当前位置:文档库 > 邱政政:3.13高级口译模拟题



Part A: Spot Dictation

Modern thieves do more than take your money, personal property and valuables. Th ese days they can ____(1)____. By pretending to be you, a thief can order ____(2) ____ and run up massive debt in your name. They will get to enjoy the expensive purchases, and you will be left holding the bill.

Criminals seek out ____(3)____ that they can use to pretend to be you. This includ es credit card numbers, ____(4)____ and private data. One of the easiest ways for them to do this is by going through your garbage and pulling out any relevant ma il. A thief can pick up a credit card offer and order it to be sent to ____(5)____. Once the card arrives, they activate it, run up ____(6)____and move on. The credit card company will attempt to reach the person they believe to be you at the new location, and when that fails they will contact you directly. ____(7)____ to avoid t his is to make sure no one has access to personal information about you. At the le ast you should ____(8)____ that has any relevant data on it. Better yet, ____(9)__ __ so there is no way they can be taped back together. A quick fix job will allow a thief to have the information they need to steal your identity.

Anytime you ____(10)____, make sure you have mail delivery stopped until you ret urn. Even if you shred your mail like clockwork, if a criminal can get to it before y ou do they can ____(11)____ they need without you knowing until it is too late.

Most ____(12)____ have secure methods for their customers to purchase products using a credit card, but there are thousands of other sites that ____(13)____. Make sure that you only provide personal information on websites that you trust complet ely. Similarly, never give out credit card or ____(14)____. A person who claims the y are calling from an online store to ask you for information to ____(15)____ may actually be a hacker who got your private data online.

A thief will send you an email telling you to log on to a well known website for an important reason. It may be to confirm or deny a transaction, to review a ____(1 6)____ or some other call to action. A convenient link is provided for you to click o n to be taken directly to the log in page. Once you arrive, you type in ____(17)__ __ like always. Trouble is, the site you just logged on to is a fake. It is a page de signed to look exactly like the real thing, but it is ____(18)____ of the criminals w ho created it. Now they have your log in information and can use it to get your cr edit card numbers and other private details ____(19)____.

Stay alert to the new and devious tactics thieves use to steal not only your belongi ngs, but also your identity. ____(20)____ before you put them in the trash, make s ure you only log in to the home page of any website and don't let criminals steal your good name.

Part B: Listening Comprehension

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following conversation.

(A) In the professor’s home.

(B) In the professor’s office.

(C) In the classroom.

(D) In the school library.

(A) Children always have the same accents as their mothers.

(B) Most adult language learners can lose their accents.

(C) Students don’t usually learn their classmates’ accents.

(D) There will be big misunderstandings if you speak with accents.

(A) He used the wrong stress.

(B) He used the wrong intonation.

(C) He misunderstood the word.

(D) He spoke the word with a very different accent.

(A) Australian.

(B) British.

(C) Indian.

(D) South African.

(A) To drop the pronunciation class.

(B) To sign up for a listening / speaking class.

(C) To check in the library the schedule for the new semester.

(D) To wait to make a decision about the pronunciation class.

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following news.

(A) Because of the accumulation of funds in the real estate market.

(B) Because of the rising house prices and government budget deficits.

(C) Because of the resignation of the Finance Minister Gorden Brown.

(D) Because of the increase in the number of the houses being sold.

(A) Business confidence will probably remain unchanged for the next year.

(B) Business confidence was the highest in May since April 2001.

(C) Published National indexes show confidence unchanged in Germany and Italy

and falling in France.

(D) The index of confidence may have stayed at plus 5, the highest in 3 years.

8. (A) They will deliver solid earning results this year.

(B) They will break even at the end of this year.

(C) They posted another year of losses due to bad loan write-offs.

(D) They reported mixed results for the year ended March 31.

9. (A) 50. (B) 100. (C) 150. (D) 200.

10. (A) A Korean patrol boat operated illegally in Japanese waters.

(B) A Korean fishing vessel overturned and the captain was fatally wounded.

(C) A Japanese Coast Guard patrol boat fired teargas grenades at a Korean fishing vessel.

(D) A Japanese fishing vessel was repeatedly ordered to stop operating in Korean waters.

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following interview.

11. (A) Because the usage of the Internet is widespread now.

(B) Because Internet addiction is growing on college campuses.

(C) Because the computer is accessible to everyone on college campuses.

(D) Because Internet addiction is less harmful than other addictions.

12. (A) She cannot go to sleep without surfing on the Net first.

(B) She and other people are surfing on the Net in the middle of the night.

(C) She doesn’t know when her Internet compulsiveness is turning into an addiction.

(D) She isn’t sure the exact a mount of time is really the issue.

13. (A) People’s work performance and school performance may be affected.

(B) People may lose social skills that make face-to-face relationships successful.

(C) People may be cheated by those with false identities.

(D) People may have no time for taking walks and other leisure activities.

14. (A) Work performance.

(B) School performance.

(C) Relationships.

(D) Mental health.

