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UNIT2预习学案

Unit Two

Text A Classification Yard

A classification yard or marshalling yard is a railroad yard found at some freight train stations,used to separate railroad cars on to one of several tracks. First the cars are taken to a track,sometimes called a lead or a drill. From there the cars are sent through a series of switches called a ladder onto the classification tracks. Larger yards tend to put the lead on an artificially built hill called a hump to use the force of gravity to propel the cars through the ladder.

A classification yard:[,kl?sifi'kei??n][jɑ:d]1.分类;分级[U] 2【生】分类法[U] 3.类别系统;类别[C]

yard1 名词n. [C] 1.码(英美长度单位;=3英尺)2.【海】(帆)桁3.(沙、土等的)立方码4.【口】很长的长度;很大的数量[P1]

yard2

名词n. [C] 1.院子;天井;庭院 2.【美】后院3.工场;堆场 4.(家畜、家禽的)圈栏 5.【铁】调车场 6.(大写)苏格兰场[the S] 及物动词vt. 1.把(家畜,家禽)赶入圈栏

Marshalling yard:['mɑ:??l]名词n. [C] 1.元帅;高级将官2.司仪;典礼官 3.【美】联邦法院执行官;市司法官;警察局长;消防队长 4.体育竞赛组织官员

及物动词vt. 1.排列,安排;整理2.引领[(+into)] 3.编列(部队),统帅(军队) 4.将(列车)编组Railroad::['reilr?ud] 名词n. [C] 1.铁路 2.铁路公司

及物动词vt. 1.用铁路运送 2.在...修筑铁路 3.【口】使(议案)草率通过[(+through)] 4.【俚】以捏造不实之罪使入狱[(+to)]5.【口】迫使...仓促行事[(+into)]

不及物动词vi. 1.在铁路部门工作2.乘火车旅行3.筑铁路

Freight:[freit] 名词n. [U ]1.【英】(船运的)货物;【美】(水上,陆上,空中运输的)货物2.运费3.货运(通常与快递express 相对)

及物动词vt. 1.装货于[(+with)] 2.运输(货物) 3.租(船等)运货;出租(船等)运货

Be used to: 1.习惯于

Separate: separate1

及物动词vt. 1.分隔;分割;使分离;使分散[(+from/into/off/up)] 2.区分,识别[(+from)] 3.使分居;使疏远 4.离析,从...中提取[(+out/from)]

不及物动词vi. 1.分开;脱离;分手;分散[(+from/into)] 2.(夫妻)分居 3.离析;析出[(+out/from)

separate2

形容词 a. 1.个别的,不同的 2.单独的,独立的[B] 3.分离的,分开的[(+from)]

名词n. 1.不是成套的女装

Lead:lead1

及物动词vt. 1.引导;领(路)[O] 2.走在(队伍等)的最前头 3.诱使;致使[O2] 4.领导;指挥;率领 5.(在比赛等中)领先 6.过(活);使过(某种生活) 7.(打牌时)先出(牌)

不及物动词vi. 1.领路 2.通向,导致[Q] 3.领导 4.领先 5.首先出牌(或开球等)

名词n. [C] 1.指导,榜样 2.领先地位[the S] 3.领先的程度(或距离)[S][(+over)] 4.(牵狗等的)绳索,皮带5.【电】导线;引线 6.线索,提示7.(戏剧等的)主角,主要演员8.(新闻报导的)导语

形容词 a. [B] 1.领先的 2.最重要的

lead2 名词n. 1.铅[U] 2.黑铅,铅笔心[C][U];铅制品

及物动词vt. 1.用铅包;在...中衬铅;用铅框固定(窗玻璃)

不及物动词vi. 1.被铅覆盖;(枪膛等)被铅塞住

Drill: drill1名词n. 1.钻,钻头;钻床;钻机[C] 2.操练;训练[C][U] 3.【英】【口】规定的步骤

及物动词vt. 1.钻(孔);在...上钻孔 2.钻除,钻出 3.操练,训练[(+in)] 4.通过练习传授[(+into)] 5.【美】【俚】用子弹打穿,枪杀

不及物动词vi. 1.钻孔;钻穿[(+through)] drill2 名词n. [C] 1.条播机 2.条播沟;沟畦3.条播种子;条播作物及物动词vt. 1.条播(种子);在...上条播drill3 名词n. 1.斜纹粗棉布[U] drill4 名词n. 1.【动】(西非的)鬼狒[C]

