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新标准大学英语综合教程(2)原文及翻译

Unit 2 This is Sandy

I love it when my friends introduce me to new people, although I never let on. I love the proud and honorable expression they wear when they say “This is Sandy—she's deaf”, as if I were evidence of their benevolence. I also love the split-second shocked expression on the new people, the hasty smiles and their best imitations of what they think of as their “normal faces”. If they do the ritual well enough I turn my head ever so slightly and tuck my hair behind one of my ears, whichever one's closer to them. They never fail to say something nice about my pink hearing aids, while my regular friends beam on.

I'm thinking of starting a hearing aid collection, actually. They'd make better accessories than earrings: I once saw a catalog for clip-on hearing aids and hearing aid covers, and the products were most definitely fashion statements in various shapes and hues. It'd be like the exquisitely expensive handbag Esther's dad got her when we were in high school. The rest of us could only admi re, but could not, imitate, because our dads weren’t rich enough

to spoil us that way. And now, only I can wear hearing aids: My friends can do nothing but gush.

To be honest, I quite like my deafness. It wasn't easy the first few years after the car accident and the stupid exploding airbag, but now it's become something that makes me special among my friends. None of my close friends are hearing-impaired; simply because I wasn’t born deaf. By the time I lost my hearing; I'd already accumulated a fixed circle of people, and they mostly rushed to participate in the drama.

You know how when you talk about your friends, you refer to them as Drew the Bartender, Carol the Feminist, Greg the Guy Who Can Knot a Cherry Stem with His Tongue and so on? I'm Sandy the D eaf Girl. I like it. I don’t have any other particularly outstanding traits or skills. Never did.

It's more than just standing out; too: I'm sure a lot of important events in my life wouldn't have happened or worked out quite the same way if I weren't wearing pink hearing aids. For example, the thing with Colin.

I first met Colin at an apartment party. When Carol the Feminist introduced us to each other, I tucked my hair behind both my ears and leaned closer, not because he did the ritual particularly well; but because he was a stud: You should have seen his recovery smile after the inevitable surprise.

We went in search of drinks after the handshakes, and somewhere between what was functioning as the wine bar and the couch, we lost Carol.

“Do you usually read lips like this? Or do you sign, too?” he asked after a while.

“I mostly just read lips because it was easier to pick up than signing, although that's not the only reason I was staring at your lips," I told him.

He laughed. We talked more, and then the host upped the music volume and dimmed the lights for the “dance floor”; and I had to lean in much, much closer to be able to continue reading his lips in the semi-darkness. And

read his lips I did.

We did the usual and exchanged numbers, and a week later Colin did the unthinkable and called. We went out, satisfied ourselves that the other person still looked good in sober daylight, and read more lips. Within two months Colin and I were dating.

这位是桑迪

我的朋友向生人介绍我的时候,虽然我嘴上从不说什么,但我心里喜欢得很。我喜欢他们说“这位是桑迪—她是聋子”的时候脸上那副骄傲和荣耀的表情,就好像我证明了他们的仁德善心一样。我也喜欢生人脸上那瞬间的震惊表情、匆忙的微笑和他们竭力装出的“正常脸色”。如果他们这套仪式做得够好,我就会微微转过头,把头发掖到离他们较近的那只耳朵后面。他们总会说些好话,夸我的粉红色助听器,我的朋友们则在一旁灿烂地微笑。

实际上,我在考虑开始收藏助听器。它们是比耳环更好的首饰。我曾经看到过一款“一夹得”带罩助听器的广告图片,产品有各种各样的形状和颜色,绝对时髦。那就像我们上高中的时候,埃斯特的爸爸给她买的精美昂贵的手提包一样。那时,我们其他人只有羡慕的份儿,却无法仿效,因为我们的老爸没那么多钱去娇惯我们。而现在,只有我能戴助听器。朋友们也就只有羡慕的份儿了。

说实话,我挺喜欢耳聋的。在那次车祸和愚蠢的安全气囊破裂之后的头几年,日子不好过,但是现在,耳聋让我在朋友中显得很特别。我的好朋友没有一个是听力残障的,因为我不是天生耳聋,在我失去听觉的时候,我已经有了一个固定的朋友圈。他们中的多数人都热心积极地参加这场“表演”。

你知道,在你谈论朋友时,你会把称他们为“酒吧侍者德鲁”、“女权主义者卡罗尔”、‘能用舌头给樱桃梗打结的家伙格雷格”等等。我是“聋女桑迪”。我喜欢这个称呼。我没有任何其它突出的个性或能耐。从来没有过。

还不仅仅是与众不同。我确信,假如我不戴粉红色助听器的话,我生活中的许多重大事件就不会以同样的方式发生或产生同样的结果。例如,跟柯林之间的事儿。

我初次遇见柯林是在一次公寓派对上。女权主义者卡罗尔给我们彼此做了介绍之后,我把头发拢到两耳之后,凑得更近些,不是因为他把那套仪式做得特别好,而是因为他是个情种。谁都能注意到在不可避免的惊讶之后他脸上恢复的微笑。

握手之后,我们去拿喝的。在临时搭建的吧台和沙发之间的某个地方,卡罗尔不见了。

“你通常都像这样读唇语吗?还是也用手语?”过了一会儿他问。

我告诉他说:“我多数时间只读唇语,因为这比用手语更容易,但这不是我一直盯着你的嘴唇的唯一原因。”

他大笑起来。我们又说了一会儿话。后来,主人放大音乐的音量,调暗“舞池”的灯光;我不得不凑近他,很近很近,以便能在昏暗中接着读他的唇语。我的确读到了他的唇语。

我们照例交换了电话号码。一周之后,柯林做了件不可思议的事:他打来了电话。我们出去玩了,发现对方在

大白天依然好看,因此彼此感觉满意。我又读了更多的唇语。在两个月之内,柯林和我就开始约会了。

Unit 3 Stolen Identity Catch Me If You Can

“Frank never went to pilot school, medical school, law school, ... bec ause he's still in high school.”

That was the strapline of the 2002 film Catch Me If You Can, which tells the story of Frank Abagnale, Jr. (Leonardo DiCaprio), a brilliant young master of deception who at different times impersonated a doctor, a lawyer, and an airplane pilot, forging checks worth more than six million

dollars in 26 countries. He became the youngest man to ever make the FBI’s most-wanted list for forgery. Hunted and caught in the film by fictional FBI agent Carl Hanratty (Tom Hanks), Abagnale later escaped. He eventually became a consultant for the FBI where he focused on white-collar crime.

