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暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

一、十大词类

英语中的词根据词义、句法作用和形式特征可分为十大词类。

名词(n.)noun

"名"就是名称--人或事物的名称.具体的人或物体的名称:人名--Mike,Li Ming;地名—America ,China 动物名--pig,dog;植物名--tree,wheat.抽象的事物的名称:idea(主意),victory(胜利),knowledge(知识). 名词可分为两大类:1、普通名词(common noun)是某一类人、事物、某种物质或抽象概念的名称。例如:Teacher、 market、 rice;2、专有名词(proper noun)是特定的某人、地方或机构的名称。专有名词的第一个字母必须大写。例如:Hemingway Russia。名词又可分为可数名词(countable noun)与不可数名词(uncountable noun)两种。名词可做主语、表语、定语、补语、同位语。如:My sister is reading a novel. (主语)

She is my sister.(表语) Iinvite my friend to dinner.(宾语)

代词(pron.) pronoun

何谓“代” ?即是替代的意思,主要是来替代名词,有时代替数词。所以说名词和代词关系是很近的,或者说代词的实质就是名词,正是这种血液关系,绝大多数时候代词跟名词在句中起的作用是一样的。如:She(主语) brought me(宾语) these books, so they are mine.(表语)

动词(v.)verb

"动"就是动作或状态--人的五官动作:walk(走),jump(跳),swim(游泳);人的大脑动作(心理活动):think(想),imagine(想象).也有些动词是表示静止的,如:am,is,are。动词根据起意义和作用可分为实义动词、系动词、情态动词和助动词。作谓语。如:He can’t underdtand (谓语) what he said.

形容词(adj.) adjective

形容词是用来修饰名词,表示人或事物的特征。例如:yellow(黄色的),wonderful(惊人的),strong(强大的)。形容词一般放在它所修饰的名词之前,例如:busy streets(繁华的街道),public relations(公共关系),young men(年轻人)等。作宾语、表语、宾补、主补、独立成分。如:The house was found empty. (主补) He made his mother angry.(宾补)

副词(adv.)adverb

表示行为特征或性状特征的词,主要修饰动词,也可修饰形容词、副词、介词短语或全句,表示时间、地点、方式、程度,也表示说话人的态度等。作状语、表语、主补、宾补和定语。如:He speaks English quite fluently.(状语) I must be off.(表语)We saw him out.(宾补)

数词(num.)numeral

表示“数量”和“顺序”的词。前者称为基数词,例如:one(一),twenty (二十),thirty-five(三十五),one hundred and ninety-five(一百九十五)等;后者称为序数词,例如:first(第一),twentieth(第二十),fifty-first(第五十一)等。作主语、表语、定语。如:Five (主语)plus seven (宾语)is twelve.

冠词(art.)article

放在名词之前,帮助说明该名词所指的对象。英语中只有三个冠词:a\an (不定冠词)the (定冠词),不定冠词表示泛指,定冠词表示特指。

介词(prep.)preposition

又叫前置词,放在名词、代词或相当于名词的词前面,表示它后面的词与句子中其它成分之间的关系. 介词根据其构成,可分为简单介词,如:in, at, for, since 等;复合介词,如:into(进入), as for(至于), out of(出自);二重介词,如:until after(直至...之后), from among(从...当中);短语介词,如:according to(根据), because of(因为), in front of(在...之前), in the event of(如果);分词介词,如:regarding(关于), considering(考虑到), including(包括)。

介词后面的名词或代词叫做介词宾语。介词和介词宾语合称为介词短语(prepositional phrase)。介词短语作状语、定语、表语。如:The women stood near the window in silence. (状语) The teacher in silence is middle-aged.(定语)