Series:名词n. [C][M] 1.连续;系列[(+of)] 2.(邮票)套;丛书;辑;组 3.(棒球等的)连续比赛 4.【数】级数 5.【电】串联 6.【音】(十二音体系中的)序列7.【语】一组交替元音

Switch: 名词n. [C] 1.开关,电闸,电键2.(铁路的)转辙器;【美】铁道侧线3.(树林)柔软的细枝;鞭子4.变更,转换,更改 5.【口】调换,交换 6.(女用)长假发;(狮子等的)尾尖簇毛

及物动词vt. 1.打开(或关掉)...的开关[(+on/off)] 2.使转换;为...转接(电话)[(+to/over)] 3.使转轨 4.改变;转移;调动 5.【口】调换;交换 6.鞭打

不及物动词vi. 1.转轨 2.改变;转移[(+to)] 3.打开(或关掉)开关[(+on/off)] 4.鞭打 5.【口】调换;交换Ladder: ['l?d?] 名词n. [C] 1.梯子2.梯状物;阶梯;(发迹等的)途径

不及物动词vi. 1.成名,发迹

及物动词vt. 1.在...上装设梯子

T end to: ['tend t?] 1.有...的倾向

Artificially: [,ɑ:ti'fi??li]副词ad. 1.人工地,人为地 2.不自然地,做作地

Hump: [h?mp] 名词n. 1.(驼)峰;(背部的)隆肉[C] 2.驼背[C] 3.小圆丘,小丘[C] 4.【英】【口】忧郁[the S] 5.危机,困难阶段[C]

及物动词vt. 1.使隆起 2.使烦恼

不及物动词vi. 1.隆起,弓起 2.【美】【俚】急速行进 3.【美】【俚】努力,苦干

Gravity: 名词n. [U] 1.【物】重力;引力;地心吸力 2.重(量) 3.严重性;危险性;重大 4.严肃;庄严;认 5.低沉

Propel: 及物动词vt. 1.推进,推 2.推动;驱策,激励

翻译:发现一些货物列车stations,used 分离到的几个跟踪一个有轨电车在铁路货场分类院子或编组站。第一辆车采取称为铅或钻的track,sometimes。从那里通过一系列交换机称为了分类铁轨上的梯子的发送的汽车。大码倾向于把称为推动梯子通过汽车使用重力的驼峰人工建山上的铅。

Freight trains which are made up of isolated cars must be made into trains and divided according to their destinations. Thus the cars must be shunted several times along their route in contrast to a unit train,which carries,for example,cars from the plant to a port,or coal from a mine to the

power plant. This shunting is done partly at the starting and final destinations and partly(for long-distance-hauling) in classification yards.

Be made up of: 由…组成

Isolated: ['ais?leitid] 形容词 a. 1.(被)孤立的,(被)分离的,(被)隔离的

Be made into: 被制成

Divide: 及物动词vt. 1.分,划分[(+into/from)] 2.分发;分享[(+between/among/with)] 3.分配[(+between)] 4、【数】除[(+by/into)]5.使对立,分裂6.使分开,使隔开[(+from)]

不及物动词vi. 1.分开 2.分裂;意见分歧

名词n. 1.分歧,不和[S][(+between)] 2.分水岭[C]

According to: 1.根据;按照2.取决于3.据...所载;据...所说

Destination: [,desti'nei??n] 名词n. [C]1.目的地,终点2.目标,目的

Thus: [e?s] 副词ad. 1.如此,这样,以此方式2.到如此程度3.因此,从而4.例如

Shunt: 及物动词vt. 1.使(火车)转轨2.把...转至另一地方3.推迟讨论(问题)

不及物动词vi. 1.转轨;转向一边 2.来回运行

名词n. 1.【电】分流器 2.【铁】转轨

In contrast to: 与...形成对比;与...相比

Unit:

Plant:

Mine:

Power plant:

Partly:

Final:

Long distance:

Hauling:

翻译:组成的独立汽车的货运列车必须制成列车,并根据他们的目的地来划分。因此汽车必须被调几次单位train,which carries,for example,cars 从植物port,or 煤,相对于其沿线从矿到电厂。此调车是部分在起始和最终的目的地和长远程牵引partly(for)在分类码。

Types of Classification Y ards

There are three types of classification yards:flat-shunted yards,hump yards and gravity yards. Flat-shunted yards:

Hump yards:

Gravity yards:

翻译:有三种类型的分类调yards:flat yards,hump 码和重力场。

Flat-Shunted Y ards

The tracks lead into a flat shunting neck at one or both ends of the yard where the cars are pushed to sort them into the right track. There are many medium-sized flat yards in the USA and also some large ones such as(Houston-)Settegast,Decatur, East Joliet,etc.

