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英国文学考研要点

英国文学考研要点1

这是我给我们学校的学生指导的时候用的材料,指出的要点都是最基本的知识,如果是考名

校的,这些还不够,应该对文学有更深入的了解.最近工作很忙,所以给学生讲也是分部分写的. 考研英国文学复习要点(参照教材刘炳善《英国文学简史》)

本文供考研英国文学复习第二遍和第三遍的时候使用,第一遍要把教材细读一遍。

很多人觉的文学学的乱七八糟,主要是因为脑子里没有一个清晰的纲领,在临考前脑子里要对文学有很清晰的纲领,这样就算复习的差不多了。有人又问?什么是纲领?比如说英国文学吧,你要知道英国文学大致分为多少个时期,每一个时期有什么总体特点,有什么总体的literary trend,然后这个时期有那些重要的作家,每一个重要的作家都写过什么重要的作品,这些重要的作品大致内容是什么,有什么意义,有什么写作特色,除了这些之外,再对基本的文学术语有所了解就差不多了。当然如果要求选读的,选读作品得另看。这里名词解释都没有具体打上,因为我在做另外一份专门的名词解释的文件,做好了传上来。还有选读作品的,本人学力有限,诗歌部分学的不错,等有空了也制一份文件传上来。

Part One: Early and Medieval English Literature

1. Beowulf: national epic of the English people; Denmark story; alliteration, metaphors and understatements (此处可能会有填空,选择等小题)

2. Romance(名词解释)

3. ―Sir Gawain and the Green Knight‖: a famous roman about King Arthur’s story

4. Ballad(名词解释)

5. Character of Robin Hood

6. Geoffrey Chauce r: founder of English poetry; The Canterbury Tales (main contents; 124 stories planned, only 24 finished; written in Middle English; significance; form: heroic couplet)

7. Heroic couplet (名词解释)

Part Two: The English Renaissance

8. The Authorized Version of English Bible and its significance(填空选择)

9. Renaissance(名词解释)

10.Thomas More——Utopia

11. Sonnet(名词解释)

12. Blank verse(名词解释)

13. Edmund Spenser

“The Faerie Queene”; Amoretti (collection of his sonnets)

Spenserian Stanza(名词解释)

14. Francis Bacon “essays” esp. “Of Studies”(推荐阅读,学习写正式语体的英文文章的好参照,本文用词正式优雅,多排比句和长句,语言造诣非常高,里面很多话都可以引用做格言警句,非常值得一读)

15. Christopher Marlowe(“Doctor Faustus” and his achievements)

16. William Shakespeare可以说是英国文学史中最重要的作家,一定要看熟了。四大喜剧,四大悲剧比较重要,此外就是罗密欧与朱立叶了,这些剧的主题,背景,情节,人物形象都要熟悉,当然他最重要的喜剧作品是Hamlet这是肯定的。他的sonnet也很重要,最重要属sonnet18。(其戏剧中著名对白和几首有名的十四行诗可能会出选读)

英国文学的教案(刘炳善简史)

Lecture 1

Part 1 Early and Medieval English Literature

―Early‖ here means English literature in primitive and slavery society.

―Medieval period‖is a quite special period in English history. In Chinese “Medieval” or “The Middle Age” means “中世纪”. You may hear something about this period. It was called “The Middle Age” because it was considered as the time between ancient world and the modern world. Here “Medieval” means English literature in feudal England before the Renaissance.

I. Early English Literature (Anglo-Saxon Literature)

1, Historical Background

1 The earliest inhabitants of the British Isles were Britons, a tribe of Celts. Today most Celts lived in Scotland and Wales.

2 From 55 B.C. to 410 A. D. Romans conquered the Great Britain. The Roman army was led by Julius Caesar, who was a very famous figure in ancient Rome. He was a famous general and conquered lot of places in Europe and then he became dictator of Rome. He had famous words “I came, I saw, I conquered”. You can see how strong this man’s will is. Consequence of Roman conquest: a network of highways; scores of towns, including London; Roman lifestyle

3 English Conquest

?Shortly after Romans’ retreat, the Britain was invaded by Anglos, Saxons and Jutes. And by the 7th century Old English emerged.

?Anglo-Saxon period witnessed a transition from tribal society to feudalism.