连词(conj.)conjunction

连词的作用是连接词、短语、从句或句子。连词是虚词,不能在句中单独作句子成分。

根据连词本身的含义及其所连接的成分的性质,可分为并列连词和从属连词。并列连词是连接并列关系的词、短语、从句或句子的连词,例如:and(和), or(或者、否则), but(但是), for(因为), not only...but also(不仅...而且), neither...nor(即不...也不)。从属连词是连接主从复合句的主句和从句的连词,例如:that, if(如果), whether(是否), when(当...时候), although(虽然), because(因为), so that(结果)。如:The boys and (连接词)the girls are working hard at school and(连接短语)at home because (连接从句)they know what (连接从句)they study,

感叹词(interj.) interjection

主要是来表示喜怒哀乐等感情的,比如:oh/ ah /well 等等,这一词类在十大词类中并不重要,了解即可。

二、英语句子成分讲解及练习

句子是按照一定的语法规律组成的,表达一个完整的意义。一个句子一般由两部分构成,即主语部分和谓语部分,这两部分也叫做句子的主要成分。句子的次要成分包括宾语,定语,状语,表语等。句子成分是句子中起一定功用的组成部分。

1. 主语(subject):句子说明的人或事物。

The sun rises in the east (名词)He likes dancing. (代词)

Twenty years is a short time in history. (数词) Seeing is believing. (动名词)

To see is to believe.(不定式)What he needs is a book.(主语从句)

It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree.

(It形式主语,主语从句是真正主语)

(一)指出下列句中主语的中心词

① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom.

② There is an old man coming here.

③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.

④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

2. 谓语(predicate):是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行为或状态,常用动词或者动词词组担任,放在主语的后面。

We study English. He is asleep.

(二). 选出句中谓语的中心词

① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall

② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer

③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus

④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon.

A. will be

B. meeting

C. the library

D. afternoon

⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast

3. 表语(predicative):系动词之后的成分,表示主语的性质、状态和特征。

He is a teacher. (名词)Seventy-four! You don’t look it. (代词)

Five and five is ten. (数词)He is asleep. (形容词)

His father is in.(副词)The picture is on the wall. (介词短语)

My watch is gone / missing / lost. (形容词化的分词)

The question is whether they will come. (表语从句)

(常见的系动词有: be, sound(听起来), look(看起来), feel(摸起来,smell(闻起来), taste(尝、吃起来), remain(保持,仍是), feel(感觉)……

It sounds a good idea. The sound sounds strange.

Her voice sounds sweet. Tom looks thin.

The food smells delicious. The food tastes good.

The door remains open. Now I feel tired.

(三) 挑出下列句中的表语

① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim?

③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject.

⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

4. 宾语:1)动宾表示行为的对象,常由名词或者代词担任。放在及物动词或者介词之后。如:

I like China. (名词)He hates you. (代词)

How many do you need? We need two. (数词)I enjoy working with you. (动名词)

I hope to see you again. (不定式)Did you write down what he said? (宾语从句)

2)介词后的名词、代词和动名词-----介宾

Are you afraid of the snake? Under the snow, there are many rocks.

3)双宾语-----间宾(指人)和直宾(指物)

He gave me a book yesterday. Give the poor man some money.

(四) 挑出下列句中的宾语

① My brother hasn't done his homework.

② People all over the world speak English.

③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

④ How many new words did you learn last class?

⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?

5. 宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。

We elected him monitor. (名词) We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名词)

We will make them happy. (形容词)We found nobody in. ( 副词)

Please make yourself at home. (介词短语)Don’t let him do that. (省to不定式)His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (带to不定式)

Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词)I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词)

(五) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语

① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room.

② He asked her to take the boy out of school.

③ She found it difficult to do the work.

④ They call me Lily sometimes.

⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus.

⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?

6. 定语:修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或句子。

Ai Yanling is a chemistry teacher.(名词)He is our friend. (代词)

We belong to the third world.(数词)He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容词)

The man over there is my old friend.(副词)

The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介词)

The boys playing football are in Class 2. (现在分词)

The trees planted last year are growing well now. (过去分词)

I have an idea to do it well.(不定式)You should do everything that I do. (定语从句)

(六) 挑出下列句中的定语

① They use Mr., Mrs. with the family name.