Lead into:

Flat:

Shunting neck:

Push:

Sort…into:

Medium-sized:

Such as:

翻译:在轨道导致入调车在院子里的一端或两端的脖子汽车推向把他们放在正确的轨道进一个单位。有许多中等扁码在美国也是一些大型的这种as(Houston)Settegast,Decatur,东Joliet,etc。

In Europe several major classification yards in Italy have never had a hump,such as V erona Porto Nuova,Foggia or V illa San Giovanni(Fascio Bolano );other large European flat yards are for example Olten(Switzerland)or V alea lui Traian(Constanta,Romania-this is an incompleted yard with 32 tracks which was planned to be a hump yard but has no hump).In Argentina all classification yards except V illa Maria are flat yards,although some of them have approx. 30 or more tracks.

Europe:

Several:

Major:

Italy:

Incompleted:

Plan to do sth:

Argentina:

Except:

Approx:

翻译:在欧洲几个主要分类码在意大利一直没有hump,such 作为维罗纳波尔图Nuova,Foggia 或别墅San Giovanni(Fascio Bolano);其他大型的欧洲平码,例如是Olten (Switzerland)or 谷乡吕Traian(Constanta,Romania,这就是不完全与32 跟踪院子的计划驼峰但已经没有驼峰) 宣传册阿根廷除别墅玛丽亚码内的所有分类都有的约平yards,although30 个或更多的轨道。

Hump Yards

These are the largest and most effective classification yards with the largest shunting capacity of several thousand cars a day. The heart of these yards is the hump:a track on a hill(hump) over which the cars are pushed by the engine after being uncoupled just before or at the top(hump crest) and then they roll,either as single cars or some coupled cars together, by gravity into their destination tracks in the classification bowl(the tracks where the cars are sorted).

Effective:

Effective:

Capacity:

Engine:

Uncouple:

Crest:

Roll:

Single: single

形容词 a. 1.单一的,单个的;个别的[B] 2.(用于否定句)连一个也(没有)的[B] 3.孤单的;单身的;【植】单瓣的 4.单人用的;【英】单程的[B] 5.一个对一个的,单打的 6.独特的,唯一的7.专一的

名词n. [C]1.单个;单身者 2.单打比赛[P] 3.【棒】一垒安打 4.【口】独唱(或奏)者,独脚戏演员 5.【英】单程票;单人房 6.【美】一元纸币;【英】一英镑纸币

及物动词vt. 1.选出,挑出[O] 2.【棒】以一垒安打得(分)

不及物动词vi. 1.【棒】击出一垒安打

single-复合形comb.form 1.(构成形容词)表示"单一的","一个的"(如:single-engine, single-track)

Bowl:bowl1名词n. [C]1.碗 2.一碗的容量 3.碗状物,(物的)碗状部分 4.圆形剧场,椭圆形运动场 5.大酒杯;饮酒 6.(季节结束后由特别选出的球队举行的)橄榄球季后比赛7.盆地

bowl2名词n. [C] 1.草地滚木球戏;保龄球戏[P][J] 2.(滚木球或保龄球用的)球 3.(球的)一次投掷,一投

不及物动词vi. 1.玩草地滚木球(或保龄球)戏 2.投球 3.快而稳地行驶

及物动词vt. 1.投(球);滚(铁环等) 2.(在滚木球戏中)得...分 3.使快而稳地行驶

翻译:这些都是调车容量最大的最大和最有效的分类码的每天几个千辆汽车。这些码的核心是对hill(hump hump:a 轨道)对这辆车推由引擎之后被非耦合之前或在top(hump 顶),然后他们作为单一的汽车或一些roll,either 结合汽车在一起,到其目的地踪迹,在那里的汽车都是sorted).分类bowl(the 轨道中的重力有效:

The speed of the cars rolling down from the hump into the classification bowl must be regulated because of the different natural speed of wagons(full or empty,heavy or light freight,number of axles) and the different filling of tracks(whether there are presently few or already many cars on it).As concerns speed regulation there are two types of hump yards:without or with mechanisation by retarders. In the old non-retarder yards braking was generally done in Europe by railroaders who lay skates onto the tracks or in the USA by passengers on the cars. In the modern retarder yards this work is done by mechanized“rail brakes" called retarders. They are operated either pneumatically (e.g. in the USA,France,Belgium,Russia or China) or hydraulically(e.g. in Germany,Italy or the Netherlands).