?Anglo-Saxons were Christianized in the 7th century. Before Christianization, Anglo-Saxons believed in old northern European mythologies. If you are interested in old Britain mythologies you may read the famous novel “The Lord of the Rings”, which was a collection of old northern European mythologies. The Christianization of Anglo-Saxons influenced the record of old English literature.

2, Beowulf —— National epic of English people

1 Definition of epic:an extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero

2 Story of Beowulf

?Ask students to read the story of Beowulf on textbook by themselves and then ask them “What are the three adventures mentioned in the story?”

?The story of Beowulf includes three adventures: killing monster Grendel, killing Grendel’s mother and killing a fire dragon.

3 Some important points

?“Beowulf” is a folk legend brought to England by Anglo-Saxons from their continental homes. However it also reflected the features of the tribal society in Britain. ?Originally Beow ulf, the great epic, was in oral form and it must be a collective creation. ?Beowulf in the epic is a legendary figure. In formal history you can not find a man named Beowulf.

④Artistic features of “Beowulf”

?Using alliteration

Definition of alliteration: a rhetorical device, meaning some words in a sentence begin with the same consonant sound(头韵)

Some examples on P5

?Using metaphor and understatement

Definition of understatement: expressing something in a controlled way Understatement is a typical way for Englishmen to express their ideas. You may find some examples on P6

⑤ Epic tradition in Europe

long narrative verse, part-historical and part-legendary origin

This tradition can be traced back to Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey”. Similar works in Europe ar e “Edda” and “Saga” from Iceland etc. (referring to 《欧洲文学史》)

3, “Anglo-Saxon Chronicle”

? The book was conceived by King Alfred the Great. He also organized and supervised the writing process of the book.

?This book is a very important historical document and specimen of Anglo-Saxon prose. II, Medieval English Literature

1, Historical Background

1 Norman conquest in 1066 marks the establishment of feudalism in England.

2 By the end of the 14th century, the Middle English emerged.

3 The ecclesiastics, from the monks and the clergy to the bishops and archbishops, together possessed over one third of the land in the country and owned numerous serfs, and had their tithes and ecclesiastical courts and the backing of the Pope in Rome. They had much political as well as religious power. Understanding the great influence of Christianity in the medieval Europe is very important for you to understand their literature because Christianity is one of the two resources of European culture. (referring to 《欧洲文化入门》)

Lecture 2

2. The Romance(骑士文学)

1 Definition of the Romance: a long composition, sometimes in verse, sometimes in prose, describing the life and adventures of a noble hero. (P10)

* Knight is a special group of people existed in the Middle Age in Europe. Nearly all nobles were knights. However, nobody was born a knight. One nobleman who want to become a knight must experience hard training and then the king will give him knighthood.

* Codes of the Knight(骑士准则):protect the weak, fight for church, loyal to your lord, loyal to King, respect women of noble birth(西方人对于男士良好风度的概念起源于这些骑士准则,是以西方有“骑士风度”说法。)(参阅《欧洲文化入门》)

2 The great majority of the romances fall into three groups: matters of Britain, matters of France and matters of Rome.

* Charlemagne, a very great French emperor, 查理曼大帝(参阅《欧洲文化入门》)

* Alexander the Great, a very great emperor in ancient Greece, 亚历山大大帝,目前埃及名城亚历山大就是以他的名字命名(参阅《欧洲文化入门》)

3 The Romance of King Arthur and his Round Table knights, whose origin was in Celtic legend, is comparatively the most important for the history of English literature, especially the works called “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”.关于亚瑟王的传说来自英国的凯尔特民族的传说,《格温爵士和绿衣骑士》的故事可以在陈嘉《英国文学史》第34到35页找到。

? The theme of loyalty to king and lord is an important common theme of the Romance. So

they were composed for the noble class.

* 英国的骑士文学(Romance)并没有产生如同法国的《罗兰之歌》那样多姿多彩的作品,中世纪在整个欧洲骑士文学还是有很多的读者,有一些人甚至对骑士文学的喜爱到达痴迷的程度,比如西班牙作家塞万提斯的名作《唐吉诃德》中刻画的主人公便是一位让人觉的可笑又觉的同情的骑士文学迷。(参阅《欧洲文学史》)

3. ―Piers the Plowman‖(农夫皮尔斯)

1 The author – William Langland

Read his life story by yourself. (P12)

He was lived in lower social position all his life and he was a person with strong Christian color. These two elements concerning with his life experience influenced his literary creation.

