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第六节 英语倒装句

第六节英语倒装句式

一、英汉句子结构对比

Subject is obvious in English

Sub+Pre

Topic is stressed in Chinese

Topic +Descriptions

汉语复句分为联合复句(以并列、递进、对比、选择、连贯等方式组

合的复句)或偏正复句(以因果、条件、转折、让步、目的等逻辑关

系而组合的复句),连词常常被省略。在翻译中,英汉语句子结构有

时可以不转换,但有时则要转换。大致有以下五种情况:(一)英语简单句转换成汉语复合句(拆分法)

(二)英语复合句转换成汉语简单句(合并法)

(三)英语复合句转换成汉语复合句

(四)英语倒装句转换成汉语正装句

(五)英语被动句转换成汉语主动句;英语主动句转换成汉语被动句。

(一)英语复合句转换成汉语复合句

1英语主从复合句——汉语联合复句

1)The boy sat down on a stone to take a pebble out of his shoe when he saw a stranger approaching him.

2)Hardly had I got aboard when the train started.

3)Our men had gone quite a distance off before the enemy’s reinforcement troops came up.

1)小孩坐在石头上正打算从鞋里取碎石子,这时他看见一个陌生人朝着他走来。

2)我刚上火车,车就开了。

3)我们的队伍已经走得很远了,敌人的增援部队才赶上来。

2英语并列复合句——汉语偏正复句

1)This place is really beautiful,and many people bring their wives and families out here to live.

2)It was a difficult task,but we accomplished it.

3)Grasp all, lose all.

1)这地方实在漂亮,所以许多人都把他们的家小搬来居住。

2)虽然任务艰巨,可是我们完成了。

3)如果你样样都抓,就会一样也抓不到手。

(二)句序

语序(词序、句序)在汉语中特别重要,因为语序和虚词是现代汉语两个最重要的语法手段。汉语是意合,因此英汉翻译时必须注意语序。简单句的倒装,复句两个部分的前置和后置,主要是根据惯用法和重心感,以及行文中的语气和衔接有关。

(1)英汉语复合句中的时间顺序

1.英语复合句中,表示时间的从句可以在主句之前或之后;汉语则

通常先发生的事先叙述,后发生的事后叙述。

1)Nothing has happened since we parted. (后置)

我们分别之后,一直没有发生什么事情。(前置)

2)After I had my dinner, I went out for a walk. (前置)

吃了晚饭后,我出去散步。(前置)

3)I went out for a walk after I had my dinner. (后置)

吃了晚饭后,我出去散步。(前置)

2.英语复合句中有时包含两个时间从句,次序也比较灵活;汉语则

一般按照事情发生的先后来排序。

He had flown in just the day before from Georgia where he had spent his vacation basking in the Caucasian sun after the completion of the construction job he had been engaged in in the South.

他本来在南方从事一项建筑工程;任务完成之后,他就上格鲁吉亚去度假,享受高加索的阳光,昨天才坐飞机回来。

(2)英汉语复合句中的逻辑顺序

1.在表示因果关系的英语复合句中,因果顺序比较灵活;汉语中一

般是因在前,果在后。

1)As the weather was fine, we decided to climb the mountain. 2)He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill. 1)由于天气很好,我们决定去爬山。

2)因为他病了,昨天他不得不呆在家里。

2.在表示条件(假设)与结果的关系的英语复合句中,条件(假设)

与结果的顺序也不固定,汉语则一般是条件(假设)在前,结果在后。

1)Suppose we can’t get the necessary equipment,what shall we do?

2)He would be a rash man if he should venture to forecast the results of this event.

3)He who would eat the nut must first crack the shell.

1)假定我们弄不到必要的设备,那怎么办?

2)如果有人敢于预言此事的结果,那他一定是个鲁莽之徒。

3)要吃核果,必先敲壳。(要享受果实,必先劳动。)

3.在表示目的与行动的关系的英语复合句中,多数情况是行动在前,

目的在后。汉语中多数情况也是如此,但有时为了强调目的,也

可以把目的提前。

1)Let’s work harder so that we may fulfil our plan adead of schedule.

让我们更加努力工作,以便能提前完成计划。

2)He got up early in the morning in order that he might have time to fetch water and sweep the yard for his aunt.

他早晨起得很早,为的是可以有时间给他姑妈担水扫院子。

或:为了可以有时间给他姑妈担水扫院子,他早晨起得很早。

4.在表示理由与结果的关系的英语复合句中,多数情况是理由在前,

结果在后;汉语中多数情况也是这样。

1)They fought so bravely that the invasion was crushed in seventy-two hour.

2)We worked fast and well,so that we overfulfilled our production plan.

1)他们打得很勇敢,七十二小时内就粉碎了敌人的入侵。

2)我们工作得又快又好,超额完成了生产计划。

(三)英语倒装句转换成汉语正装句

1.主谓倒装

2.助动词与主语倒装

3.宾语与主语谓语的倒装

4.表语与主语倒装

5.状语或定语提前的倒装

1.主谓倒装

在汉语中,有时为了强调谓语(如:“驾驶直升机你会?”),有时是语流中的停顿方式(如“做完作业了,你们?”)多见于口语体中,在书面语中最好以复位处理。

1)Here ends the diary of Dr.Watson.