Regulate:及物动词vt. 1.管理;控制;为...制订规章2.校准;调整,调节3.使规则化;使条理化

Natural: 形容词 a. 1.自然的;有关自然界的2.天然的3.不做作的4.物质的,非精神的5.合乎常情的;正常的6.天生的;天赋的[B] 7.自然状态的,蒙昧的;未开垦的8.逼真的9.私生的[Z][B] 10.生身的[Z][B] 11.【音】还原的;标明本位号的[A]

名词n. [C] 1.天然物;自然的事情 2.【婉】白痴 3.【口】生就具有特定才能的人 4.【口】自然成功的事 5.【音】本位音;还原号

Wagon: ['w?g?n] 名词n. [C] 1.(四轮)运货马车2.【英】(铁路的)无盖货车3.【美】旅行车4.【美】(送食品、饮料的)手推车及物动词vt. 1.用运货马车搬运

Full: 形容词 a. 1.满的;充满的[(+of)] 2.吃饱的3.(程度等)完全的;最大的;最高的;正式的[B] 4.(衣服等)宽松的5.丰满的 6.(声音)圆润的;(光)强烈的;(色彩等)深的;(酒)醇厚的;(味)浓郁的

副词ad. 1直接地;正好,恰好 2.非常地;充分地;完全地

名词n. 1.充分;全部 2.极盛时;顶点

及物动词vt. 1.将(衣服)缝得宽松 2.给(裙子)打大褶

Empty: 形容词 a. 1.空的;未占用的;无人居住的2.无,没有,缺少[F][(+of)] 3.空洞的,无意义的;徒劳的及物动词vt. 1.使成为空的[(+out)][(+of)] 2.倒,倒空[O] 3.使流入不及物动词vi. 1.成为空的;流空2.(江,河等)流入[(+into)]

Heavy: 形容词 a. 1.重的,沉的2.沉重有力的;剧烈的;热烈的3.大的;大量的,多的 4.费力的;繁忙的;沉闷

的5.令人忧郁的;(心情)沉重的 6.行动缓慢的;迟钝的;笨拙的7.(食物等)难消化的8.(天空等)低压的,阴沉的9.(海面等)波涛汹涌的;狂暴的10.严厉的;大量耗用的[F][(+on)] 11.(眼皮等)重垂着的[(+from/with)] 12.【俚】麻烦的,威胁的[F] 13.【俚】很重要的;很有深度的

副词ad. 1.沉重地;笨重地 2.大量地名词n. [C] 1.【口】强盗;恶棍 2.【戏】庄重(或反派)角色Light:light1名词n. 1.光;光线;光亮[U] 2.光源;灯;灯火[C] 3.日光;日间[U] 4.火花;点火物[C] 5.窗;天窗[C] 6.眼神[S1][U] 7.(绘画中的)明亮部分[U][C] 8.显露,众所周知[U] 9.(对事物的)见解,观点[S] 10.启发[U][(+on)] 及物动词vt. 1.点(火);点燃[(+up)] 2.照亮[(+up)] 3.使容光焕发[(+up)] 4.用灯光指引,用灯照路[O] 不及物动词vi. 1.点着 2.变亮形容词 a. 1.明亮的 2.浅色的

light2

形容词 a. 1.(重量)轻的 2.(数量、程度)少量的;轻微的 3.(负担)轻的;轻松愉快的 4.微弱的;柔和的 5.轻快的;灵巧的 6.易醒的7.清淡的;易消化的;(酒)淡的8.轻便的,轻型的9.晕眩的10.轻率易变的;轻浮的

副词ad. 1.轻地;轻装地

I ight3 不及物动词vi. 1.【旧】【书】下马,下车;停落[Q][(+on/upon)]