It's a great film, but could it happen in real life? In fact, Catch Me If You Can is based on the true story of Frank Abagnale, whose career as a fraudster lasted about six years before he was caught, who escaped from custody three times (once through an airplane toilet), and who spent a total of six years in prison in France, Sweden and the US. He now runs a consultancy advising the world of business how to avoid fraud. He has raised enough money to pay back all his victims, and is now a multi-millionaire.

Since 2003, identity theft has become increasingly common. Few people could imagine how important things like taking mail to the post office and not leaving it in the mailbox for pickup, shredding documents instead of throwing them out with the trash, even using a pen costing a couple of bucks, have become to avoid life-changing crimes.

More and more people are becoming anonymous victims of identity theft. We spend many hours and dollars trying to recover our name, our credit, our money and our lives. We need to look for different ways to protect ourselves. We can improve our chances of avoiding this crime, but it will never go away.

It's not just a list of do's and don'ts, we need to change our mindset. Although online banking is now commonplace, there's a significant group of people in the country—the baby boomers, 15 per cent of the population—who still prefer to use paper. What's more, 30 per cent of cases of fraud occur within this group. A check has all the information about you that an identity thief needs. If you use a ballpoint pen, the ink can be removed with the help of a regular household chemical and the sum of money can be changed. More than 1.2 million bad checks are issued every day, more than 13 per second.

Check fraud is big business ... and growing by 25 per cent every year. Criminals count on our mistakes to make their jobs easier. So how can we prevent identity theft before it happens to us?

Take a few precautions. Don't leave your mail in your mailbox overnight or over the weekend. Thieves wait for the red flag to go up, so they can look through your outgoing mail for useful personal information or checks. Use a gel pen for checks and important forms, the ink is trapped in the fiber of the paper, and it can’t be removed with chemicals: Also, shred or tear up all documents which contain personal information before you put them in the trash.

Remember that there are plenty of online opportunities for thieves to create a false identity based on your own. We’re all aware of the risks to personal information on computer databases by hacking and Trojan horses. But choosing someone and doing a Google search can also yield large amounts of personal information, and so can online social networking sites such as MySpace, Facebook and Bebo. And just as we take our pocketbook with us when we leave the office to go to the bathroom, it's also worth logging off your computer to avoid opportunistic theft.

Finally, if you get robbed in a more traditional way—in the stree t—canceling your credit cards is obviously the first thing to do. But don't forget t hat even after they’re reported lost, they can be used as identification to acquire store cards ... and you get the criminal record.

Identity fraud can go on for years without the victim’s knowledge. There is no escaping the fact that right now fraudsters are finding identity crime all too easy. If you haven’t had your identity stolen, it's only because they haven’t got to you yet. Your turn will come.

窃取的身份

“弗兰克从未上过飞行学院、医学院、法学院……因为他还在上高中。”

这是2002年的电影《有种来抓我》的剧情简介。影片讲述了小弗兰克·阿巴格纳尔(莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥饰演)的故事。影片主人公是一位聪明绝顶的年轻骗术大师,曾在不同时间扮演医生、律师和飞行员的角色,在26个国家伪造了价值600万美元以上的支票。他成了联邦调查局有史以来伪造罪头号通缉令名单上最年轻的通缉犯。在影片中,阿巴格纳尔被虚构的联邦调查局特工卡尔·汉拉提(汤姆·汉克斯饰演)追捕,但后来逃脱了。他最终成了联邦调查局专攻白领犯罪的顾问专家。

《有种来抓我》是一部很棒的电影,但影片中的事情会在现实生活中发生吗?其实,《有种来抓我》是根据弗兰克·阿巴格纳尔的真实故事改编的,他的行骗生涯持续了大约六年;被抓后,曾三次逃脱监管(有一次是从飞机的厕所逃走的);在法国、瑞典和美国的监狱中总共度过了六年时光。他现在经营一家咨询事务所,为企业界提供防造假咨询。他挣到了足够的钱,赔付了所有的受害者,如今已是大富豪。

2003年以来,身份盗窃案变得越来越常见。很少有人会想象到,为了预防这种改变人生的犯罪,采取一些预防措施有多么重要,比如把邮件拿到邮局去寄而不是丢在信箱里等人来取、把文件切碎而不是直接把它们连同垃圾一道扔出去,甚至使用几美元一支的(特效)笔等等。

越来越多的人正在成为身份盗窃案的无名受害者。我们花费许多时间和金钱,去努力挽回我们的姓名、我们的信用、我们的钱和我们的生活。我们需要想方设法来保护自己。我们可以减少此类犯罪的机会,但是它永远不会消失。

这不仅仅是要求我们列一份“该做”和“不该做”事项的清单,我们还需要改变心态。虽然网上银行现在很常见,但国内有一大群人—即占人口15%的生育高峰时期出生的一代人—还是更喜欢用纸。而且,30%的诈骗案都发生在这群人当中。支票上有身份盗贼所需的你的全部信息。如果你用圆珠笔,笔迹可以用一般的家用化学药品除去,钱数可以更改。每天发出的空头支票高达120万张以上,平均每秒13张以上。

支票造假是个大产业……每年以25%的速率增长。犯罪分子指望我们犯错误,好让他们更容易得手。那么我们怎样才能防患于未然呢?