15. (A) Practice self-discipline.

(B) Have some sort of balance in life.

(C) Set an alarm clock.

(D) Act upon your friend’s advice.

Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following talk.

16. (A) In the late 1940s.

(B) In the early 1950s.

(C) In the late 1950s.

(D) In the early 1960s.

17. (A) Abstract Expressionism.

(B) The artistic movement that immediately preceded it.

(C) The internal struggles of the individual artists.

(D) Mass-produced visual media and the design of common household objects.

18. (A) Abstract Expressionism was a very personal art.

(B) Abstract Expressionism was more easily accessible to the masses than Pop Art.

(C) Abstract Expressionism reflected a direct relationship to the actual world.

(D) Abstract Expressionism was a little bit influenced by Pop Art.

19. (A) To direct art from the personalities of the individual artists towards the world.

(B) To impose a unified symbolic meaning on his collection of materials.

(C) To concentrate less on the objects and more on the images he found.

(D) To set the stage for further development in Pop Art.

20. (A) Because their use of found objects and images from everyday life was innovative.

(B) Because they believed that these images reflected the cultural values of contemporary society.

(C) Because they used everyday objects found on the street as the material for their art.

(D) Because they combined and repeated images from print media to make one single artwork.

SECTION 2: READING TEST (30 minutes)

Questions 1~5

Gail Pasterczyk, the principal of Indian Pines Elementary in Palm Beach County, Fla., has added two or three new teaching positions each of the past t hree years. She's adding two more teachers next year as well as replacing thos e she'll lose to maternity leave, transfers, and retirement. She doesn't know wh ere the new teachers will come from, if the new hires will be any good, and where she'll find room for all of them. Indian Pines already has 27 portable cl assrooms and is waiting to break ground on a two-story, 25-classroom addition. "When you start reducing class size, you've got to find more teachers, and yo u run out of space," she says. "That's the reality." Her school district, one of t he nation's largest, has sent recruiters across the country, and even to Mexico and the Philippines, to fill an expected 1,700 teaching vacancies before the fall. "We are in a race to keep the schools staffed," says Robert Pinkos, a Palm Beach County recruiter who will travel to Baltimore and Madrid next month to troll for teachers.

Two and a half years after Florida voters adopted a constitutional amendm ent to reduce class sizes, Palm Beach County--and every other school district i n the state--are tripping over a major stumbling block: There just aren't enough

good teachers to go around. With classes in kindergarten through third grade capped at 18 students, fourth through eighth held at 22, and high school limite d to 25, the state will need to hire an estimated 29,604 new teachers by 2009 --a prospect that has many people worried. "I have every reason to expect that the quality of teachers will suffer," says John Winn, the state's education com missioner.

Nationwide, 33 states now have laws that restrict class size. And the polit ically popular educational reform has proved successful in some areas, particula rly among the lowest-performing students. In Burke County, N.C., for example, discipline problems are down and test scores are up, even for the most disad vantaged students in the district. "On paper these kids should not be succeedin g, but they are," says Susan Wilson, a former teacher and now director of ele mentary education in the rural county.

But this success comes at a price. It means hiring more teachers, building more classrooms, and retraining teachers to work with smaller groups of stude nts. And it means, critics maintain, that states pit their own districts against on e another in the race to hire. "When you mandate class-size reduction statewid e, the suburban schools tend to draw the best new teachers, and the more urba n schools, which already have trouble attracting teachers, can't attract the best candidates," says Steven Rivkin, an economics professor at Amherst College w ho has studied the effects of class-size reduction on teacher quality. Any gains from cutting class size could be undermined by hiring lower quality teachers.

Resources. Proponents contend that the reform would be relatively pain-les s if existing resources were managed well. "Hiring more teachers is only part of the solution," says Charles Achilles, one of the first researchers to study the effects of reducing class sizes. "The best programs for class-size reduction not only hire more teachers but reassign existing specialty teachers to get them b ack in the classroom."

Florida policymakers are trying to find their own way out of the class-siz e quandary. This month, the Legislature is considering a proposal to roll back some of the size limits in exchange for an increase in teacher pay. Gov. Jeb Bush, who opposed the constitutional amendment in 2002, argues that the com promise will attract more top-quality teachers to the state while reining in cost s. Voters could see the proposed change on the ballot as early as September. I n the meantime, recruiter Pinkos continues his search for new teachers, someti mes working 10-hour days. His pitch? "Palm Beach is very beautiful, but the small classes are one of the most attractive things I can tell them."

1.In describing the results of the new constitutional amendment to reduce clas

s size, the author comments:" Palm Beach County--and every other school di strict in the state--are tripping over a major stumbling block…" to imply ___.

1.the education authorities will trip to Mexico and the Philippines for ne

w teachers

2.there will be problems of placing redundant teachers

3.quality of teachers will probably go down

4.students are likely get more sophisticated education in smaller class

2."On paper these kids should not be succeeding, but they are" implies ___.

1.reducing class sizes has more posive effects than negative ones.