2 Story

Read P12 to P16 and answer the following questions:

?What kinds of people were considered as parasites?

?Religion was compared to what kind of person?

?What kind of social phenomenon was represented by Lady Meed?

?Lady Meed is asked by King to marry whom?

?Why Conscience refused to marry La dy Meed?

?Who is the hero of the poem? What kind of person he is?

3 Features

?Important point which makes the work special: The author considers the peasant named Piers to be the nearest to truth and salvation. (It was in the Middle Ages. Nearly all literary works produced at that time was written about those noblemen.)

?Form: a series of dreams

?Style: alliterative verse

?Social significance: kindling the toiling people’s sense of human dignity and equality before God and playing a part in arousing their revolutionary sentiment ?Limitations: conservatism (See P16 “The Class Nature of Piers”); Strong Christian color ?Artistic feature of the production: allegory(寓言), personification(拟人), symbolism (象征主义,用作品中具体的形象来代替某种现象或一个抽象概念)The usage of symbolism became a tradition of English literature. You may find lots of similar works in later English literature, for example, Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress.

4, The English Ballads

1 Definition of the ballad: A ballad is a story told in song, usually in 4-line stanzas, with the second and fourth lines rhymed.(rhymed在这里指第二行和第四行最后一个词以相同或近似的元音和辅音结尾)

2 Features of ballads

?Flourished in the 15th century

?Originally oral literature (Ballads were collected and written down in the 18th century. Earliest publication of collection of ballads was Thomas Percy’s “Relique s of Ancient English Poetry”.)

?Collective creation (no certain writer for each ballad)

?Ballads wrote on all kinds of subjects.

3 Robin Hood Ballads(罗宾汉)

?Of all the ballads, those written about Robin Hood are comparatively important.?Robin Hood is a par tly historical and partly legendary character.(罗宾汉本来是一个很普通的历史人物,但是在人们的传说中逐渐被神化,成为了民谣中描写的传说中的形象,这种方式与中国历史上关羽的形象很近似。)

?Important points of the character of Robin Hood: hatred for the cruel oppressors and love for the poor; orthodox in religion; reverence for the King (just an illusion)

?Social Significance: showing the fighting spirit, courage and revolutionary energy of English peasantry

(Robin Hood是英国文学史中的一个绿林英雄形象,与中国文学中的许多劫富济贫的形象很相近,特别是《水浒》中的很多人物形象。)

17. Ben Jonson个别戏剧的名字要能和人对上号,如Every Man in His Humor, 二外好像在这里出过一道匹配题,但是不用看太具体。

Part Three: The Period of the English Bourgeois Revolution

18. John Milton三大史诗非常重要,特别是Paradise Lost和Samson Agonistes。对于Paradise Lost需要知道它是blank verse写成的,故事情节来自Old Testament,具体情节在课本124页,另外要知道此书theme和Satan的形象。对于Samson Agonistes要知道它是poetical drama,知道故事大概情节及其来源。另外129页到130页brief summary中5条要看。

19. John Bunyan——The Pilgrim’s Progress

20. Founder of the Metaphysical school——John Donne; features of the school: philosophical poems, complex rhythms and strange images

21. Andrew Marvell此人不重要,但他有一首名诗To His Coy Mistress

22. John Dryden——“All for Love”(a tragedy); “An Essay of Dramatic Poesy”(Literary criticism); forerunner of the Classicism in Britain

34. Laurence Sterne——“Tristram Shandy”

35. Richard Sheridan——“The School for Scandal”

36. Samuel Johnson——“Dictionary”, “Letter to Lord Chesterfield” (the writers’ declaration of independence)

37. Oliver Goldsmith——“The Traveller”(poem), “The Deserted Village” (poem) (both two poems were written by heroic couplet), “The Vicar of Wakefield” (novel), “T he Good-Natured Man” (comedy), “She stoops to Conquer” (comedy), “The Citizen of the World” (collection of essays)

38. Edward Gibbon——“The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”

40. Sentimentalism(名词解释)

41. Thomas Gray——“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”(英国诗歌里非常著名的一首,曾经被誉为“有史以来英国诗歌里最好的一首”)(a representative of sentimentalism and graveyard school of poets墓园派诗人)

*Graveyard School / Poets”: A term applied to eighteenth-century poets who wrote meditative poems, usually set in a graveyard, on the theme of human mortality, in moods which range from elegiac pensiveness to profound gloom. The vogue resulted in one of the most widely known English poems, Thomas Gray’s “Elegy written in a country churchyard”. The writing of graveyard poems spread from England to Continental literature in the second part of the century and also influenced some American poets.