采取一些预防措施。不要把你的邮件留在邮箱里过夜或过周末。小偷就等着看你家信箱的小红旗(注:在美国,信箱上插上小红旗表示有邮件需要投递),以便通过你要投递的邮件找寻有用的个人信息或支票。要用签字笔填写支票和重要表格,(因为)签字笔的墨水会渗进纸张的纤维中,无法用化学药品除去。还有,切碎或撕碎含有个人信息的所有文件,然后再把它们丢进垃圾桶。

记住,网上有大量机会可以被小偷利用。他们根据你的身份伪造假身份。我们都知道黑客行为和木马软件对电脑数据库中个人信息的威胁。但是在谷歌上搜索某人也会透露大量个人信息,在线社交网站(如“我的空间”、“相册”和“毕波”)也一样。正如我们离开办公室去厕所时要随身带上钱包一样,离开电脑时也应该注销你的电脑以防临时起意的盗窃。

最后一点,假如你遭遇较传统方式的抢劫一比如在大街上一挂失你的信用卡显然是要做的第一件事。但是别

忘了,即使挂了失,信用卡也可以用作身份证件来获得购物卡……那你就有了犯罪记录。

身份伪造可以肆行多年而不为受害者所知。一个无法回避的事实是:现在的诈骗者觉得身份犯罪简直是太

容易了。如果你的身份尚未失窃,那只是因为他们还没有对你动手。就会轮到你的。

Unit 4 The death of Newspaper

For years it started the day for millions of people: the sound of the newspaper hitting the front door, the window or the neighbor's dog. With a cup of coffee, maybe some breakfast, the ritual of reading the newspaper

was the quiet before the storm, a moment of pleasure and peace before the working day began.

But all over the English-speaking world, newspaper editors are facing the same problem: Circulation has declined, as more and more readers turn to the Internet for their news. This means that the revenue from advertising is also declining, and the cover price of the newspaper is rising, so they can make the same amount of money. And of course, a price-sensitive product like a newspaper could lose readers, and the vicious circle continues. So what does the future hold? Is it the death of the newspaper?

The decline is a long-term trend of 20 or more years, predating the Internet. Four-fifths of Americans once

read newspapers. Today, it seems that fewer than half do. Among adults, between 1990 and 2000, daily readership fell from 52.6 per cent to 37.5 per cent. Among the young, the situation is even worse: Only 19 per cent of those between the ages of 18 and 34 claim to read a daily newspaper. A mere nine per cent trusted the information the newspaper contains.

Advertising on the Internet works differently than in print. The advertiser can monitor minute by minute if their ads are working, and no longer has to rely on circulation figures. The greater number of outlets which the Internet can offer encourages ferocious competition for advertising revenue, while printing and production costs have risen remorselessly. As a result, The New York Times Company has downsized by 700 jobs among its various papers. The Baltimore Sun is closing down its foreign news bureaux. In the UK most newspapers have reduced the newspaper to tabloid size, in a bid to capture younger readers, although because "tabloid" has a connotation of "downmarket", some of the papers ref er to the new size as "compact’.

All large circulation newspapers have established strong websites. The Internet provides an easy outlet for anyone with an opinion, and there's nothing a newspaper editor likes more for reassurance about their work than feedback and opinions, as diverse as possible. Teenagers today don't remember a time when they didn't have the Internet, and reading a newspaper is something they only do if they have an assignment to write about the specific medium of print journalism.

It's hard to deny the environmental impact of newspapers. Nearly four billion trees worldwide are cut down annually for paper, representing about 35 percent of all harvested trees. It has to be said that many of the trees used for paper come from special estates where they're planted and replaced on a regular basis. Furthermore, yesterday's newspaper is often recycled and turned back into today's. Nevertheless, paper mills are among the worst polluters to air, water and land of any industry in the US.

But the daily or weekend newspaper is still a great tradition for many people. "Sunday wouldn't be Sunday without the Sunday newspapers," is a comment which occurs regularly in UK-based surveys. Other opinions draw attention to the convenience of the paper over the laptop: "My newspaper's battery never dies," "If I drop my newspaper, it doesn't break," "The flight attendant has never told me to put my newspaper away," and, reminding us of the traditional wrapping of the UK's national takeaway food, "You can swat flies with them, and they can still be used to wrap fish."

So maybe the newspaper won't die without a struggle. Trends for the future of newspaper include an increased demand for local news, and the continued exploitation of lifestyle journalism, which began in the late 1980s, especially within personal finance and travel, will create new revenue streams. Some commentators recommend that, instead of dumbing down, which is the usual way of increasing one's market share, newspapers should smarten up, that is to say, honor the principles of integrity and impartiality of their coverage. A newspaper with editorial positions which are respected by its readers will surely have more influence and prestige than the same reports read one by one on the Internet.

Moreover, the small-town newspaper will always be meaningful for the parents whose child's photo is news for a few days. And reading the traditional Sunday newspapers in an armchair while everyone else takes the day off is going to be a hard habit to break.

But is it enough? Or will we one day see the death of the newspaper?

报纸的末日?

多年来,数以百万计的人在报纸击中前门、窗户或邻居的狗的叫声中开始了一天的生活。对着一杯咖啡,也许还有早餐,看报的仪式是风暴之前的平静,是工作日开始之前的愉快安宁。

可是,在所有讲英语的国家,报纸编辑们正面临着同一个问题:发行量下滑了,因为越来越多的读者转向互联网阅读新闻。这意味着同时下滑的广告收入,以及随之上涨的报纸定价,因为只有这样他们才能挣到一样多的钱。当然,像报纸这样价格敏感的产品可能会失去读者,恶性循环会不断加剧。那么将来会怎样?报纸是否走上了末路?

这种下滑是20多年来的长期趋势,在互联网问世之前就已出现。从前,五分之四的美国人看报,而如今似乎只有不到一半。1990至2000年间,成年人每天看报的人数从52.6%下降到37.5%。年轻人中情况更槽:18至34岁的年轻人只有19%自称每天看报。而仅有9%的人相信报纸上的信息。

互联网广告的运作方式与报纸广告不同。广告商可以逐分逐秒地监视广告是否在起作用,而不再需要依赖报纸的发行量。互联网可提供的更多的窗口使广告收入之战更加激烈,印刷和生产成本却不可遏制地上涨。结果,《纽约时报》公司旗下各种报纸已裁减了700份工作。《巴尔的摩太阳报》即将关闭其驻外新闻机构。在英国,多数报纸都缩版成为小报开本,意在吸引年轻读者,但是因为“小报”有“低档廉价”之嫌,有些报纸就称新开本为“缩编版”。

所有发行量大的报纸都建立了强大的网站。互联网为任何有意见的人提供了一个便利的窗口;报纸编辑最喜欢的莫过于给他们提供各种不同的反馈和意见,他们能从中得到安慰。如今十几岁的少年已不记得曾经没有互联网的日子了;只有在写关于印刷新闻这一特定媒体的作业时他们才去看报纸。

