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常见句子错误

英语句子写作常见错误与分析

一.不一致(Disagreements)

所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致时态不一致及代词不一致等.例1.When one have money ,he can do what he want to .

(人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么.)

剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致.

改为:Once one has money , he can do what he wants (to do)

二.修饰语错位(Misplaced Modifiers)

英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化.对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解.

例1.I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.

剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末.

三.句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)

在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解.可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生.

例1.There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on . 剖析:本句后半部分"for example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句.改为:There are many ways to know society ,for example ,by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.

四.悬垂修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)

所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清.例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中"at the age of ten"只点出十岁时,但没有说明” 谁”十岁时.按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了.

改为:When I was ten, my grandfather died.

例1.To do well in college, good grades are essential.

剖析:句中不定式短语“to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚.

改为:To do well in college, a student needs good grades.

五.词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)

“词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等.

例1.None can negative the importance of money.

剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。

改为:None can deny the importance of money.

六.指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)

指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试

看下面这一句:

Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

(玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。)

读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:

Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

例1. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

剖析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。改为:

We can also know society by serving it ourselves.

七.不间断句子(Run-on Sentences)

什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。

例1.There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。

改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:

There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside

world

八.措词毛病(Troubles in Diction)

Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。

例1.The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.

(农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。)

剖析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。

改为:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

九.累赘(Redundancy)

言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如:

In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

例1.For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

剖析:整个句子可以大大简化。

改为:Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.

十.不连贯(Incoherence)

不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。

例1.The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.

剖析:The fresh water 与逗号后的it 不连贯。It 与things 在数方面不一致。

改为:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

十一.综合性语言错误(Comprehensive Misusage)

所谓“综合性语言错误”,是指除了上述十种错误以外,还有诸如时态,语态,标点符号,大小写等方面的错误。

例1.Today, Money to everybody is very importance, our’s eat, cloth, live, go et c.

II. 怎样写好句子

一、"There be"结构

考生病句:

1. There are many people like to go to the movies.

2. There are different kinds of vegetables can be bought on the market by people.

正确表达:

1. There are many people who like to go to the movies.

2. There are different kinds of vegetables that people can buy on the market.

这两个例句的错误比较有普遍性,因为在历次考试中有不少考生不能正确运用there be 这一最常用的句式。在这种结构中,there是引导词,没有实际意义。be在句中作谓语,有时态和数的变化。

例如:

1. There was no school in the village at that time. (=there was not a school...)

注意:在否定句中,否定词用no,也可用not a或not any。not a后接单数名词,not a 后接复数名词,no后面的名词单复数都可以。

2. There is not a moment to be lost.

3. There are many people rushing into the cities every year.

4. There are many things we can do to prevent traffic accidents.

5. There is no use holding back the wheel of history.

从以上例句还可看出,句中的主语后面可接多种修饰语,如介词短语、不定式短语、定语从句、分词短语等等。这无疑使该结构增加了表现力,使句子表达内容更加丰富。在运用这一结构时,考生最容易犯的错误是在there be之后又用了一个动词作谓语,使句子结构出现严重错误。这里列举的考生的典型错误均属这种情况,对此我们在写作中要格外注意。

二、比较结构

考生病句:

1. Comparing with the bike, the car runs much faster.

2. The climate in Walton is colder than other cities.

正确表达:

1. Compared with the bike, the car runs much faster.

2. The climate in Walton is colder than that of other cities.

评议与分析:许多考生在作文中用compare或than表示比较,但相当多的表达有误。

在例1中,对两个事物进行比较的句式为Compared with A, B...,只能用compare的过去分词,不能用现在分词,因为B是分词的逻辑主语,只能被比较。在例2中,考生误将"天气"与"城市"进行比较,而二者没有可比性,只有将后者改为"其他城市的天气"才符合逻辑,很显然,考生的错误是受了汉语表达习惯的影响。

比较结构是常用结构,正确地使用这一结构可以使文章的句式增加变化,有利于提高写

作成绩。一般说来,考生若能恰当、正确地运用这一结构,其写作成绩应在5分以上。

下面是比较结构的一些常用的表达方法。

1.同级比较

1)In 1998 we produced as many cars as we did in the previous five years.

2)We have accomplished as much in the past three years as would have taken ten years in the past.

2.比较级

1)Children now enjoy better medical treatment than before.

2)We can live longer without food than we can (live ) without water.

3.最高级

1)This is the most interesting book I've ever read.

2)Of all his novels I like this one best.

4.the more…the more…结构

1) The harder you work, the greater progress you will make.

2) The more a man knows, the more he discovers his ignorance.

5.选择比较

1) I prefer staying at home to going out.

2) They prefer to work rather than (to) sit idly.

3) He prefers to work alone.

注意:这里的1)句用的是Prefer A to B结构,to为介词,后接名词或动名词;2)句是以不定式作prefer的宾语;3)句用法同2),只是不把rather than部分表达出来。

6.对比

1) Motion is absolute while stagnation is relative.

