aboard the plane.

他已上飞机了。

All the people aboard/on board were killed in the accident.

船上所有的人在这次事故中都死了。

【拓展】aboard,abroad,board,broad

aboard 是副词或介词,在船上,飞机上,车上;上船、飞机、车;

abroad 是副词,在国外,到国外;go abroad 出国;at home and abroad 国内外

board 名词,木板;委员会;理事会。作动词是寄宿;上船/飞机;

broad 是形容词,宽阔的;清楚的;明显的。

welcome

【原句回放】“Welcome to space,” he said. “欢迎你到太空来,”他说。

【拓展】welcome adj.受欢迎的

It’s a welcome s uggestion.

那是一条受欢迎的建议。

You’re always welcome at /in my house.

欢迎你来我家。

注意:用于be welcome to (do) sth, 其中welcome不是表示“受欢迎的”而是指“被允许的”。

你随时可以用我的车。

正:You are welcome to my car any time.

正:You are welcome to use my car any time.

正:You are welcome to the use of my car any time.

习语You are welcome! 意为“不用谢”。

A:Thank you for your help. 谢谢你的帮助。

B:You’re welcome. 不用谢。

welcome v. 欢迎,是规则动词,其过去式和过去分词均为welcomed, 注意不要模仿come→came→come 的变化形式。

He was welcomed by the students.

他受到同学们的欢迎。

我们欢迎史密斯先生讲话。

正:Let’s welcome Mr. Smi th and ask him to speak.

误:Let’s welcome Mr. Smith to speak.

欢迎你们到我们学校来。

正:Welcome to our school.

误:Welcome you to come to our school.

welcome表示“欢迎”,通常是可数名词。

She received a warm welcome. 她受到热烈欢迎。

welcome用作感叹词,其后常接副词或介词短语(一般是介词to)。

Welcome home (back)! 欢迎归来!

Welcome to our factory (London). 欢迎来我们工厂(来伦敦)!

success

【原句回放】The Beijing Space Control Centre said the flight was a “complete success”.

北京航天指挥控制中心说这次飞行是一个“巨大的成功”。

【点拨】success原本为抽象名词,表示事物的性质、状态、动作、概念等非具体存在的名词,属于不可数名词,没有复数形式,前面也不用冠词,但是当表示一个成功的人或事的时候, success转化为可数名词。除了success有这种用法外, failure/help/ surprise/shock等也通常有这种用法。

The operation on the new born infant was a failure.

新生儿的手术失败了。

Thank you. You’ve been a great help already.

谢谢你。你已经帮了大忙了。

It was quite a shock to see my face on that screen!

从那个屏幕上看到我的脸,真让人惊愕不已。

congratulation

【原句回放】When Yang landed, Premier Wen Jiabao telephoned the Control Centre to offer his congratulations. 当杨利伟着陆时,温家宝总理给控制中心打电话向他表示祝贺。

【点拨】congratulation n.祝贺,恭喜;贺词

Congratulations!恭喜恭喜!祝贺你!

offer/send one’s congratulations to sb. on sth. 为某事向某人祝贺

express one’s congratulations表示庆贺

accept one’s congratulations 接受某人的祝贺

He has received many letters in congratulation of his birthday.

他收到许多祝贺他生日的信件。

【拓展】congratulate v.祝贺,庆祝,恭喜……

congratulate sb. on(doing)sth. 向……祝贺……

congratulate oneself on... 为……庆幸;感到自豪

evidence

【原句回放】But there’s some interesting evidence. 但是这儿有一些有趣的证据。

【点拨】evidence n.证据;根据;迹象

give/show/bear evidence of 有……的迹象

give no evidence of 没有……的迹象

in evidence 明显的;显而易见的

call sb. in evidence 叫某人来作证

Have you got enough evidence of his guilt to arrest him?

你有逮捕他的足够证据吗?

There is evidence that Beijing Man used fire to cook food.

有迹象表明北京人用火煮食物。

【拓展】evident adj.明显的;清楚的

It is evident that... 显然……

It must be evident to all of you that he has made a mistake.

你们一定很清楚,他犯了错误。

delighted

【原句回放】“This is my first visit to China,” he said, “and I’m delighted to be here...” 他说:“这是我第一次来中国,我很高兴来这儿……”

【点拨】delighted adj. 高兴的;快乐的

be delighted at/with/by sth. 为某事高兴

be delighted to do sth./that clause 很高兴做某事

He said that he was delighted with the public response.

他说公众的反应让他欣喜。

I am delighted to receive the gift.

收到这份礼物我很高兴。

Tom is delighted at/to hear the good news.

汤姆听到这个好消息感到很高兴。

【拓展】delight n.快乐;愉快;v. 使高兴;乐于

to one’s delight令某人高兴的是

take delight in sth./doing sth. 以做某事为乐

delightful adj.令人高兴的

To our great delight, the day turned out fine that morning.

