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新视野大学英语第三版第二册课文语法讲解 Unit7

新视野三版读写B2U7Text A

Woman at the management level

1When Monica applied for a job as an administrative assistant in1971,she was asked whether she would rather work for a male or a female attorney."I immediately said a man,"she says."I felt that a male-boss/female-employee relationship was more natural,needing no personal accommodation whatsoever."But20years later,when she was asked the same question,she said,"I was pleasantly surprised that female bosses are much more accessible to their employees;they're much more sensitive and intimate with their employees."

2Female bosses today are still finding they face subtle resistance.There is still a segment of the population,both men and,surprisingly,women who report low tolerance for female bosses.The growing presence of female bosses has also provoked two major questions that revolve around styles:Do men and women manage differently,and,if so,is that a good thing?

3Monica is disposed to think so,on both counts.Now a40-year-old mother of four,she is president of a public sector labor union with45,000 members."Relations with my employees are probably different from those of male managers preceding me,"she says."I know what it's like to have to call and say my kid got the mumps so I won't be coming in.I have a more flexible style—not soft,just more understanding."The man who is Monica's assistant agrees,"She tends to delegate more and is always looking for a consensus. People are happy and flourish because they have an input into decisions and they are not mere bystanders;their energies are harnessed.On the other hand,consensus takes longer."

4So,are the differences symbolic or real?Plausible studies suggest that men are typically hierarchical,goal-oriented and feel entitled.Women,by contrast, manage diplomatically,and share power.That point of view is often challenged and argued.Some proclaim that men and women of similar backgrounds,experience and aspirations basically manage in the same way.This view is echoed by younger women,especially those who have encountered little gender discrimination.That was certainly the lesson for Nicole.When her father died of a heart attack,she was an employee at a petroleum products export company.She quit and took over her family's 160-acre fruit farm in St.David's County.On her first day in the field,a worker

called her"darling"."He was trying to test me.I was shaking with anger,"says Nicole,now34."I stood erect and said,‘You wouldn't have called my father darling and you're not going to take that liberty with me.If you do,I'll fire you.'" 5When women work for women,a different dynamic often takes over.Susan, a cashier in a Toronto auction house,says that she has explored friendships with some of her female bosses and feels she can rely on them more.While women may feel more at ease with a female boss,men often have to make concessions to the new working styles.Brian,a marine biologist,says, "It took me a couple of years before I felt comfortable enough to relax around a female manager.In fact,my relations with her were much more businesslike." 6To some extent,the male-female differences come down to conflicting styles.One female vice-president discussed the time she burst into tears during a meeting."Men think that tears are a nuclear weapon in a conventional war.They take exception to a woman crying,inferring that she's feeling unhappy or violated."The men failed to understand that what prompted her tears was not hurt but genuine rage."When we cry,it's because we have all this valid rage that has no appropriate release,"she says."Women cry;men get relief by going on with the offense or by veiling their feelings to appear composed."

7Deborah,president of a firm with its headquarters in Toronto,says that even if men do understand,they sometimes react differently to the identical information and to her cooperative management style.

8Deborah says that her authority is sometimes undermined by perceptions about her gender."It stems from the whole social context of traditional roles for men and women,"she says."Mom would tell you to do things,but perhaps you wouldn't take as much notice as when Dad told you to do things.Men also have a stronger urge to control,"she says.

9For female bosses,the great expectation of some female employees is one more obstacle.Junior women assume a female boss will promote them more quickly than a man would.But,they also expect female bosses to be more self-sufficient."They ask,‘Why can't you scan your own stuff?'or‘Why can't you do your own filing?'"says one senior female executive.

10On the other hand,there is no dispute that a few decades ago they would rarely have had a female boss in the workplace.Nina,a management consultant says she's vaguely optimistic."I'm looking forward to the day,before I die,when we recognize that the best management styles will

be composed of the best that both genders bring to the table..."Well,she pauses,maybe not before she dies,perhaps in her daughter's lifetime.

Language Points:

1When Monica applied for a job as an administrative assistant in1971,she was asked whether she would rather work for a male or a female attorney.(Para.1) Meaning:Monica was asked if she would like to work for a male or a female lawyer when she applied for a managing job at a law firm in1971.