42. In the latter half of the 18th century, Pre-Romanticism; representative:

William Blake and Robert Burns.

43. Thomas Percy——“Reliques of Ancient English poetry”许多中古的民谣都是在这个时期重新收集和整理起来的,这个集子是那个时代比较有名的一个民谣集。

44. William Blake比较重要,需要对主要作品有所了解,特别是Songs of Innocence 和Songs of Experience, 这两本集子的contrast一定要注意,另外Blake的写作特点也要注意,比如语言的简单明了,神秘主义氛围等。

45. Robert Burns伟大的苏格兰民族诗人, A Red Red Rose, Scots Wha Hae, Auld Lang Syne等名诗,写作特点: Scottish dialect; a poet of peasant and Scottish people; plain language; influence from Scottish folk songs and ballads; musical quality of his poems. Part Five: Romanticism in England

46. Romanticism(名词解释)要对浪漫主义兴起的时间,根源,主要特点,主要代表作家都有所了解。

47.William Wordsworth要知道他的“Lyrical Ballads”前言是英国浪漫主义时期开始的标志,也是宣言。Lake Poets(名词解释)。他诗歌的主要两类题材:nature and common people’s lives。

写过的著名作品:I wandered lonely as a cloud; To the cuckoo; Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey; The solitary reaper; We are seven 等等。

48. Samuel Taylor Coleridge两首名诗:The Rime of the Ancient Mariner; Kubla Khan主要写作supernatural题材。

49. George Gordon Byron,Byronic Heroes(名词解释); 著名作品:Child Harold’s Pilgrimage要知道大致内容,另外此诗用Spenserian Stanza写成;Don Juan要知道大致内容,及其诗体attava rima。

50. Percy Bysshe Shelley著名作品:Queen Mab; The Revolt of Islam; Prometheus Unbound(lyrical drama,要知道大致内容及此剧与古希腊的“被束缚的普罗米修斯”不同之处及其意义。)其它名作: Ode to the West Wind; To a skylark; One word is too often profaned等等。

51. John Keats著名作品:Ode to Autumn; Ode to a Nightingale; Ode on a Grecian Urn”。注意Keats与Byron和Shelley的不同,Keats的诗歌没有两人那么强的革命性,他的诗歌主要是为了缔造一个唯美的世界,为了追求美而写作的。

52. Charles Lamb:The Essays of Elia (humorous, archaisms, quotations from other writers)

53. Walter Scot t: founder and great master of the historical novel; his death marks the ending of Romantic Period in English literature; famous novels: Rob Roy, Ivanhoe; features of his novels (P322)

Part Six: English Critical Realism

54. Critical Realism批判现实主义,要知道它兴起的时间,历史背景,主要代表人物及主要特点。

55. Charles Dicken s主要作品: The Pickwick Papers (first novel); Oliver Twist; Dombey and Son; David Copperfield; A Tales of Two Cities等等,对这些主要作品除了第一部以外剩下的要对情节,主要人物形象,主题及其意义有所了解,另外要知道狄更斯的小说的特色(P362-P363)。

56. William Makepeace Thackeray主要作品即Vanity Fair要知道这个题目出自John Bunyan 的The Pilgrim’s Progress,另外小说的副标题“A novel without a hero”的意思,小说的情节,主题,人物形象都要了解。

57. Jane Austen主要作品ride and Prejudice其它5部小说在书上372页,知道名字即可,对

于《傲慢与偏见》课本上介绍的不详细,可以找其它文学史书籍来简单看一下它的情节和主要人物。Austen的写作特点:thin plot, mostly everyday life of simle country society; good at writing young girls; modest satire; witty dialogues。