不可否认报纸对环境的影响。世界上每年有近40亿裸树木被砍伐用来造纸,约占全部木材砍伐量的35%。但必须承认,许多用来造纸的树木是在特别的种植园出产的,它们是定期砍伐和栽种的。而且,旧报纸常被回收利用,变成新的报纸。尽管如此,在美国,造纸厂是对空气、水体和土地污染最严重的行业之一。

但是,对于许多人来说,日报或周报依然是个伟大的传统。“没有周日版报纸的周日就不是周日,”这样的评语常见于在英国所做的调查。其他评语则提到报纸比笔记本电脑更方便之处:“我的报纸永远不会没电,”“假如我的报纸掉到地上,它不会摔破,”“空姐从来不会叫我把报纸收起来,”此外,还有评语让我们想到英国全国的外卖食品的传统包装方式,“你可以用它们来打苍蝇,还可以用来包鱼。”

如此看来,报纸是不会轻易消失的。未来报纸发展的趋势包括对本地新闻需求的日益增长,而始于20世纪80年代后期的对生活方式新闻的持续开发利用—尤其在个人理财和旅游方面—将会创造新的收入来源。有些评论者建议,报纸不应粗制滥造(尽管这是增加市场份额的通常做法),而应该精工细作。也就是说,尊崇以正直、诚实和不偏不倚的态度从事新闻报道的原则。具有为读者所敬重的办报立场的报纸肯定比互联网上零散阅读的同类报道享有更大的影响力和声望。

此外,小城镇报纸对于为人父母者总是意味深长,因为其子女的照片也许会在上面刊登,几天都是新闻。人人都放假的时候,坐在扶手椅上看传统的周日版报纸,这将是难以打破的习惯。

但是这样是否足够?或者,有朝一日我们一定会看到报纸的消亡?

Unit 5 The Story of Anne Frank’s Diary

“13 June 1944. Another birthday has gone by so now I'm 15. I've received quite a few presents, an art history book, a set of underwear, two belts, and a handkerchief, two pots of yogurt, a pot of jam and two small honey biscuits ... Peter and I have both spent years in the annexe—we often discuss the future, the past and the present, but ... I miss the real thing, and yet I know it exists.”

Anne Frank wrote these words in her now famous diary while she and her family were in hiding in "the secret annexe", a few rooms in the back of her father's office in Amsterdam, Holland.

The Franks were in fact refugees, Jews from Germany who had emigrated to Holland, settling in Amsterdam to escape from Nazi persecution. But when, in May 1940 the German army invaded and occupied Holland, the persecution of the Dutch Jews very quickly began there too.

Like all Jews, Anne and her sister Margot were forbidden to attend school, to ride their bikes, even to travel in a car. They were only allowed to go into certain shops, and at all times they had to wear a yellow star on their clothing to show they were Jewish. The star of David, an important religious symbol, was transformed into a badge of shame by the Nazis.

By 1941, the Nazis were arresting large numbers of Jewish people, and sending them to labor camps which quickly became death camps. Otto Frank, Anne's father, decided to conceal his family, and the family of his business partner.

The Franks went into hiding on 6 July 1942, just a few weeks after Anne started her diary, and were joined by the second family, the Van Pels a week later. For the next two years, eight people were confined to just six small rooms and could never go outside. There was rarely enough to eat, and the families lived in a state of poverty.

Throughout her time in hiding, Anne continued to write her diary. She describe the day-to-day activity in the annexe but she also wrote about her dreams and aspirations. It was very hard for her to plan for a future; she and the others knew what was happening to the Jews who had been caught.

"Our many Jewish friends and acquaintances are being taken away in droves. The Gestapo is treating them

very roughly and transporting them in cattle cars to Westerbork, the big camp in Drenthe to which they're sending all the Jews ... If it's that bad in Holland, what must it be like in those faraway and uncivilized places where the Germans are sending them? We assume that most of them are being murdered. The English radio says they’re being gassed."—October 9, 1942

Despite being an ordinary teenager in many ways, curious, self-critical and moody, Anne was also an honest writer of considerable talent who fought for the right to live and this is what gives the diary such power: "It's a wonder I haven't abandoned all of my ideals, they seem so absurd and impractical. Yet, I cling to them because I still believe in spite of everything that people are truly good at heart ...I must hold to my ideals. Perhaps the day will come when I will be able to realize them.

It's utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death. I see the world being slowly turned into a wilderness, I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too, I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more ... I must uphold my ideals, for perhaps the time will come when I shall be able to carry them out."—July 15, 1944

Writing these words, Anne was not displaying simple childish optimism. It was more a declaration of her principles and of the right to human dignity. The voice that comes across is of a solitary young girl writing for herself, yet at the same time it is the cry of all those innocent victims of evil whose fate was to suffer in the Second World War. That is why Anne Frank's diary has achieved fame as the voice of the Holocaust in which six million Jews were murdered: She speaks for all of humanity.

In August 1944, the hiding place was stormed, and Nazi officers arrested everyone. They were taken to a transit camp and forced to do hard labor. From there they were taken by train to a concentration camp at Auschwitz. A month later, Anne and Margot were moved to Bergen-Belsen camp in Germany. They both died of typhus and starvation in March 1945. Anne Frank was 15, her sister was 19. Out of the eight people in hiding, Otto Frank was the only survivor, and when he found his daughter's diary after the war, he arranged for its publication in recognition of her courage.

When Anne wrote in her diary "I hope that you will be a great support and comfort to me", she couldn't have known that her writing would also be a support and comfort to the whole world after her death.