Sentence structure note:“would rather”句型

1would rather的意思是“宁愿;宁可;更;最好;还是…为好”,后接动词原形,表示优先选择的一种方式。其否定形式是would rather not do sth.,would rather没有人称和数的变化,所有的人称一律用would rather。例如:

If you/he would rather be alone,we’ll all leave here.如果你/他宁愿独自呆着,那我们会都离开这儿。

2would rather后接从句时,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时,表示希望或宁愿某人按某特定的方式做某事,这个结构常常表达的是现在或将来的行为。例如:

I’d rather you didn’t make any comment on the issue for the time being.我想目前你还是不要对此事发表任何评论。

2“I felt that a male-boss/female-employee relationship was more natural,needing no personal accommodation whatsoever.”(Para.1)

Meaning:I felt that there was no need to compromise in a relationship between a male boss and a female employee since it was more natural.

3But20years later,when she was asked the same question,she said,“I was pleasantly surprised that female bosses are much more accessible to their employees;they’re much more sensitive and intimate with their employees.”(Para. 1)

Meaning:However,when she was asked the same question20years later,She responded that it was a nice surprise to find out that female bosses had been much easier to approach,more understanding,and closer to their workers.

Meaning beyond words:Her answer was entirely different from what she had responded 20years before.It can be assumed that she gained this particular feeling gradually.

4Female bosses today are still finding they face subtle resistance.(Para.2) Meaning beyond words:Female bosses today are still experiencing gender discrimination,though it may not always be obvious or noticeable.

5There is still a segment of the population,both men and,surprisingly,women who report low tolerance for female bosses.(Para.2)

Meaning:A portion of people,men and,unexpectedly,even women state that they can hardly bear working with female bosses.

6The growing presence of female bosses has also provoked two major questions that revolve around styles:Do men and women manage differently,and,if so,is that a good thing?(Para.2)

Meaning:With the number of female bosses increasing,two questions have been raised in terms of styles:Do men and women work differently?Are the differences good for management if there are any?

7Monica is disposed to think so,on both counts.Now a40-year-old mother of four, she is president of a public sector labor union with45,000members.(Para.3) Meaning:Monica,a40-year-old mother of four children and president of a public sector labor union with45,000members,is inclined to look at these two points positively: Women do manage differently from men and that is a good thing.

Note:“A public sector labor union”(also public sector trade union)refers to a labor union which primarily represents the interests of employees within public sector (government-owned,supported or regulated)organizations.Public sector unions have become some of the larger or more influential unions in certain areas of the world in recent times as private sector union membership has declined sharply.

8“Relations with my employees are probably different from those of male managers preceding me,”she says.“I know what it’s like to have to call and say my kid got the mumps so I won’t be coming in.I have a more flexible style—not soft, just more understanding.”(Para.3)

Meaning:She said that she was perhaps different form the previous male managers in relation with the employees because she knew what it meant when someone had to make a phone call telling her that he or she wouldn’t go to work due to the illness of their child. She added that she was more flexible and understanding but not weaker in terms of working style.

Meaning beyond words:In a broad sense,female bosses are better than male bosses in boss-employee relations because they are more understanding and tend to show more consideration to their employees.

9The man who is Monica’s assistant agrees,“She tends to delegate more and is always looking for a consensus.People are happy and flourish because they have an input into decisions and they are not mere bystanders;their energies are harnessed.On the other hand,consensus takes longer.”(Para.3)

Meaning:The man who is Monica’s assistant holds the same opinion that she usually gives people more rights and is always seeking agreement.Since people have their voice heard in decision-making and are not playing the role of a witness only,they feel happy and successful.In this way,their energies are utilized.However,it takes more time to reach an agreement.

Meaning beyond words:Again,female bosses would seek more accommodation and agreement than male bosses,which helps to bring employees’initiative into full play.

10So,are the differences symbolic or real?Plausible studies suggest that men are typically hierarchical,goal-oriented and feel entitled.Women,by contrast,manage diplomatically,and share power.(Para.4)

Meaning:So,the question is whether the differences between male and female managers are representative or real?According to acceptable studies,men like to seek social status,work for goals and be given authority.On the other hand,women manage with skill and flexibility and like to share authority.

Meaning beyond words:In terms of management skills,this part highlights the differences between male and female bosses.The plausible reasons may possibly be traced to the respective character traits of both sexes.