令我们感到非常高兴的是那天早晨天气转晴了。

The child takes delight in making fun of others.

这个孩子以取笑别人为乐。

They gave a delightful party.

他们举办了一场愉快的聚会。

produce

【原句回放】In the United States, newspapers usually have the name of the city where they are produced (for example, The New York Times). 在美国,报纸通常以出版城市的名字来命名(如《纽约时报》)。

【点拨】produce vt.& vi.生产;产生;制作;创作;vt. 制造;出示;引起;n.产品;产量;产额;结果

Hard work often produces good results.

努力工作常会有好结果。

Can you produce any proof of your nationality?

你能出示有关你国籍的任何证件吗?

Recently he has produced some poems.

最近,他创作了一些诗歌。

【拓展】辨析produce, product, production

produce常指农产品;

product指制造或种植的产品,特别是工业生产的物品;

production指产品、产量,特别是剧院、电视等演播的剧本、电影等。

重点短语

now that

【原句回放】Now that I have made this first visit, I hope I can come many more times. 既然我开始了第一次访问,我希望能够多来几次。

【点拨】now that在句中表示“既然”,大致相当于since,引导原因状语从句时,that可以省去。

Now that everyone is here, let's start working.

现在人都齐了,咱们开始干吧。

Now that we have covered the whole chapter we may have a discussion next time we meet.

我们看完了全章,下次见面时就可以讨论了。

in total

【原句回放】In total, these astronauts have spent more than 26,000 days in space. 这些宇航员总共在太空的时间已经超过26,000天。

【点拨】in total共计,总计(in all)

In total, there’re no more than 300 such monkeys in the world.

这种猴子在全世界上总计也不过300来只。

We have learned 2000 English words in total so far.

迄今为止我们总共学了2000个单词。

【拓展】total n. 总数;总额;adj. 完全的;全部的;v.计算……的总和

a total of 总数为……

total up (to)=add up to合计;总数达到

totally adv.完全;全部地;整个地

take off

【原句回放】When Yang took off from Jiuquan in northwest China at 9 am yesterday, China became the third nation to send a man into space. 昨天上午9点,杨利伟在中国西北部的酒泉起飞,中国成为第三个把人送入太空的国家。

【点拨】take off 起飞,脱掉;事业腾飞;休假

He took two weeks off in August.

他在八月份休假了两个星期。

This was the moment when Spielberg’s career really took off.

这就是斯比尔伯格事业腾飞的时机。

concentrate on

【原句回放】They have large headlines, a lot of big photographs and concentrate on news and events about famous people, and news about the British royal family. 它们有大标题和许多大照片,集中报道著名人物的新闻和事件,以及英国皇室的新闻。

【点拨】concentrate on sth./doing sth. 全神贯注于……

This firm concentrates on European market.

这家公司把工作重点集中在欧洲市场。

You should concentrate on the road when driving.

开车时注意力应集中在路上。

【拓展】concentrate one’s attention on 致力于……,把精力集中于……

fix one’s attention on 致力于……,把精力集中于……

keep one’s concentration on 致力于……,把精力集中于……

pay one’s attention to... 致力于…… 把精力集中于……

We must concentrate our efforts on improving education.

我们必须致力于改进教育工作。

I found it hard to keep my concentration with such a noise going on.

吵闹声不绝于耳,我很难保持精神集中。

重点句型

序数词、最高级后接不定式

【原句回放】Yang is the 431st person to travel in space, including astronauts from 32 countries. 包括来自32个国家的宇航员在内,杨利伟是第431位太空旅行者。

【点拨】to send a man into space 是动词不定式做定语。当修饰被序数词或者形容词最高级限定的名词时,用动词不定式而不用分词做定语。

He is always the first to come and the last to leave the classroom.

他总是第一个到,最后一个离开。

Tom is the first student in our school to win such a special honour.

汤姆是我们校第一个获得此特殊荣誉的学生。

Reading aloud is the best way to study English.

大声朗读是学英语的最好方式。

when用作并列连词

【原句回放】Amateur astronomer David Bates was looking at the moon through his telescope last night when he got a big surprise. 昨天晚上业余天文学家戴维·贝茨用天文望远镜观看月球时,他突然大吃了一惊。

【点拨】when是并列连词,表示突然性,相当于and at that time。相关句型结构有:

be doing...when 正要做……这时……

be about to do...when 正要做……这时……

be on the point of doing...when 正要做……这时……

刚做完……这时……

I was going along the street looking for a place to park when the accident happened.

我正沿着街寻找停车的地方,这个时候车祸发生了。

Tom was about to sleep when there was a knock at the door.

汤姆正要睡觉,这时有人敲门。

We had just arrived at the station when the train left.

我们刚到车站,这时火车开走了。