安妮·弗兰克日记的故事

“1944年6月13日。又一个生日过去了,我现在15岁了。我收到了不少礼物:一本艺术史、一套内衣、两根腰带、一幅手帕、两罐酸奶、一罐果酱和两小块蜂蜜饼干……彼得和我在藏身所里待了两年了一我们经常谈论将来、过去和现在,可是……我想念外面真实的世界,而且我知道它存在。”

安妮·弗兰克在她现已出名的日记中写下了这些话,当时她和她的家人躲在“秘室”里,那是她父亲在荷

兰阿姆斯特丹的办公室后面的几间屋子。

弗兰克一家实际上是难民,是从德国移民到荷兰的犹太人,定居在阿姆斯特丹以逃避纳粹的迫害,但是在1940年5月,当德国军队入侵并占领了荷兰之后,对荷兰犹太人的迫害也很快就开始了。

像所有的犹太人一样,安妮和姐姐玛戈被禁止上学、骑自行车、甚至坐汽车。德军只允许他们进有些店铺,任何时候都要在衣服上带着一颗黄星以表示他们是犹太人。大卫之星,一种重要的宗教象征,被纳粹变成了一种耻辱的标志。

到1941年,纳粹开始大量逮捕犹太人,把他们送往劳改集中营,劳改集中营很快就变成了死亡集中营。安妮的父亲奥托·弗兰克决定把家人和生意伙伴的家人藏起来。

1942年,7月6日,就在安妮开始写日记数周后,弗兰克一家躲了起来,一周后,范·佩尔一家人也加入进来。在其后的两年里,八个人就关在六个小房间里,绝不能外出。两家人生活在贫困状态之中,连足够的食物都没有。

在躲藏的日子里,安妮一直坚持写日记。她逐日叙述“秘室”里的日常活动,也记述自己的梦想和憧憬。她很难设想未来;她和别的人都清楚,犹太人被捉住会有什么下场。

“我们的许多犹太人朋友和熟人都被成群地带走了。盖世太保对他们非常粗暴,用运牲口的拖车把他们运送到德伦特最大的集中营威斯特伯克,他们把所有犹太人都遣送到那里。……如果说在荷兰都这么槽,那么在德国人送他们去的那些遥远的蛮荒之地又会是什么样呢?我们猜想他们中的大多数正在被杀害。英国广播说他们正在被毒气熏死。”1942年10月9日

尽管安妮在许多方面都是个普通的十几岁少女,好奇、自我批评而且喜怒无常,但她还是个相当有天赋的诚实的作者,为生存的权利而斗争着。正是这一点赋予了她的日记如此强大的力量:

“我没有放弃所有理想,这简直是奇迹;它们显得那么荒唐和不切实际。然而,我紧紧抓着它们,因为我仍然相信,不管怎么样,人们的内心都是真正善良的……我必须坚持我的理想。也许在将来的某一天我的理想会实现。

我完全不可能把我的生活建立在混乱、苦难和死亡的基础上。我眼看着这世界正慢慢地变成荒野;我耳听着那逼近的雷霆,终有一天也会把我们摧毁;我感受着数百万人的苦难。然而,仰望天空的时候,我不知为什么觉得一切都将变好,这残酷的现实也将结束,和平和安宁将再度回归……我必须捍卫我的理想,因为也许我能够实现它们的时候就要到了。”1944年7月15日

安妮写这些话,并非在展示简单幼稚的乐观主义。那是她的信念和人类尊严权利的宣言。它传来的是一个孤独少女的声音,她为自己写作,但同时也是所有无辜受邪恶迫害者的呐喊,他们的命运就是在第二次世界大战期间受难。这就是安妮·弗兰克的日记被誉为犹太人大屠杀(其间有六百万犹太人被杀害)之声的原因:她的话代

表了全人类的心声。

1944年8月,他们的藏身处被突袭了,纳粹官员逮捕了每一个人。他们被带往一个过渡性集中营,被迫做苦工。从那里,他们又被火车送往奥斯威辛。一个月后,安妮和玛戈被转移到德国的贝尔根一贝尔森集中营。她俩均于1945年3月死于斑疹伤寒和饥饿。安妮·弗兰克时年15岁;她的姐姐19岁。在躲藏的八个人中,唯一幸存者是奥托·弗兰克。他在战后发现了女儿的日记,设法出版了它,以表彰她的勇气。

当安妮在日记中写下“我希望你对我会是极大的支持和安慰”这句话时,她不可能知道,在她死后,她的文字也会是对全世界的支持和安慰。

Unit 6 My Dream Comes True

The rain had started to fall gently through the evening air as darkness descended over Sydney. Hundreds of lights illuminated Stadium Australia, and the noise was deafening. As I walked towards the track I glanced around me at the sea of faces in the stands, but my mind was focused. The Olympic gold medal was just minutes away, hanging tantalizingly in the distance.

My heart was beating loudly, my mouth was dry and the adrenaline was pumping. I was so close to the realization of my childhood dream and the feeling was fantastic; it was completely exhilarating, but also terrifying. I knew I would have to push myself beyond my known limits to ensure that my dream came true.

I tried to keep composed, telling myself not to panic, to stick to the plan and run my own race. I knew the Russian girls would set off quickly—and I had to finish this race fewer than ten seconds behind the Russian athlete Yelena Prokhorova. If I could do that, the title would be mine.

I looked out along the first stretch of the 400m track and caught my breath. The 800m race had punished me so much over the year s—in the World, Commonwealth and European Championships—and now it stood between me and the Olympic title.

The British supporters were cheering so loudly it seemed as if they were the only fans there. I could hear my name being called. I could hear the shouts of encouragement and the cries of hope. Union Jacks fluttered all around the vast, beautiful stadium. I felt unified with the crowd—we all had the same vision and the same dream.

My ankle was bandaged against an injury I had incurred in the long jump just a couple of hours earlier, but I shut out all thoughts of pain. I tried to concentrate on the crowd. They were so vocal. My spirits lifted and I felt composed.

I knew I would do my best, that I would run my heart out and finish the race. I felt the performer in me move in and take over. I had just two laps to run, that was all. Just two laps until the emotional and physical strain of the past two days and the last 28 years would be eclipsed by victory or failure. This race was all about survival. It's only two minutes, I kept telling myself, anyone can run for two minutes.

The starting gun was fired, and the race began. The first lap was good, I managed to keep up with the group, but I was feeling much more tired than I usually did, and much more than I'd anticipated. Both the long, hard weeks of training that had led up to this championship, and the exhaustion from two days of grueling competition were showing in my performance. Mental and physical fatigue were starting to crush me, and I had to fight back.

Prokhorova had set the pace from the start. It was important that I didn’t let her get too far in front. I had to stay with her. At the bell I was 2.3 seconds behind her. Just one lap to go. One lap. I could do it. I had to keep going. In the final 150 meters I could hear the roar of the crowd, giving me a boost at exactly the moment I needed

it the most—just when my legs were burning and I could see the gap opening between me and the Russian. Thankfully, my foot was holding out, so now it was all down to mental stamina.