② What is your given name?

③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3.

④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor.

⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

7. 状语:用来修饰v., adj., adv., or 句子。表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式和让步。(以下例句按上述顺序排列)

I will go there tomorrow. The meeting will be held in the meeting room.

The meat went bad because of the hot weather. He studies hard to learn English well.

He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam. I like some of you very much.

If you study hard, you will pass the exam. He goes to school by bike.

Though he is young, he can do it well.

(七) 挑出下列句中的状语

① There was a big smile on her face.

② Every night he heard the noise upstairs.

③ He began to learn English when he was eleven.

④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast.

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.

(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语

① Please tell us a story.

② My father bought a new bike for me last week.

③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term.

④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom.

⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

三、句子的分类

按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

1)陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法,分为肯定句和否定句。如:

Light travels faster than sound.The film is rather boring.H e can’t speak Chinese.

2)疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:

a.一般疑问句(General Questions):

Can you finish the work in time?

b.特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):

Where do you live?How do you know that?

c.选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):

Do you want tea or coffee?

d.反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):

He doesn't know her, does he?

3)祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如:Sit down, please. Don't be nervous!

4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如:

What good news it is!

根据句子的内部结构,特别是句子与句子之间的关系来划分,可以分为三种主要类型:简单句、并列句、复合句,另外还有一种叫并列-复合句子。

要搞懂英语句子结构分类,有一点首先必须明白:即什么是“句子”?句子

的概念有两层含义:一是它能表达一个清晰、完整的意思。反过来讲,只要能表

达一个清晰、完整的意思的语言单位,不论是长是短,哪怕是一个单词,也算作

是一个句子。这是从意义方面来说的。二是句子的结构完整。所谓“完整”,最核

心的是一个句子应该有“主语、谓语”。也就是说,有主语、有谓语的语言单位就

是一个句子。这就是从句子结构方面来分的,也是从句子语法成份方面来划分的。

我们所讲的简单句、并列句、复合句都是从主语、谓语来判定句子类型的。

如果按照句子的结构分类,英文句子可分为三种类型:简单句(Simple Sentence),并列句(Compound Sentence)和复合句(Complex Sentence)。

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

2、两句之间是转折关系

用下列词连结的句子是转折关系: but , yet , however , nevertheless 等。

Everything in the world is outside you but health belongs to yourself.

John has his shortcomings; however, that doesn't mean he is not qualified for the job.

3、两句之间是因果关系

用下列词连结的句子是因果关系:so , therefore , hence 等。

I've got a meeting to attend, so I have to go now.

You are in the right , therefore we should support you.

三)、复合句

复合句也是由两个或两个以上的句子连结而成的。但与并列句不同的是,这两个句子不仅在意义上“紧密”联系,在语法结构上也是“紧密”联系在一起的。“紧密”的程度达到了:两个句子谁也离不了谁,如果分开了,不仅语法结构不完整,而且句子的意思也不完整。这是其一。

在复合句中,两个句子之间虽然联系紧密,但其中有一个主要的句子,它是全句的中心所在,而另一个句子是次要的、从属的,它只是主要句子中的一个成份。主要的句子就叫“主句”(Main Clause),从属的句子就叫“从句”(Subordinate Clause)。所以,有的书干脆把复合句叫做“主、从复合句”。

我们在分析英语长句子的时候,首先要弄清楚主句的主、谓、宾、定、状、补等成份,然后再分析其中主语可能又是一个从句,那它就叫“主语从句”,主语从句只是主要句子的一个成份即主语。同样的方法,在确定了主句的主、谓、宾等之后,其中宾语可能是一个从句,它就叫宾语从句,换句话说,宾语从句虽然也是一个句子,但它只是主要句子里的一个宾语成份。

这样的分析,说起来似乎有点儿拗口,但它却是我们理解、掌握复合句的最关键之处。如果这个没搞不清楚,主从复合句可能越学越糊涂。所以,大家一定要仔细体会、用心理解。

概括一下,主、从复合句有两个特点:一是如果主句与从句分开单独说的话,两句的意思都不完整;二是从句虽然是一个句子,但它只是主要句子里的某个成份。

英语句子的成份有主语、谓语、表语、宾语、定语、状语、补语等。从句除了不能做谓语之外,它可以做任何成分,因而就有了主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句等等名称。

1. 主语从句

Whether he comes or not doesn't make any difference to me.