Axle: 名词n. [C] 1.(机器的)轴2.车轴,轮轴

Filling: 名词n. 1.装填;填充2.填补物3.(糕点的)馅子

Presently: ['prezntli] 副词ad. 1.不久,一会儿2.现在,目前3.【古】当即,即刻

Concern: 及物动词vt. [W] 1.(不用被动语态)关于 2.涉及,关系到;影响到 3.使担心;使不安[H][(+about/for)] 4.使关心[H][(+about/with)]名词n. 1.关心的事,重要的事[C] 2.关系;利害关系[C][U][(+with/in)] 3.担心,挂念;关怀[U][C][(+about/for)] 4.公司,企业[C] 5.【口】小玩意儿;东西Regulation: 名词n. 1.规章;规则,规定;条例[C] 2.管理;调整,调节;校准[U] 形容词 a. 1.标准的;正规的,正式的 2.普通的,一般的

Mechanization: [,mek?nai'zei??n]名词n. 1.机械化

Retarder: [ri'tɑ:d?]名词n. 1.阻碍者 2.【化】迟缩剂 3.减速器

Brake:brake1名词n. [C] 1.煞车,制动器,闸[P1] 2.阻碍,约束[(+on)] 3.泵柄,泵杆及物动词vt. 1.煞住(车) 2.抑制,约束

不及物动词vi. 1.煞车,制动

brake2

名词n. [C] 1.揉碎机;(亚麻等的)麻梳 2.揉面机 3.重型耙 4.(柳条)剥皮器 5.(金属板)压弯成形机

及物动词vt. 1.揉碎(麻等)

brake3名词n. 1.草丛,灌木丛[C] 2.【植】蕨,羊齿类[U]

Generally: 副词ad. 1.通常,一般地2.广泛地,普遍地3.(常用于句首)大体而言,概括说来

Skate: skate1名词n. [C] 1.冰鞋;四轮溜冰鞋[P] 2.(一次)滑冰,(一次)溜冰不及物动词vi. 1.滑冰,溜冰2.一带而过,略微触及[(+over/around/round)] 3.【口】吊儿郎当,游戏人间

skate2名词n. 1.【鱼】鳐;灰鳐[C]

skate3名词n. [C]【美】【俚】 1.不中用的老马 2.人,家伙

Passenger: :['p?sind??] 名词n. [C] 1.乘客,旅客2.【英】【口】(球队等中)不积极的成员Modern: 形容词 a. 1.现代的;近代的[Z] 2.现代化的;时髦的;最新的3.(常大写)(指语言)现代的;近代的[Z] 名词n. 1.现代人;(思想等)现代化的人[P]

Mechanize: ['mek?naiz] 及物动词vt. 1.使机械化2.使呆板

Operate: 不及物动词vi. 1.作出,工作;运作;运转2.营业,营运[Q] 3.起作用,影响,产生效果[Q] 4.动手术,开刀[(+on/for)] 5.作战;执行任务 6.操作股票

及物动词vt. 1.操作;开动(机器)等 2.经营;管理 3.对...施行手术;对...开刀 4.引起,产生

Pneumatically: pneumatic英音:[nju:'m?tik] 形容词 a. 1.空气的,气体的2.充气的,可充气的3.压缩空气推动的,气动的 4.【动】有气腔的 5.【宗】精神的,灵魂的

France: 名词n. 1.法兰西,法国

Belgium: 名词n. 1.比利时

Russia: 名词n. 1.(1917年以前的)俄罗斯帝国2.俄罗斯russia名词n. 1.俄罗斯软革(装订书籍等用) Hydraulically: [hai'dr?:lik?li] 副词ad. 1.通过水(或液)压

Germany: 名词n. 1.德国(欧洲国家)

Netherlands: 名词n. 1.荷兰

翻译:必须管制驼峰溜放入分类碗滚下的汽车的速度,因为的不同自然速度的wagons(full 或empty,heavy 或车轴的光freight,number) 和tracks(whether 有不同填补目前几或it).As 关注速度调节有很多车已经是两种类型的驼峰yards:without 或与减速顶由机械化。在旧的非缓速器码制动都一般是在欧洲的公铁两用车溜冰鞋了铁轨上或在美国的乘客躺于车上的人。在这项工作通过这些现代缓速器机械化称为减速顶"铁路刹车"。他们经营或者气动(e.g。在USA,France,Belgium,Russia 或中国)或hydraulically(e.g。在Germany,Italy 或荷兰)。