1)华生医生的日记写到这里就结束了。

2)Thomas Percy’s work has been a feeding-place for poets, so has

been Charles Lamb’s for prose writers.

托马斯·帕西的著作一直是哺育诗人的摇篮;而查尔斯·兰姆的作品则是培育散文作家的苗圃。(倒装复位)

3) Along with the free and easy feeling of summer comes a problem. 在夏日的安乐感油然而生时,问题也就来了(或:也产生了一个问题)。(倒装复位或保留)

4)The cold air hit me,God, was it freezing.

冷空气向我袭来,老天爷,那股寒气真要把人冻僵啊!(倒装复位)

5)“Where’s he going?”

“China,”came the answer.

“他上哪儿去?”

回答是:“中国”。(或:“中国”,就是对方的回答。)(倒装复位或保留)

2、助动词与主语倒装

这类倒装,翻译成汉语时须一律复位。

1)Little did I then know the meaning of war and what it was in

reality.

2) Only rarely has he come close to an admission.

3)Not until late October by his own admission, did he devote

much attention to the bloodshed.

4)No sooner does an election end than a battle begins over

interpreting the results.

1)当时我确实还不太懂得战争的意义以及战争实际上怎么回事。

2)他勉强承认了,这对他来说实在难得。

3)他自己承认,直到10月下旬他才认真注意那场流血事件。

4)大选刚刚结束,人们就争相对选举结果进行分析和评论。

3.宾语与主语谓语的倒装

英语与汉语中都有这类倒装,为了强调宾语,属于修辞性倒装。因此翻译时应尽量照顾原文的修辞目的。

1)Most information we get through that channel.

2)This product,of course, the intelligent consumer will choose.

3)His concept we accepted not without reluctance.

1)大部分消息我们是通过那个渠道得到的。

2)这种产品聪明的顾客当然会选购。

3)他这种想法我们接受了,但却不无勉强。

4.表语与主语倒装

这是将表语提至句首,将主语置于谓语动词之后的倒装式。自然式:吸取教训是重要的。反逆是:重要的是吸取教训。这类倒装英汉都有,翻译时应结合语境,有时倒装,有时复位。

1)Lucky are the ones who need no longer worry about grades.

幸运的是那些不用为分数发愁的学生。

2)So serious are the Saudis defense problems that the F-15’s will hardly buy the country more than a couple of days of breathing time if it should be attacked by any enemy.

严重的是沙特阿拉伯的防务问题。如果它一旦受到敌人进攻,F-15是很难给它赢得一两天以上的喘息时间的。

3)Gone is the hope that the Stars and Stripes could have a 51st star-if Puerto Rico’s pro-US governor did win reelection Nov.4.

如果波多黎各亲美的总督果然在11月4日的改选中获胜,那么星条旗上是可能出现第51颗星的——可惜这个希望已成了泡影。(倒装复位)

4)More than brutal,I am afraid, they will be to the hostages.

我担心,他们会对人质做出比粗暴无礼更过分的事情。

5)Here at last seemed credible history of the difficult

advance of man.

人类艰苦前进的历史终于在这里看来是能够令人置信的了。

5.状语或定语提前的倒装

状语或定语提前的倒装句式,汉英都有。倒装是为了强调或句子的平衡感。翻译时宜灵活处理。

1)From the cemetory no one is brought back.

死者是不能复生的。(或:坟墓里走不出活人来。)

2)Around the room went the rueful laughter of recognition,for the meeting also reflected women’s dilemma

in these black communities.

室内发出了一阵不得不承认现实的苦笑声,因为会议也反映了那

些黑人社区里的妇女们面临的困境。(倒装)

3)Fine and high and pure,the rule,indispensable to virtue, has come again within the circle of its influence to reshape

their minds.

对修身养性不可或缺的崇高而又完美的准则,又重新得到提倡,

以陶冶和塑造人们的心灵。

4)With him it should be possible to talk.

同他是应该能够谈得来的。(倒装)

5)Out through the door, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two brothers went off for their shooting.

整整三年前,她丈夫和两个兄弟就是从这扇门出去打猎的。

6)From officials in the Pentagon come the answers to the questions that are most often asked about the available

opportunities of employment.

现在五角大楼的官员们答复了这个经常有人问到的问题:何时能

有就业机会?

一般说来,除了结构性倒装(如:A: “I hate repetition.” B: “So do I.”等)外,其它种种形式的倒装都在不同程度上与强势语有关。因此在英译汉中,凡双语能契合的,应保留倒装;凡在译文中使用倒装不符合汉语习惯又无助于强调的,应予复位,用自然语序。随着英语的发展,倒装已远不如十九世纪以前普遍,滥用倒装在现代英语写作中是一种诟病。原文中不恰当的倒装在汉语译文中一般应取自然语序。