What he said was true.

2. 表语从句

China is not what it used to be.

3. 宾语从句

I have no idea about whether I can raise the money for buying a car.

There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money

is measured.

4. 定语从句

Taxes consist of money that people pay to support their government.

5. 状语从句

Because they talk at home while the television is on , many people think they can talk at moviesas well.

6. 同位语从句

Is there any proof that the food of plant differs from that of animals ?

四)、并列-复合句子

并列-复合句子,指并列句、复合句混合在一个句子里,英语叫Compound-Complex Sentence。或者说,一个句子里包含着多种关系:既有并列关系,又有复合关系。例如:

I admire Tim, but he doesn't admire me, although I try hard to impress him.

我羡慕Tim, 但他并不羡慕我,尽管我努力想给他留下好印像。

前1、2两句是并列关系,而1、2与第3句之间又是主、从复合句关系。

Even if you fail, at least you tried, and you're a better person for it.

即使你失败了,但至少你试过了,而且你是做这件事的理想人选。

前1、2两句是主、从复合关系,而1、2与第3句之间是并列关系。

My parents are coming tomorrow, but I hope they won’t stay very long, because I have a date tomorrow night.

我父母亲明天要来了,但我希望他们不要在这儿呆太久,因为我明晚有个约会。

前1、2两句是并列关系,而1、2与第3句之间是主、从复合关系。

四、简单句的五种基本句型

英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。

英语五种基本句型列式如下:

一:SV(主+谓)

二:SVP(主+系+表)

三:SVO(主+谓+宾)

四:SVoO(主+谓+间宾+直宾)

五:SVOC(主+谓+宾+宾补)

基本句型一:SV(主+谓)

主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如boy),主格代词(如you),动词不定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家!

谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如:We come.

此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。

S│V(不及物动词)

1. The sun │was shining. 太阳在照耀着。

2. The moon │rose. 月亮升起了。

3. The universe │remains. 宇宙长存。

4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。

5. Who │cares? 管它呢?

6. What he said │does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。

7. They │talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。

8. The pen │writes smoothly 这支笔书写流利。

基本句型二:SVP(主+系+表)

此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。感官动词多可用作联系动词:look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好,smell bad/难闻

S│V(是系动词)│P

1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。

2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。

3. He │fell │in love. 他堕入了情网。

4. Everything │looks │different. 一切看来都不同了。

5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮

6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。

7. Our well │has gone │dry. 我们井干枯了。

8. His face │turned │red. 他的脸红了。

There be 结构:There be 表示‘存在有’。这里的there没有实际意义,不可与副词‘there那里’混淆。

此结构后跟名词,表示‘(存在)有某事物’

试比较:There is a boy there.(那儿有一个男孩。)/前一个there无实意,后一个there为副词‘那里’。

基本句型三:SVO(主+谓+宾)

此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的是构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them等

S│V(及物动词)│O

1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案?

2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。

3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。

4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。

5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。

6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说:"早上好!"

7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。

8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。

基本句型四:SVoO(主+谓+间宾+直宾)

有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give给,pass递,bring带,show显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。一般的顺序为:动词+ 间接宾语+ 直接宾语。如:Give me a cup of tea,please.

强调间接宾语顺序为:动词+ 直接宾语+介词+ 间接宾语。如:

Show this house to Mr.Smith.

若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语+介词+ 间接宾语。如:Bring it to me,please.

S│V(及物)│o(多指人)│O(多指物)

1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。

2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。

3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。

4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。

5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片

6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。

7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。

8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。

基本句型五:SVOC(主+谓+宾+宾补)

此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。

宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。

名词/代词宾格+ 名词

The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士.