Prokhorova was pulling away. I couldn't let her get too far; I had to stay with her. I began counting down the meters I had left to run; 60m, 50m, 40m, 2om. I could see the clock. I could do it, but it would be close. Then finally the line appeared. I crossed it, exhausted. I had finished.

As I crossed the line my initial thought was how much harder the race had been than expected, bearing in

mind how, only eight weeks before, I had set a new personal best of two minutes 12.2 seconds. Then my mind

turned to the result. Had I done it? I thought I had. I was aware of where the other athletes were, and was sure

that I'd just made it. But, until I saw it on the scoreboard, I wouldn't let myself believe it. As I stood there, staring

up and waiting for confirmation, I tried hard to keep negative thoughts from my mind - but I couldn’t help thinking, what if I have just missed out? What if I’ve been through all this, and missed out?

In the distance I could hear the commentary team talking about two days of tough competition, then I could almost hear someone say, "I think she's done enough." The next thing I knew, Sabine Braun of Germany came

over and told me I'd won. They had heard before me, and she asked what it felt like to be the Olympic champion. I smiled, still not sure.

Then, the moment that will stay with me for the rest of my life—my name in lights. That was when it all hit me. Relief, a moment of calm, and a thank you to my inner self for taking me through these two days. I felt a tingle through the whole of my body. This was how it is meant to be—arms aloft and fists clenched.

I looked out at the fans, who were waving flags, clapping and shouting with delight. I was the Olympic champion. The Olympic champion.

梦想成真

当夜幕降临悉尼时,雨也开始悄悄地从夜空中飘落。几百盏灯把澳大利亚体育场照得灯火通明,场内的声音震耳欲聋。走向跑道时我看了一眼四周看台上无数的脸,但我的注意力还是很集中。再过几分钟奥运金牌的归属就要见分晓了,它悬挂在远处,很诱人。

我的心在剧烈地跳动,口干舌燥,肾上腺素猛增。童年的梦想就要实现了,这种感觉真是太奇妙了:令人非常兴奋,又胆战心惊。我知道,为了确保能梦想成真我必须强迫自己超越已知的极限。

我极力保持镇静,告诫自己不要紧张,要坚持按原计划做,按自己的节奏跑。我知道那些俄罗斯姑娘起跑很快—这场比赛我落后俄罗斯运动员叶莲娜·普罗科霍洛娃不能超过十秒。如果我做到这一点,冠军就是我的了。

我望着四百米跑道的起跑点,屏住了呼吸。这些年来,在世锦赛、英联邦锦标赛以及欧洲锦标赛的八百米赛跑中我屡战屡败,饱受挫折。现在,它再次横在我与奥运冠军头衔之间。

我的英国支持者在为我欢呼,声音特别大,就好像看台上只有他们是我的狂热支持者。我听到他们喊我的名字,为我鼓劲加油,听到他们充满希望的呐喊。宽阔美丽的体育场上到处飘扬着大不列颠联合王国的国旗,我感觉自己和观众融为了一体:我们有着同样的期盼,同样的梦想。!

几个小时前,我的脚踩在跳远时受了伤,缠上了绷带,但是我忘掉伤痛,尽量把注意力集中在观、众身上。他们的叫喊声势浩大,使我精神振奋,我感到镇定自若。

我知道自己会全力以赴,拼尽全力跑完全程。我感觉自己已经进入最佳状态。我只要跑两圈就行了,就两圈。跑完这两圈,过去两天以及28年来所有情感和身体上的辛苦付出就将被胜利或者失败所淹没。这一跑真是生死攸关。我不断地告诉自己:也就是跑两分钟,谁都能跑两分钟。

发令枪响了,比赛正式开始。第一圈还好,我跟其他人跑得一样快,但我觉得比平时要累得多,比我预想的要累得多。这次锦标赛赛前长达数周的艰苦训练以及这两天激烈的比赛所带来的疲劳在我的赛跑过程中显现出来。精神和肉体的疲倦开始向我袭来,我不得不反击。

普罗科霍洛娃一开始就领先。最重要的是我不能被她甩得太远,我得紧紧地跟着她。最后一圈的铃声响起时,我比她落后2.3秒。只剩最后一圈了,就一圈,我能赢,我必须坚持跑下去。到最后150米的时候我听见观众高声叫喊,在我最需要的时候为我加油助威一这时我的腿疼得要命,我看见我和那个俄罗斯运动员之间的距离正在加大。令人欣喜的是我的脚还在继续往前迈,这时候就全靠精神毅力来支撑了。

我听见远处转播比赛的解说员在谈论两天来的艰难赛事,我好像听见有人说:“我觉得她做得够好了。”接下来,来自德国的萨拜因·布劳恩走过来告诉我我赢了,他们在我之前打听到了消息,她问我当奥运冠军是什么滋味。我笑了,但还是不敢肯定。

接下来的那一刻将让我铭记一生:计分牌上我的名字亮了。那一刻我惊呆了。如释重负,平静了一会儿,感谢我内在的自我帮我度过了这两天。我感到全身一阵振颤,这时候该做的事是:高举双手,紧握双拳。

我向我的支持者望去,他们正兴高采烈地挥舞旗帜,鼓掌呐喊。我是奥运冠军,奥运会的冠军。

Unit 7 Are Animals Smarter Than We Think?

What does an elephant see when it looks in the mirror? Itself, apparently. Previously, such self-awareness was thought to be limited to humans, primates and the great celebrities of the world of animal intelligence, dolphins. At first, elephants in studies with mirrors will explore the mirror as an object. Eventually, they may realize they are looking at themselves. They will repeatedly touch a mark painted on their heads that they wouldn't see without the mirror. Diana Reiss of Hunter College believes these are compelling signs of self-awareness.

Scientists used to believe that animals were like machines programmed to react to stimuli. They were not considered capable of feeling or thinking, and certainly not of understanding abstract concepts. However, any dog owner will disagree. They know, when they see the love in their pet's eyes, that it has feelings. A dog can be trained

to respond to commands and perform useful tasks. It can recognize different people and make choices about what to eat or which path to take. But does this mean that an animal is capable of thinking and, if so, can it be proved? Our perceptions of animals are filtered through our own human understanding of the world and we often project human feelings and thoughts onto other creatures.