2.reducing class sizes does achieve satisfactory effects on disadvantage

ous students

3.smaller class prevent the children from failing in tests

4.smaller class works best for students with lacklustre performance

3.Which of the following is TRUE, according to the passage?

1.Class size reduction increases difficulty to hire teachers in affluent dis


2.Cutting class sizes is no better than reassigning existing specialty tea


3.If urban school cannot hire enough teachers, they can hire specialty


4.Generally speaking, vicious competing for teachers will counterbalance

the positive effects of smaller classes.

4."Qandary" (para.6) is closest to ___.





5.What is the main idea of the passage?

1.Means to enhance comprehensive education in U.S.

2.Pros and cons of cutting class sizes in U.S.

3.American students could receive better schooling.

4.Variants in rural education

Questions 6~10

It's been about an hour since Bloomberg employees were introduced to A ndrew Lack, the former NBC News chief and Bloomberg's newly appointed C EO of multimedia. Lack and Chief Content Officer Norman Pearlstine and Blo omberg News Editor-in-Chief Matthew Winkler are chummy and spirited during an interview at Bloomberg's imposing headquarters. But in keeping with the c ompany's reputation for near-martial discipline, they do not reveal Bloomberg's master plan for expanding its media operations in fulsome detail; much of the plan, Pearlstine says, remains a work in progress. Still, multiple interviews non etheless provided several crucial clues to what looms at one of the last news organizations with swelling ambition.

You can feel a little like a weatherman in Greenland if you track media t oday: Both jobs entail watching big icebergs melt, and quickly. Bloomberg sta ys sturdy because, at heart, it's not really a media business in any familiar sen

se. It gets the overwhelming majority of its revenues from its Bloomberg termi nals, which subscribers now rent for $1,500 a month and up. A quick analysis of internal company data suggests that last year, Bloomberg's media segment accounted for significantly less than 10% of the company's estimated $5.4 billi on in overall revenue. (Executives at the privately held company declined to c omment on the media unit's revenues and profitability.)

But Bloomberg's media operations employ a lot of bodies, and they're spre ad far and wide. Bloomberg has 220 staffers in Japan. Its wire services emplo y 1,500 people worldwide, with an additional 800 working in the TV operation s. The default setting for media companies today is "retreat" as revenues fall f ast, but that's not Bloomberg's reality. Thus, its executives think big. "We see the potential for significant growth from where we are today—we're talking a several-times increase in revenues over the course of the next four to five year s," says Bloomberg President Dan Doctoroff. "We have the pieces...to create so mething new and different."

Still, Bloomberg's initial moves are likely to shore up what's already in pl ace. Lack was hired in no small part to revamp Bloomberg's TV operation, w hich, Doctoroff says, has "not been what it should be." Bloomberg's cable cha nnel is sometimes forgotten in the new CNBC/Fox Business Network dichotom y, but it currently reaches about 58 million U.S. homes. Doctoroff says that co uld swell to 70 million in '09. CNBC, for which I am an on-air contributor, is in more than 90 million U.S. homes. Fox Business Network reaches around 4 3 million. (CNBC has a much bigger lead over Bloomberg in reaching non-U. S. households.)

Next year also will bring major changes to the exceedingly prosaic Bloom http://www.wendangku.net/doc/5e2c90fa770bf78a6529540f.html, to make it more friendly to those who don't spend their days intrave nously connected to a Bloomberg terminal. Doctoroff says such changes will b e visible in the first half of the year. He also suggests that attenuated staffing at newspapers could mean opportunity, though it's hard for me to imagine Bl oomberg churning out stories about local businesses in second-tier U.S. market s.

And, interestingly, "we're looking at potential acquisitions," says Pearlstine. "We're just sort of saying: 'Hey, we're looking for good ideas.' " This is a ne w notion for Bloomberg, which to date has exclusively generated its own medi a properties. Doctoroff refused to comment on specific acquisitions, and outside executives familiar with the deal markets find it hard to believe Bloomberg w ould go into anything big. (Before this rumor gets resurrected again, let's knoc k it down: Michael Bloomberg has disavowed interest in a bid for The New York Times, which another mayoral campaign would complicate in any event.) In truth, there's a complex calculus to any possible Bloomberg deals. The company is likely to want any media add-on to feed its massive terminal busi ness as well. No matter what media moves Bloomberg makes in the next few years, that business will remain king. But maybe the changes will make Bloom berg's media operations its jack, if not exactly its queen.

1.What does the author mean by commenting "You can feel a little like a wea

therman in Greenland if you track media today"?

2.Bloomberg confronts the difficulty of being forced to slash its operation bodi

es all over the world.

3.Bloomberg focuses on environmental reporting lately.

4.The whole media industry is in danger of revenue meltdown.

5.Bloomberg is an exception of traditional media and that's why it looks jubila


6."Shore up" (para.4) is most probably mean___

7.Prop up

8.Pent up

9.Pull off

10.Shake up

11.When Bloomberg President Dan Doctoroff says " (it has)… not been what it

should be", he means___.