名词/代词宾格+ 形容词

New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松.

名词/代词宾格+ 介词短语

I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作.

名词/代词宾格+ 动词不定式

The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗户.

名词/代词宾格+ 分词

I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路.

S│V(及物)│O(宾语)│C(宾补)

1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。

2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色

3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。

4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。

5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想?

6. We │saw │him │out. 我们送他出去

7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。

8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。

但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是各种类型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。我们称之为:定语、状语

习题

一、指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分。

1.Whether we’ll go depend on the weather .

2. People’s standards of livin g are going up steadily .

3. That was how they were defeated.

4.The nursery takes good care of our children .

5.I’ll return the book to you tomorrow .

6.We are sure that we shall succeed .

7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his other .

8.There are many film that I’d like to see.

9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking ?

10.I have a lot of work to do .

11.Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it .

12.I said it in fun .

13.We can send a car over to fetch you .

14.She had to work standing up .

15.Seeing this ,some comrades became very worried .

16.Much interested , he agreed to give it a try .

17.The bus arrived ten minutes late .

18.We should serve the people heart and soul.

19.Spring coming on , the tree turned green .

20.Some farmers saw something strange in the sky .

21.We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting .

22.It’s strange that she doesn’t come today .

23.It was in the library that I come today .

24.He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working .

25.We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.

二、找出下列句子的句式结构。

1. Happy birthday, Alice. So you have turned twenty-one already.

2. On hearing the news of the accident in the coal mine, she went pale.

3. I was wondering if we could go skiing on the weekend.

4. Books of this kind sells well.

5. She sent her mother a nice new car.

6. I want the letter to be ready tomorrow.

三、翻译练习

主谓结构(主语+不及物动词)

1那天早上我们谈了很多。

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

主谓宾结构(主语+及物动词+宾语)

5这本书他读过多次了。

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

主系表结构(主语+系动词+表语)

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

双宾语结构(主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)

13 请把那本字典递给我好吗?

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

复合宾语结构(主语+动词+宾语+宾语补足语)

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

暑期初高中衔接英语教学资料

(一) ① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do

(二) ① B ② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C

(三) ① tired ② worried ③ yellow ④ interested ⑤ first

(四) ① his homework ② English ③ your pronunciation ④ new words ⑤ to go swimming

(五) ① to read newspapers and books in the reading-room ② to take the boy out of school

③ Lily ④ get on the bus ⑤ playing football on the playground

(六) ① family ② given ③ third ④ some ⑤ downstairs

(七) ① on the face ② Every night ③ when he was eleven ④ fast ⑤ off

(八) ① us, 间接宾语a story, 直接宾语② me, 间接宾语a new bike, 直接宾语

③ us, 间接宾语history, 直接宾语④ Tom, 间接宾语it, 直接宾语

⑤ me, 间接宾语message, 直接宾语

一、略

二、1主+系+表 2 主+系+表3主+及物+宾从 4 主+不及物+状

5 主+及物+间宾+直宾

6 主+及物+宾语+宾补

三、1. That morning we talked a great deal.

2. The meeting will last two hours.

3. Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years.

4. This box weighs five kilos.

5. He has read this book many times.

6. They have carried out the plan successfully.

7. I received a letter from my pen friend in Australia.

8. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy.

9. In winter, the days are short and the nights are long.

10. Mrs Brown looks very healthy.

11. This book is about the history of the United States.

12. Her job is to look after the children in the nursery.

13. Would you please pass me the dictionary?

14. This term I have written three letters to my parents.

15. My father has bought me a new bike.

16. Shall I call you a taxi?

17. His parents named him John.

18. They have set the thief free.

19. We will make our school more beautiful.

20. Tomorrow I’ll have someone repair the machine.

21. Once,there was only a well in the village.

22. The light is on. There must be someone ion the office.

23. There comes the bus.