58. Charlotte Bronte主要作品Jane Eyre,要知道其情节和意义,另外简爱的人物形象也比较重要。

59. Emily Bronte主要作品Wuthering Heights,情节,人物形象及意义。勃朗特姐妹的小说虽然写作在批判现实主义时期,但其作品有明显的浪漫主义特色,比如包含的一些supernatural elements,特别体现在呼啸山庄中。

60. Mrs. Gaskell, one of the first English writers to describe the class struggle in a novel, famous novel: “Mary Barton”.不需要看太详细。

61. George Eliot主要作品: Adam Bede, The Mill on Floss, Silas Marner简单了解即可。

Part Seven: Prose-writers and poets of the mid and later 19th century

62. Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, Matthew Arnold简单了解即可。

63. Alfred Tennyson主要作品: In Memoriam, The Idylls of the Kings;有名的短诗Break, Break, Break; Crossing the bar等,此人政治态度保守,作品追求形式上的完美,富于音乐性和色彩。具体写作特色参看P410-P411。

64. Robert Browning introduced dramatic monologue to poetry. (P416) His famous poems: “Home-thoughts from abroad” etc. Elizabeth Barrett Browning: “Sonnets from the Portuguese”.

65. 简单了解William Morris主要作品,写作特点,及其意义等。

66. Aestheticism唯美主义(名词解释)Oscar Wilde主要作品,写作特点及其意义简要了解。Part Eight: Twentieth Century English Literature

67. Thomas Hardy, Wessex novels,要知道为什么叫Wessex,书上P458。著名作品:Tess of D’Urberville(情节,主要人物形象,主题及意义),Far from the madding crowd, Jude the obscure 等等。Hardy小说的特色(P459第一段)。

Part Eight: Twentieth Century English Literature

68. John Galsworthy:主要作品“The Forsyte Saga”注意这是两个trilogy构成的,可不是一本小说,其中比较重要的是“The Man of Property”就是书上介绍的那一部,要知道此部小说主人公的名字,以及这个主人公的性格,和小说主题。书上介绍这个作家的部分的最后一段算是这个作家的写作特点。这位作家在20世纪声名是逐渐下降的,但是还是有些学校会考到他。

69. The Irish Dramatic Movement(名词解释)

Irish Renaissance(名词解释)

70. George Bernard Shaw主要作品Mrs Wa rren’s Profession和Major Babara,如果看的是其它版本的英国文学史,可能会选其它的作品,对他作品的主要人物,情节,主题和意义要了解,他是比较重要的一个作家。

71. William Butler Yeats几首有名的诗歌如“Sailing to Byzantium”, “The Second Coming”, “The Wild Swan at Coole”要知道,另外他诗歌的特点如symbolism, mysticism, modernists’influence等等。

72. T. S. Eliot比较重要,特别是他的The Waste Land要知道包括哪几个部分,大概是什么情节,有什么象征意义,主题是什么,有什么写作特点。另外他的其它作品也有某些学校考到过,也要知道,比如他的诗剧Murder in the Cathedral等等,要知道大概的情节。另外他著名的文章Tradition and the Individual Talent被认为是manifesto of modernist poetry.

73. Modernist fiction put emphasis on the description of the characters’ psychological activities under the influence of Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud’s theories.

74. D. H. Lawrence重点作品Sons and Lovers这个作品明显受到弗洛伊德影响,特别是其中体现的Oedipus complex,对其人物,主题要有了解;The Rainbow及其续篇Women in Love 要有简单了解,特别是对其主题。Lady Chatterley’s Lover简单了解即可。492页第三段对Lawrence的思想做了个简单总结,这一段中指出的劳伦斯的思想特点以及局限性要了解。

75. Stream-of-consciousness(名词解释)

76. James Joyce其它作品简单了解,但Ulysses非常重要,需要知道题目来源,题目的含义,小说的主人公和情节,以及主题。

77. Virginia Woolf重要的意识流作家,主要作品要知道在496页第二段,书上主要介绍的是To the Lighthouse,其实她的其它几部作品特别是Mrs. Dalloway也比较出名,需要了解一下。(全文完)

这些是我眼里的重点,不一定符合你要考的学校的要求,你可以根据你要考的学校自己在总结一部分加上