Note:Goal-oriented is a compound adjective.A goal-oriented person or team works hard to achieve good results in the tasks that they have been given;a goal-oriented plan or activity is based on a number of things that must be achieved.The word oriented means giving a lot of time,effort and attention to one particular thing.It can be combined with different nouns to derive different meanings such as family-oriented and export-oriented.

11That point of view is often challenged and argued.Some proclaim that men and women of similar backgrounds,experience and aspirations basically manage in the same way.(Para.4)

Meaning:The real differences between male and female managers often spark arguments.Some people declare that generally speaking,men and women of similar backgrounds,experience and ambitions manage in the same way.

12This view is echoed by younger women,especially those who have encountered little gender discrimination.That was certainly the lesson for Nicole.(Para.4)

Meaning:This view is agreed upon by young women,especially those who have seldom been treated unfairly.Nicole certainly learned a lesson from her experience.

Meaning beyond words:The implication is that men and women do manage differently. Only young women who have never encountered gender discrimination would assume there is no difference between male and female managers.Nicole’s personal experience would serve as a lesson for young women.

13When her father died of a heart attack,she was an employee at a petroleum products export company.She quit and took over her family’s160-acre fruit farm in St.David’s County.(Para.4)

Meaning:When her father died due to a heart attack,Nicole stopped working for an export company of petroleum products and took control of her father’s160-acre fruit farm in St.David’s County.

Note:This is also a figurative use of“fighting the fires”,which means“to disperse the strikes”.

14On her first day in the field,a worker called her“darling”.“He was trying to test me.I was shaking with anger,”says Nicole,now34.“I stood erect and said,‘You wouldn’t have called my father darling and you’re not going to take that liberty with me.If you do,I’ll fire you.’”(Para.4)

Meaning beyond words:Nicole’s personal story about how one of her workers addressed her on her first day in the field depicts gender discrimination-based disrespect: Men would instinctively think they are superior to women,so the male worker didn’t show the appropriate respect to his boss,Nicole.

15When women work for women,a different dynamic often takes over.(Para.5) Meaning beyond words:When women work for their female bosses,they can always see and experience different working and communication styles from those adopted by their male bosses.

Note:Here,“dynamic”means the set of forces that exist in a situation,especially a relationship,and affect how it changes or develops.For example:

There’s a very supportive dynamic between the members of the group.组员们之间互相支持,互相鼓励。

16Susan,a cashier in a Toronto auction house,says that she has explored friendships with some of her female bosses and feels she can rely on them more. (Para.5)

Meaning beyond words:Susan has established friendships with some of her female bosses and feels she can trust them more than male bosses.

17While women may feel more at ease with a female boss,men often have to make concessions to the new working styles.(Para.5)

Meaning:Although women feel more comfortable and relaxed with a female boss,men often have to make changes in their behavior to adapt to the different working styles. Meaning beyond words:The fact that men have to adjust themselves when they have a female boss is probably because of some psychological reason which makes them feel somewhat hard to get along with the opposite sex.

18Brian,a marine biologist,says,“It took me a couple of years before I felt comfortable enough to relax around a female manager.In fact,my relations with her were much more businesslike.”(Para.5)

Meaning:Brian,a marine biologist,says that it took him a couple of years before he felt at ease working around a female manager.Anyway,his relations with her were of a business type only.

businesslike:a.effective and practical in the way that you do things处事务实的;有效率的;讲究实际的

To teach the students good business manners,this activity was handled in a businesslike manner.为了培养学生良好的商务礼仪,这项活动是以务实的方式进行的。

Note:The word businesslike,as explained above,is different from words like childlike. Similar words for your attention:lifelike(逼真的;栩栩如生的),warlike(好战的;善武的).

19To some extent,the male-female differences come down to conflicting styles. (Para.6)

Meaning:To some degree,the male-female differences in management lie in contradicting working styles.

20One female vice-president discussed the time she burst into tears during a meeting.“Men think that tears are a nuclear weapon in a conventional war.They take exception to a woman crying,inferring that she’s feeling unhappy or violated.”(Para.6)

Meaning:One female vice-president talked about the time when she could not hold back her tears at a meeting.She said that men considered women’s tears just as unfair weapons.They were angry at women who were crying and thought that these women felt unhappy or offended.