One of the first scientists to try to investigate the animal mind was the British naturalist Charles Darwin. In his book The Descent of Man, published in 1871, he questioned whether higher mental abilities such as

self-consciousness and memory, were limited to human beings. Darwin speculated that human and non-human minds aren't all that different. Animals, he argued, face the same general challenges and have the same basic needs as humans: to find food and a mate, to navigate through the sky, the woods or the sea. All these tasks require the ability to problem-solve and to categorize. Birds, for example, need to be able to distinguish colors so they know when a fruit is ripe, what is safe to eat and what is not. Knowing the shapes of predators helps them to escape danger. Having a concept of numbers helps them to keep track of their flock, and to know which individuals have a mate.

All these skills require, not just instinct, but cognitive ability, argues Irene Pepperberg, who has worked on animal intelligence since 1977.

She studied an African grey parrot called Alex from the age of one for 30 years. Parrots are well-known for their ability to imitate speech and in her experiments; Pepperberg used this talent to find out about Alex's understanding of the world. Her aim was to teach him to reproduce the sounds of the English language so that she could then have a dialogue with him. "I thought if he learned to communicate, I could ask him questions about how he sees the world."

Memory, language, self-awareness, emotions and creativity are key indications of higher mental abilities. Scientists have, bit by bit, uncovered and documented these talents in other species. Pepperberg discovered that

Alex could count, distinguish shapes, sizes, colors and materials such as wood, wool and metal. Until recently, only higher mammals, such as primates, have been thought capable of understanding concepts of "same" and "different". But parrots, like primates, live for a long time in complex societies, so abstract mental ability would

seem to be a valuable survival skill for them, too.

Darwin argued that animals' minds, like their bodies, have evolved to suit their environment. He went so far

as to suggest that even worms have some hint of intelligence since he observed them making judgments about the kinds of leaves they used to block their tunnels. Many scientists in the 20th century dismissed such findings as unreliable, usually influenced by anthropomorphism, in other words, judging animals by human attributes. However, the pendulum is now swinging away from thinking of animals as machines without intelligence, and back towards Darwin's ideas. A wide range of studies on animals suggests that the roots of intelligence are deep, widespread across the animal kingdom and highly changeable.

People were surprised to find that chimpanzees and other primates were smart. They make tools. Orangutans use leaves as rain hats and protect their hands when climbing spiky trees. Scientists put this down to the fact that primates and humans share a common ancestor. What is surprising them now however, is' that intelligence doesn't seem to be limited to those species with whom; we have a common ancestor. It appears that evolution can reinvent similar forms of consciousness indifferent species; and that to an astonishing degree, this intelligence is not reserved only for higher mammals. One vital question is thrown up by the current research: If all this is true and animals have feelings and intelligence, should it affect the way we humans treat them?

动物比我们想象的更聪明吗?

大象照镜子时到底看到了什么?显然是它自己。以前,人们认为这样的自我意识仅存于人类、灵长类动物以及动物智慧世界的明星—海豚。在这项大象和镜子的研究里,大象起初只把镜子当作物品来把玩。最后,它们可能意识到它们在镜子里看到了自己。它们会反复触碰画在它们头上的印记,这是一些没有镜子就不可能看见的印记。亨特大学的戴安娜·雷斯认为,这是自我意识的很有力的说明。

过去,科学家认为动物和机器一样,能根据事先编排好的程序对外界的刺激作出反应。还认为它们不具备感受和思考能力,绝对没有理解抽象概念的能力。但是,养狗的人是不会同意这种看法的。他们在宠物狗的眼睛里看到了爱,知道它有情感。狗能通过训练接受指令做有益的事情。它会认人、选择食物、识别道路。但这是否意味着它有思维能力呢?如果有的话,又如何证实呢?我们对动物的认知是经过过滤的,是建立在人类对世界的理解的基础上的,我们经常把人类的情感和思想投射到其它动物身上。

最早研究动物心智的科学家之一是英国博物学家查尔斯·达尔文。在1871年出版的《人类的起源》一书中,他质疑是否只有人类才具有高级思维能力—如自我意识和记忆。达尔文猜测人脑和动物脑没有那么大的差别。他认为,动物和人一样面对相同的常规挑战和相同的基本需求:寻找食物和伴侣,在天空、森林和海洋中旅行时不迷失方向。要完成这些任务,就需要有解决问题和甄别分类的能力。例如鸟类必须有分辨颜色的能力,以确定果实什么时候成熟,什么东西能吃,什么东西不能吃。了解捕食动物的形状能帮助它们避开危险,有数字概念可帮助他们了解本鸟群的情况,了解哪些鸟已有伴侣。

从1977年起就从事动物智慧研究的艾琳·佩拍伯格认为,所有这些技巧不仅需要本能,还需要认知能力。

她研究一只叫“亚历克斯”的非洲灰鹦鹉,从它一岁开始整整研究了30年。鹦鹉以模仿语言的能力著称;在她的实验里,佩拍伯格利用鹦鹉这方面的才能来了解亚历克斯对世界的理解。她的目标是教会它英语,以便能够和它对话。“我想如果它学会如何交流,我就可以问它是如何看待这个世界的了。”

记忆、语言、自我意识、情感和创造性是高智力的关键标志。科学家已经一点一滴地揭示并记录了其他物种在这些方面的才能。佩拍伯格发现亚历克斯不仅能够数数,还能分辨形状、大小、颜色及材料(如木头、羊毛和金属)。直到最近,只有高等哺乳动物,如灵长类,才会被认为具有理解“相同”和“不同”这些概念的能力。但鹦鹉和灵长类一样长期生活在复杂社会里,因此抽象的智力对它们而言似乎也同样是有价值的生存技巧。

达尔文认为,动物的心智和它们的身体一样因为要适应环境而进化了。他甚至说:即便是虫子也有一点点智慧,因为他观察到虫子能判断什么样的叶子适合用来堵它们的洞口。许多20世纪的科学家轻视这些发现,认为它们不可靠,这是受了拟人说的影响,即根据人的特征来判断动物。但是,现在舆论的天平已经不再向那些认为动物像机器一样没有智慧的观点倾斜了,而是向达尔文的观点倾斜。大范围的动物研究表明:智慧之根在动物界的分布既深又广,变化多端。

人们吃惊地发现黑猩猩及其他灵长类动物都很聪明,它们会制造工具。红毛黑猩猩能用树叶当斗笠挡雨;在爬带刺的树时,它们知道如何保护自己的手。科学家把这种现象归结为灵长类动物和人类拥有共同祖先这一事实。但是,现在让他们吃惊的是智慧似乎并不仅仅体现在与人同祖的物种身上。进化似乎能够在不同物种身上重新创造出相似的意识形式。令人吃惊的是,这种智慧并非高等哺乳动物的专利。目前的研究提出了一个重大的问题:如果这一切都是真的,如果动物具有情感和智力,这会改变人类对待动物的方式吗?