12.he is not flattered by what Bloomberg had earned in cable channel in previo

us years

13.Bloomberg is breaking the monoply of CNBC/Fox and promises bigger market


14.Bloomberg is now working on new plans on TV operation.

15.Bloomberg tries to expand their business to non-U.S. households.

16.Which of the following expression is NOT TRUE according to the passage?

17.Bloomberg policy makers displayed quite a few critical details about the com

pany's near future plan.

18.Not everybody gives promise to Bloombergs positive anticipation.

19.Although overall slump looms the media industry, Bloomberg remain confiden

t and aggressive in its policies.

20.Bloomberg is bettering its webiste in order to attract more users.

21.What does the last sentence mean?

22.Bloomberg is most likely to get its business boom in the next years.

23.Bloomberg will possibly suffer a huge loss in its moves.

24.Bloomberg will monopolize the whole industry.

25.No one can be sure where bloomberg is heading.

Questions 11~15

It has been a lousy few years for much of the media, and 2008 has offer ed no respite. But to quote the hideous '70s band Bachman Turner Overdrive, b-b-b-baby, you just ain't see n-n-nothing yet.

Because on top of the wrenching change affecting essentially every non- o nline media, here comes a very scary-looking economic downturn.

Think of the recession, says Barclays analyst Anthony DiClemente, "as a vine growing up a wall. Except instead of a healthy vine, like at Wrigley [Fie ld], it's like—'feed me, Seymour'—from The Little Shop of Horrors."

Forgive the surfeit of pop-culture jokes. I'm only trying to inject levity int o an extremely grim picture. According to ad tracker TNS Media Intelligence, which provided all such figures for this column, automotive and financial servi ces were the No. 1 and No. 3 U.S. ad categories last year. We all know what happened to the latter in recent months. In 2007, Merrill Lynch, Lehman Brot hers, Bear Stearns, and Washington Mutual spent $213.1 million on advertising. Even if those companies' new owners spend something to reassure old custom ers, you're likely looking at a nine-figure sum sucked out of the ad marketplac e by those guys alone. And when major carmakers report sales drops of 30%, boffo ad buys do not follow. Ford Motor's ad spending was down over 31% for the first half of this year. Car sales' slide has accelerated since. In case yo u're wondering, the No. 2 ad category was retail, which is now under severe p ressure as consumers spend less.

The consequences of all this contraction are readily apparent when you tal k to key media executives. Magazines sell ads long before they appear, and ad vertisers already are making noises about cutting back in the first half of 2009, says one senior executive in that industry. "Everyone says they are going to keep advertising in a downturn," says another executive, who has run major sa les organizations in different media. "But not everyone actually does it. That's just the reality of having to report earnings and profits." And while the wealth iest consumer may remain relatively untouched, those who have recently traded up to high-end products may slam the brakes on such consumption, raising c hances that luxury advertisers will be affected, too. Food looks more likely to stay stable. One mordant TV executive puts it this way: "The auto industry is out. And Campbell's Soup is in."

How the dollars flow—or rather don't flow—in any downturn can shape e vents in ways obscured until much later. As strange as it sounds today, the te ch bust that started in 2000 meant that total dollars spent on online display ad vertising declined 21% between 2001 and 2002. And as strange as it sounds t oday, many established media organizations used that decline as a rationale for deemphasizing the Web in favor of their traditional businesses—and underinve stment allowed all manner of Web-only startups to outflank them in the one m edium that's still growing. While online display ads will still be up in '09, say s BMO Capital Markets analyst Leland Westerfield, that growth rate will likely slow. Look for search advertising to hold up, so Google should be hurt the l east.

Elsewhere, Barclay's DiClemente suggests, the slowdown's effects will mov e up a media ladder of sorts, starting with newspapers, magazines, radio, local TV, and then hitting broadcast and—possibly—cable TV. There's a "high prob ability," he says, that the "advertising malaise spreads to network TV"—the on e long-running medium that's held steadiest as others have fallen off.

DiClemente is forecasting a 5.5% pullback in ad spending next year, with only Web and cable TV posting ad upticks. It may be hard to conjure a sce nario worse than today's, given what radio, local TV, and newspapers are curre

ntly experiencing. This has been a year, in which many unthinkable things hav e happened—newspaper executives, for instance, mulling which days of the w eek they won't publish. But the coming downturn means that what once was u nthinkable ... well, you better start thinking it.

1.Why does the author begin the article with '70s band Bachman Turner Over


2.To cite a lousy example.

3.To display the main idea of the article.

4.To exempllify the gist as following.

5.To show the overtone of irony.

6.What does the sentence "I'm only trying to inject levity into an extremely gr

im picture." (para. 4) imply?

7.Along with the economic downturn, less money will be sucked out of the ad


8.Jokes can relieve tension on ad industry.

9.Car industry will put less money on advertisements.