21The men failed to understand that what prompted her tears was not hurt but genuine rage.(Para.6)

Meaning:The men did not know what made women cry was not being hurt but their anger.

22“When we cry,it’s because we have all this valid rage that has no appropriate release,”she says.“Women cry;men get relief by going on with the offense or by veiling their feelings to appear composed.”(Para.6)

Meaning:She says that women cry because they have nowhere to release their reasonable anger.While women cry men seek to release their anger by continuing with their attacks on women or by hiding their feelings to look calm.

Meaning beyond words:This example further contrasts the different working styles between men and women,triggered by their personality traits.

23Deborah,president of a firm with its headquarters in Toronto,says that even if men do understand,they sometimes react differently to the identical information and to her cooperative management style.(Para.7)

Meaning:According to Deborah,president of a firm with its main office located in Toronto, even if men do understand why women cry,they sometimes react differently to similar information and to her collaborative style.

24Deborah says that her authority is sometimes undermined by perceptions about her gender.(Para.8)

Meaning:According to Deborah,her authority is sometimes weakened by biased opinion of women.

25“It stems from the whole social context of traditional roles for men and women,”she says.“Mom would tell you to do things,but perhaps you wouldn’t take as much notice as when Dad told you to do things.Men also have a stronger urge to control,”she says.(Para.8)

Meaning:She says that people’s different reactions toward female bosses and male bosses come from our social background:the traditional roles for men and women. People would pay more attention to what their dad told them to do than what their mom would tell them.Men also have a stronger desire to control.

26For female bosses,the great expectation of some female employees is one more obstacle.Junior women assume a female boss will promote them more quickly than a man would.(Para.9)

Meaning beyond words:As female bosses manage more diplomatically and often seek consensus,female employees usually expect to get promoted more quickly by women bosses.This is another obstacle for female bosses.

27But,they also expect female bosses to be more self-sufficient.“They ask,‘Why can’t you scan your own stuff?’or‘Why can’t you do your own filing?’”says one senior female executive.(Para.9)

Meaning beyond words:Female employees,however,would also expect female bosses to do more by themselves for the purpose that they won’t be bothered.This expectation by female employees is an act of undermining Deborah’s authority,and it implicitly attests to disrespectful behavior toward her as a boss.

Usage note:

scan,skim

scan和skim都可译为“浏览、快读”,都可用作及物和不及物动词,但实际上它们有显著的差别。

1scan指“查读”,是根据需要快速扫描出相关的细节。scan用于此义时,可用作及物和不及物动词。例如:

She scanned the advertisement pages of the newspapers.她很快地查读了报纸上的广告页。

I haven't read much into it yet.I've only scanned through it.我没看多少,只是很快地将它查读了一下。

2skim与scan不同,是“略读”,指的是跳过文章的具体细节不看,在短时间内迅速掌握文章的主旨和大意。例如:

I only skimmed the headlines of the newspaper every morning.每天早晨我只是浏览一下报纸的大标题。

I only had time to skim through the script before I flew over here.我坐飞机来这里之前,只能很快地浏览了一下这个脚本。

比较:

When reading a passage,our English teacher always tells us to skim the passage first in order to get the general idea and then scan the passage again in order to find the specific information.在阅读文章时,我们的英语老师总是告诉我们先略读文章以获取文章的大意,然后查读以获得所需的具体信息。

28On the other hand,there is no dispute that a few decades ago they would rarely have had a female boss in the workplace.(Para.10)

Meaning:Despite female employees’too many expectations,one thing that goes beyond any disagreement is that the condition would not have been in place a few decades ago–

they could hardly get a woman as their boss.

Sentence structure note:

“There is dispute that…”结构与“There’s no doubt/need/point that…”结构(B2U2,Text B)属于同一句型,基本用法相同。

29Nina,a management consultant says she’s vaguely optimistic.“I’m looking forward to the day,before I die,when we recognize that the best management

styles will be composed of the best that both genders bring to the table…”Well, she pauses,maybe not before she dies,perhaps in her daughter’s lifetime.(Para. 10)

Meaning beyond words:Nina,a management adviser says she’s kind of optimistic that someday,before she dies,people will understand the best management styles come from the combination of the best provided by of both genders.However,she gives the hint that maybe this day won’t come soon;perhaps it will happen in her daughter’s lifetime.