2) He is tired out, whereas she is full of vigour.

注意:while 和whereas均可用于连接两个意义对立的分句,相当于汉语的"而"字。许多考生能较好地运用这一句式,尤其在图表作文中。

三、表达原因的结构

考生病句:

1. The real reason to our failure is not far to seek.

2. The reason for this is because some people want to earn plenty of money without working hard.

正确表达:

1. The real reason for our failure is not far to seek.

2. The reason for this is that some people want to earn plenty of money without working hard. 评议与分析:

以上两个病句分别引自92年1月和97年12月四级考试的考生作文。从遣词造句上看,这两位考生具有一定的写作能力,not far to seek, plenty of money以及without working hard 等均运用正确、恰当。但令人遗憾的是,第一位考生不知道reason不与to搭配而应接介词for,第二位考生犯了一个中国学生常犯的错误,就是用because引起表语从句,because这个词不能引起表语从句,在本句中只能改用that才正确。

掌握好表达原因的结构是十分重要的,几乎所有的写作试题都要求写原因或可以写原因。在大学英语四、六级考试、研究生入学英语考试以及TOEFL考试中,写作的文体基本上是议论文,而议论文的基本模式是摆事实、讲道理,讲道理就是说明原因。写作测试的文

体决定了表达原因结构的重要性。

英语中用来表达原因这一概念的结构有多种。我们可用as , because, since, seeing that, considering that, now that, not that...等词组引出表示原因的从句。例如:

1. Now that we have seen these great achievements with our own eyes, we feel more proud than ever of our country.

2. Professor Liu is strict with us because he wants us to make rapid progress.

3. Since we live near the sea, we enjoy a healthy climate.

4. Pollution is still a serious problem, not that we don't have the ability to solve it, but that some people have not realized the consequences of the problem.

我们还可以借助某些词语用简单句表达原因结构。例如:

1. The reason for this change is quite obvious.

2. Diligence is the key factor of success.

3. Idleness is the root of all evils.

4. He was ashamed to have made the mistake.(=He was ashamed that he had made the mistake. =He was ashamed because he had made the mistake.)

除了上述的例句外,英语中还有很多或易或难的表达原因的结构。我们在进行写作训练的时候,不能满足于一知半解,要讲究书面语言的正确性和准确性。比如,because是最常用的引导原因从句的连词,语气最强,表示直接的原因,若because置于句首,后面的主句不能再用so。用as引导的原因从句语气较弱,所说明的原因是附带的,而since表示的原因暗示着是稍加分析之后才能推断出来的原因。

四、否定结构

考生病句

1. Some people think we needn't to worry about fresh water.

2. Nowadays many people don't like to go to the movies, too.

正确表达:

1. Some people think we needn't worry (或don't need to worry) about fresh water.

2. Nowadays many people don't like to go to the movies, either.

评议与分析:

例句1选自96年1月四级考生作文,例句2选自92年1月六级考生作文。例句1 的错误在于该考生混淆了need作为情态动词和作为普通动词的用法。need作为情态动词时,主要用于否定句,后面的动词不带to, needn't worry,作we的谓语。need作为实意动词时,可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句,don't need to worry 中的to worry作don't need的宾语。例句2的错误在于该考生混淆了too和either的区别,这两个词都表示"也"的意思,但是在英语中too, also只能用于肯定句,而either只能用于否定句

五: 含有it的结构

考生病句:

1. As is known to all of us that science and technology play an important role in the development of society.

2. It is known to us, practice makes perfect.

正确表达:

1. It is known to all of us that science and technology play an important role in the development of society. (或:As is known to all of us, science...)

2. It is known to us that practice makes perfect. (或:As is known to us, practice...)

评议与分析:

例句1是93年12月六级考试11分作文的评分样卷句子,例句2选自97年1月四级考试作文。很显然,两个考生混淆了it和as的用法。如果用it作形式主语,后面的主语从句必须由that引起;如果用as,则后面不能用that,因为as是关系代词,代表practice makes perfect。

It 在英语中是个相当活跃的代词,在写作中我们常要使用它。以下几种用法应熟练掌握,并能灵活运用。

1.作形式主语

It is necessary for us to master a foreign language skillfully. It makes difference whether

we could purify the air or not.

2.作形式宾语

We find it rather difficult to prevent people from doing that. Modern science has made it

possible for babies to grow healthily and for people to live longer.

3.引导强调句

It is only by this way that we can achieve success. It was then that people began to realize

the importance of controlling population.

从语法结构来看,上述的句子都不难,或者可以说是考生相当熟悉的。然而在写作考试中,多数考生缺乏运用自己已掌握的句式的意识,而以自己头脑中拼凑的中式英语取而代之。其实,只要能恰当地运用上述的任何一个句式,考生的作文就会出现闪光点,就会取得比较好的成绩。