10.Financial services are speanding less to reassure old customers.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/5e2c90fa770bf78a6529540f.html executive says: "The auto industry is out. And Campbell's Soup is in.", b


12.Cash-rich consumers will remain untouched in sluggish economy.

13.People will pay more attention on food than automobiles.

14.Luxuries will lose some of the buyers while necessities of existence still cove

r big market share.

15.Ad industry should pay more attention to ordinary people's life.

16.What does the word "rationale" in the sentence "many established media or

ganizations used that decline as a rationale for deemphasizing the Web in fa vor of their traditional businesses" mean?





21.Why does the author say Google should be hurt the least?

22.Because Google shows the strongest profit-making trend.

23.Because Google does search advertising business.

24.Because search advertising is the only medium outrunning traditional ones.

25.Because search advertising will attract more investment.

Questions 16~20

UNDER a grey sky on October 27th, Larry Bowoto provided an improbab le splash of colour in his Nigerian agbada gown before the federal courthouse in San Francisco. He is the lead plaintiff in a case against Chevron, an oil gia nt based in California, over something that happened in May 1998 on a platfo rm operated by Chevron?s Nige rian subsidiary, nine miles off the Niger Delta.

A group of more than 100 people, including Mr Bowoto, took over the platfor m for three days to protest against what Chevron was doing in the delta. The protest ended when Nigerian troops arrived and shot at the protesters, killing t wo. Mr Bowoto was injured and is now suing for damages.

Bowoto v Chevron is likely to test how the American legal system can b e applied to human rights in other countries. The civil suit is being brought u nder the 1789 Alien Tort C laims Act, one of America?s oldest laws (it was si gned by George Washington). The act allows foreigners to bring civil cases be fore American courts arising from violations of law or treaty anywhere in the world. It was invoked just twice before 1980, when it was used by a victim o f state repression in Paraguay. Since then the act has been invoked in around 100 cases. In 1993 a case against Radovan Karadzic for crimes against humani ty in Bosnia broadened its applicability to non-state actors. In 1996 a group of Burmese villagers brought a suit against Unocal, another oil company (subseq uently bought by Chevron), over the use of forced labour by Burmese soldiers guarding the route of a gas pipeline. The case was settled in 2004.

Opponents of the use of the Alien Tort Claims Act to sue companies for alleged human-rights violations associated with their operations include the Bus h administration and many companies. They fear it could unleash a flood of s uits and interfere with foreign policy. Proponents argue that international law h as evolved since 1789, and now encompasses well-defined human rights that fa ll squarely within the act?s simple wording. In 2004 America?s Supreme Court affirmed that the act applied to violations of modern international laws as wel l a s older ones, but its ruling left doubts about corporate cases. “It?s still a qu estion of whether aiding and abetting is sufficient [to bring a case],” says Will iam Dodge, a professor at the University of California?s Hastings College of th e Law.

Bowoto v Chevron will test just this point. The plaintiffs say the Nigerian troops were transported to the platform in helicopters provided by Chevron an d its local partner. Chevron says the protesters were hostage-takers who initiate d the violence on the platform and are now motivated by the possibility of wi nning damages. Bowoto v Chevron has been making its way through America?s courts for nearly a decade and has been refined to a narrow Alien Tort Clai ms suit, making it an ideal test case. Marco Simons, a lawyer with EarthRight s International, one of the groups representing the plaintiffs, notes that the case has survived around a dozen motions for dismissal.

Nearly all Alien Tort Claims suits against companies have been settled on confidential terms. Only two ha ve gone to trial. “Extractive industries especial ly need to go where the resources are—they have to do business with regimes with notorious records,” says Tyler Giannini, a specialist in human rights at Harvard Law School, who was one of the lawyers who argued the case agains t Unocal. “These cases are important because they are setting standards for wh at is acceptable and what isn?t.”

But those standards are now in flux. “Some day the Supreme Court will t ake this on,” says Mr Dodge. And if Bowoto v Chevron does not make it tha t far, other cases are in the pipeline: in February a case against Royal Dutch Shell, another oil giant, will get under way in New York on behalf of Ken Sa ro Wiwa, a hanged Nobel laureate, and other Nigerian plaintiffs.

16. Which of the following serves best as the title of the passage?

1.How far can America’s legal system be applied to foreign human-rights cases

2.The 1789 Alien Tort Claims Act.

3.Bowoto v Chevron case

4.Will the Nigerians win?

5.What does the word "unleash" mean?




4.give rise to

6.Which of the following is TRUE about the 1789 Alien Tort Claims Act?

1.It wasone of America’s oldest laws and was signed by George Washi


2.It allows foreigners to bring criminal cases before American courts ari

sing from violations of law or treaty anywhere in the world.

3.It allows courts in U.S. to solve almost any cases when invoked.

4.Since it was invoked in from time to time, people around the United

states have come to universal acceptance of the act.

7.According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?

1.Although Bush Administration worries about the compatibility with its

foreign policy, the Superem Court affirmed its application to the inter

national laws.

2.It has been well-accepted that international law has evolved since 17

89, and now encompasses well-defined human rights that fall squarel

y within the act’s simple wording.

3.Providing necessities can also bring a case to court.

4.Rulings of these cases are important because they can be cited as te

st cases and set up as standards for ensuing lawsuits.

8.What does the word "in flux" mean?

1.in danger

2.in dispute

3.in tow

4.in chains


Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and write your versio n in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.

As defined by historian James Truslow Adams, who spoke first of the Am erican Dream in his 1931 book The Epic of America: “It is not a dream of m otor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”

However, too many Americans have been expressing the Dream through th e acquisition of stuff. Marketers as well as politicians have doubtless helped to distort the meaning of the Dream. A barrage of commercial advertising encou rages people to focus on the acquisition and consumption of goods, to be cons umers first and citizens second. Credit card offers flood the mail. Media suppo rted by advertising encourage consumers to aspire to celebrity lifestyles, to kee p up with the Joneses by acquiring more stuff.

Americans need a refresher course on the American dream. The Constitutio n speaks of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, not an automatic chicke n in every pot. The American Dream embraced by immigrants over the past t wo centuries has been the opportunity to set one?s own goals and pursue them honestly to the limits of one?s ambition and ability.

In past downturns, the resilience of consumer spending has saved the day. The Federal government promises to come to the rescue, with both parties sup porting a fiscal stimulus in the form of tax rebate and infrastructure spending t hat will pump more money into the economy, run up the deficit further, and mortgage our children?s ability to achieve their American Dreams. SECTION 4: LISTENING TEST(30 minutes)

Part A: Note-taking and Gap-filling

Recent scientific studies have shown that people with friends endure less ___(1) ___, recover from heart attacks faster and live ___(2)___ than the friendless. li felong friends are in some cases even better than a lifelong ___(3)___.

But newer research have found that "toxic friends" can do ___(4)___ to us. Though it is hard for both ___(5)___ to end a friendship, ___(6)___ are mo re likely to discuss and understand it, while men are more likely to let it go. In business, the male method of blowing off a friendship works more ___(7)__ _.

If the person senses that you are pulling away and asks what is happening, you should not fault them, but blame it on the ___(8)___. That leaves room for ___(9)___ the friendship later on. It's important a relationship only be ende d for a good ___(10)___.

When you decide to end a friendship, it is suggested you do so in a ___(11) ___ way.

There are five steps to help you figure out how to salvage a friendship.

1. To invest the ___(12)___ and ___(13)___ to turn it around?

2. To assess whether your friend will want to work through the ___(14)__ _.

3. When you want to do something in heat of the moment, try to ___(15)_ __ it off.

4. Try conflict resolution techniques.

A. Try to ___(16)___ the words that caused the conflict.

B. Listen ___(17)___ to one another

C. Agree to ___(18)___.

D. ___(19)___the relationship. Let them know you want to stay friends

5. If you save the friendship, don't ___(20)___ on the resolved rift.

SECTION 5: READING TEST (30 minutes) Directions:Read the following passages and then answer IN COMPLETE SEN TENCES the questions which follow each passage. Use only information from t he passage you have just read and write your answer in the corresponding sp ace in your ANSWER BOOKLET.

Questions 1~3

Every four years, beginning in 1984, the artists Antoni Muntadas and Mar shall Reese have collected political ads from the Presidential election, adding a dozen or so particularly striking new spots to their project, “Political Adver tis ement.” On a recent evening, they met at Goldcrest studios, in the meatpackin g district, to work on the seventh edition of the film, which has become what Reese calls “the longest-running video art project in the world.” The artists w ould be screening the film—now a seventy-five-minute compilation of a hundre d and two ads, spanning fifty-six years—at the Museum of Modern Art, on O ctober 30th.

Reese, at the keyboard of an Avid editing workstation, called up ads, whil e Muntadas looked over his shoulder and made comments. They viewed ads fe aturing telephones—Clinton?s 3 A.M. ad, Obama?s response, and a McCain pho ne ad—and discussed which one they should use. Several days of watching po litical commercials had left them feeling a little dazed. Muntadas seemed some what weary, but Reese was animated, almost punchy. Muntadas, who is sixty-s ix, grew up in Spain under Franco, an experience that sharpened his awareness of the dangers of political propaganda. Reese, fifty-two, watched political ads as a kid in Washington, D.C., and he views the medium with nostalgia, even affection. “One of my first experiences was waiting in line in my elementary s chool and seeing a classmate with a can of Goldwater ginger ale,” he said.

Reese explained that, in making their selections, they hoped both to spotli ght innovative ads and to show how certain motifs return again and again. Th e politician?s desk, which Nixon used to considerable effect in 1960, is one su

ch trope; the testimonial, such as Caroline Kennedy?s endorsement of Ob ama, dates to the earliest political ads, like those in the Eisenhower-Stevenson race, in 1952.

This year, in addition to hundreds of ads produced by the campaigns and the national committees, there are ads made by political-action committees and special-interest groups. And there are the straight-to-YouTube videos, like “Ob ama Girl,” and all the smashups and parodies these videos inspired. “The cam paign can no longer control its messaging—that?s the big change this year,” R eese said. “But Obama does well in that environment,” he added, calling up th e Senator?s smiling face. “He?s an empty screen, on which people project what they want him to be.” Their potential selections included the Phil de Vellis “Vote Different” mashup of Ridley Scott?s 1984 Apple ad,with Hillary Clinto n as the Big Brother figure on the screen, and the California Nurses Associati on?s anti-Palin ad, “One Heartbeat Away,” which is a remake of an anti-Dan Quayle ad from 1988.

Watching “Political Advertisement” in its entirety is a power ful but disorie nting experience. Time hurtles forward with each Presidential election, but ther e is no clear progress on the fundamental issues. Jobs, better schools, tax relie f, help for small businesses, change, peace through strength, and out-of-touch W ashington insiders ebb and flow in importance. It?s morning again in Americ a in 1984, with the Reagan ads, but soon it?s nighttime, with the darkening sk y of a 1992 Ross Perot spot on the national debt. Tonally, the film is a perfe ct hybrid of its creators? sensibilities. It?s funny and nostalgic, and has an inno cent quality, while at the same time offering a bleak view of a specifically A merican form of propaganda, born in 1952, that has grown to shape our politic al process—not just the way we sell our politicians but the nature of the politi cal discourse itself.

The film will close, Reese said, with an excerpt from the music video tha t Jesse Dylan and Will.i.am made from Obama?s “Yes We Can” speech. It poi nts the way toward a new kind of user-made political advertising, in which it is impossible to say where personal expression leaves off and propaganda begi ns.

“This edit?s still going to end …To Be Continued,? same as every other,” Reese said. “We?ll be back.”

1. Describe Antoni Muntadas and Marshall Reese's art "Political Advertisem ent."

2. Why do they make these selections?

3. Explain the sentence "Watching “Political Advertisement” in its entirety i s a powerful but disorienting experience."

Questions 4-6

Pharmaceutical giants face a conundrum, as illustrated by two recent event s. Eli Lilly agreed to pay $6.5 billion in cash for ImClone Systems to get its

hands on a roster of experimental cancer drugs. And Roche, bowing to pressur e from Britain's National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence, slashed the price of lung cancer drug Tarceva by $1,200 to $10,830 per four-month cours e of treatment. Roche says it wants patients in Britain to benefit from Tarceva and that it is working with NICE, an independent body that advises the Britis h National Health Service.

How are these two developments related? Pharmaceutical companies are ch arging into the cancer arena, convinced that these costly treatments will open a new path to revenue growth. But national health authorities are balking at the drugs' high prices, given that most of them extend life by only a few months. If insurers in the U.S. follow suit, Lilly and its pharma peers could run into severe pricing constraints.

"At some point—and that point will come sooner rather than later—payers are not going to approve spending $100,000 for someone to live an extra six months," says Erik Gordon, director of biomedicine at Stevens Institute of Te chnology. David Balekdjian, a partner at strategy consulting firm the Bruckner Group, confirms that "for many diseases, U.S. insurers are rigorously examinin g the outcomes new drugs produce, relative to their cost." As insurers increasi ngly scrutinize cancer drugs, "many will never reach their markets," Balekdjian warns.

In the world of giant pharma companies, cancer medicine has long taken a backseat to heart treatments, depression drugs, sleep aids, and other billion-d ollar sellers. Because cancer treatments often consist of complex protein molec ules that take years to develop, the drug multinationals left these risky product s to small biotech ventures such as ImClone. But lately drugmakers have been embracing cancer treatments, in part because older blockbusters such as Pfizer' s Lipitor and Lilly's anti-psychotic Zyprexa are approaching the end of their pa tent life. Moreover, because of safety concerns, the U.S. Food & Drug Admini stration is reluctant to approve pills taken by millions of people for minor ail ments. But the FDA demands less of cancer drugs that could save patients wh o face near-certain death.

Cancer drugs also require little marketing support—no TV ads or lavish m agazine spreads. Oncologists tend to be hyper-aware of any new treatment that might help mortally ill patients. "You don't need thousands of sales reps, you just need good data," says Lazard Capital Markets analyst Gene Mack.

Best of all for makers of cancer drugs, these products have long enjoyed considerable pricing power because they are so difficult to develop. Genentech' s Avastin costs up to $100,000 a year. Erbitux, ImClone's only marketed drug, costs around $10,000 a month and pulled in revenues of $1.3 billion in 2007. That's why Lilly is willing to make its largest acquisition ever, and why Pfiz er is exiting heart drugs in order to focus on treatments for cancer, as well as Alzheimer's and diabetes.

The cost controversy could end up limiting the cancer market's promise, h owever. Last April, Bristol-Myers Squibb, which holds 60% of the North Amer

ican marketing rights to Erbitux, bowed to Canada's health authority and dropp ed the drug's price there. Britain's NICE already restricts the use of Erbitux du e to cost. And in August it rejected four kidney cancer treatments, among the m Pfizer's Sutent and Genentech's Avastin, for that reason.

The pricing environment is "becoming more challenging," acknowledges Dr. Richard Gaynor, Lilly's head of cancer research. The company has been discu ssing drug development with insurers to get a handle on what they are willing to pay for, he says.

4.Why does the author cite cases of Eli Lilly and Roche?

5.Why do drugmakers focus more on cancer medicine lately?

6.Explain the sentence "The cost controversy could end up limiting the canc er market's promise, however."

Questions 7-10

Is the world headed for a food crisis? India, Mexico and Yemen have see n food riots this year. Argentines boycotted tomatoes during the country's recen t presidential elections when the vegetable became more expensive than meat; and in Italy, shoppers organized a one-day boycott of pasta to protest rising pr ices. In late October, the Russian government, hoping to ease tensions ahead o f parliamentary elections early next year, announced a price freeze for milk, br ead and other foods through the end of January.

What's the cause for these shortages and price hikes? Expensive oil, for th e most part.

The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) reported las t week that, at nearly $100 a barrel, the price of oil has sent the cost of food imports skyrocketing this year. Add in escalating crop prices, the FAO warne d, and a direct consequence could soon be an increase in global hunger —an d, as a consequence, increased social unrest. Faced with internal rumblings, "p oliticians tend to act to protect their own nationals rather than for the good of all," says Ali Ghurkan, a Rome-based FAO analyst who co-authored the repor t. Because of the lack of international cooperation, he adds, "Worldwide marke ts get tighter and the pain only lasts longer."

What's more, worldwide food reserves are at their lowest in 35 years, so prices are likely to stay high for the foreseeable future. "Past shocks have quic kly dissipated, but that's not likely to be the case this time," says Ghurkan. "S upply and demand have become unbalanced, and... can't be fixed quickly."

The world's food import bill will rise in 2007 to $745 billion, up 21% fr om last year, the FAO estimated in its biannual Food Outlook. In developing countries, costs will go up by a quarter to nearly $233 billion. The FAO says the price increases are a result of record oil prices, farmers switching out of cereals to grow biofuel crops, extreme weather and growing demand from coun tries like India and China. The year 2008 will likely offer no relief. "The situ ation could deteriorate further in the coming months," the FAO report cautione

d, "leading to a reduction in imports and consumption in many low-income fo od-deficit countries."

Hardest hit will likely be sub-Saharan Africa, where many of the world's poorest nations depend on both high-cost energy as well as food imports. Cash -poor governments will be forced to choose between the two, the FAO says, a nd the former has almost always won out in the past. That means more peopl e will go malnourished. Further exacerbating the problem are the current recor

d prices for freight shipping brought on by record fuel prices. An estimated 85

4 million people, or one in six in the world, already don't have enough to eat, according to the World Food Programme.

Nearly every region of the world has experienced drastic food price inflati on this year. Retail prices are up 18% in China, 17% in Sri Lanka and 10% or more throughout Latin America and Russia. Zimbabwe tops the chart with a more than a 25% increase. That inflation has been driven by double-digit pric e hikes for almost every basic foodstuff over the past 12 months. Dairy produ cts are as much as 200% more expensive since last year in some countries. M aize prices hit a 10-year high in February. Wheat is up 50%, rice up 16% and poultry nearly 10%.

On the demand side, one of the key issues is biofuels. Biofuels, made fro m food crops such as corn, sugar cane, and palm oil, are seen as easing the world's dependence on gasoline or diesel. But when crude oil is expensive, as it is now, these alternative energy sources can also be sold at market-competiti ve prices, rising steeply in relation to petroleum.

With one-quarter of the U.S. corn harvest in 2007 diverted towards biofue l production, the attendant rise in cereal prices has already had an impact on t he cost and availability of food. Critics worry that the gold rush toward biofue ls is taking away food from the hungry. Jean Ziegler, the U.N. Special Rappor teur on The Right to Food, recently described it as a "crime against humanity" to convert food crops to fuel, calling for a five-year moratorium on biofuel p roduction.

Leaders in the biofuel industry respond that energy costs are more to bla me for high food prices than biofuels. "Energy is the blood of the world, so i f oil goes up then other commodities follow," Claus Sauter, CEO of German b ioenergy firm Verbio said following Ziegler's comments. Others argue that clea ner-burning biofuels could help stem the effects of climate change, another fact or identified by the FAO as causing food shortages. Ghurkan notes that scienti sts believe climate change could be behind recent extreme weather patterns, inc luding catastrophic floods, heat waves and drought. All can diminish food harv ests and stockpiles. But so can market forces.

7.Why does oil answer to the shortages and price hikes?

8.Describe the situation of food shortage in sub-Saharan Africa.

9.What is bio-fuel?

10.Describe comments on the five-year moratorium on biofuel production.

SECTION 6: TRANSLATION TEST(30 minutes) Directions: Translate the following passage into English and write your versio n in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.