Unit 8 Painting as a Pastime

A gifted American psychologist has said, "Worry is a spasm of the emotion; the mind catches hold of something and will not let it go." It’s useless to argue with the mind in this condition. The stronger the will, the

more futile the task. One can only gently insinuate something else into its convulsive grasp. And if this something else is rightly chosen, if it is really attended by the illumination of another field of interest, gradually, and often

quite swiftly, the old undue grip relaxes and the process of recuperation and repair begins.

The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in a day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will.

The growth of alternative mental interests is a long process. The seeds must be carefully chosen; they must fall on good ground; they must be sedulously tended, if the vivifying fruits are to be at hand when needed.

To be really happy and really safe, one ought to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must all be real. It

is no use starting late in life to say: "I will take an interest in this or that." Such an attempt only aggravates the strain of mental effort. A man may acquire great knowledge of topics unconnected with his daily work, and yet hardly get any benefit or relief. It is no use doing what you like; you have got to like what you do. Broadly speaking, human beings maybe divided into three classes: those who are toiled to death, those who are worried to death, and those who are bored to death. It is no use offering the manual laborer, tired out with a hard week's sweat and effort, the chance of playing a game of football or baseball on Saturday afternoon. It is no use inviting the politician or the professional or businessman, who has been working or worrying about serious things for six days, to work or worry about trifling things at the weekend.

As for the unfortunate people who can command everything they want, who can gratify every caprice and lay their hands on almost every object of desire—for them a new pleasure, a new excitement is only an additional satiation. In vain they rush frantically round from place to place, trying to escape from avenging boredom by mere clatter and motion. For them discipline in one form or another is the most hopeful path.

It may be said that rational, industrious, useful human beings are divided into two classes: first, those whose work is work and whose pleasure is pleasure; and secondly, those whose work and pleasure are one. Of these the former are the majority. They have their compensations. The long hours in the office or the factory bring with them as their reward, not only the means of sustenance, but a keen appetite for pleasure even in its simplest and most modest forms. But Fortune's favored children belong to the second class. Their life is a natural harmony.

For them the working hours are never long enough. Each day is a holiday, and ordinary holidays when they come are grudged as enforced interruptions in an absorbing vocation. Yet to both classes the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential. Indeed, it may well be that those whose work is their pleasure are those who most need the means of banishing it at intervals from their minds.

绘画消遣(节选)

一位天才美国心理学家说过:“烦恼是感情的发作;此时大脑缠住了某种东西不肯放手。”在这种情况下,和头脑争论(让它放手)是无用的。愿望越强烈,与之争论就越是徒劳。你只能温和地将另一种东西慢慢灌输到痉挛状态的头脑中。如果(这一东西)选得恰当,而且它真的从另一领域的情趣中受到启迪的话,那么逐渐地,往往也是迅速地,原先不适当的“不肯放手”就会慢慢放松,恢复和补救的过程就会开始。

因此,对于公众人物而言,培养业余爱好和新的兴趣才是上策。但这并非一日之功,也不是单凭意志力就能做到的事情。精神情趣的培养是一个长期的过程。要想在需要的时候可随手摘取充满生机的果实,种子就必须精挑细选,必须播种在肥沃的土壤里,还必须辛勤地护理。

要想真正快乐,真正安全,一个人至少应有两三种业余爱好,而且必须是实际可行的。到了晚年才开始说:“我会培养对这或对那的兴趣”,这是没有用的。这种愿望只能加剧精神紧张。一个人可能会获得大量与其日常工作无关的知识,却不能从中得到任何益处或宽慰。做你喜欢做的事是没有用的,你要喜欢你做的事。泛而言之,人可以分为三类:极其劳累的人,极其操心的人,极其无聊的人。对于卖了一周力气、流了一周汗水的体力劳动者来说,让他们在星期六下午踢足球或打垒球是不合适的。同样,对于工作了六天、一直为公务操心的政界人士、专业人员或商人来说,在周末再让他们为鸡毛蒜皮的琐事而操心劳累也是无益的。

那些能够支配一切、能够肆意妄为、能够染指一切追求目标的人是“不幸的”。对于他们而言,不多一种新的乐趣、多一种新的刺激只是增加一分厌腻而已。他们到处奔乱跑,企图靠喧闹和骚动来摆脱无聊对他们的报复,但这么做是徒劳的。对他们来说,某种形式的纪律约束是最有希望让他们走出{困境、走上正道的。

可以这样说,理智的,勤劳的、有用的人可以分为两类:第一类人认为工作是工作,娱乐于是娱乐;第二类人认为工作和娱乐是一回事。这两类人当中,第一类人占大多数。他们是能够得到补偿的。在办公室或工厂里长时间工作给他们带来了报酬,这不仅是谋生的手段,也使他们对寻找快乐充满了渴望,哪怕是最简单、最质朴的快乐。但是,幸运之神偏爱的是第二类人。他们的生活是一种自然的和谐。对他们来说,工作时间永远不会太长(永远都不够长),每一天都是假日,而当普通节日来到时,他们会感到厌恶,因为这强行打断了他们埋头从事的工作。然而对这两种人来说,换换脑子,改变一下气氛,转移一下注意力都是不可缺少的。其实,把工作当作乐趣的人,很可能是最需要每隔一段时间就把工作放下,让头脑放松的人。

Unit 9 Are You the Right Person for the Job?

In the old days it was easy. They were going to be the best three years of your life, and you knew it. You spent your time chatting late into the night with new-found friends in coffee bars and pubs, playing your heart out in the squash courts and on the cricket field, or strutting across the stage as a leading light of the university dramatic society. Whatever your interest, university life catered for it. And, let's not forget, you would usually manage to keep up with the work too, by doing the required reading and dashing off the week’s essay at the last minute. The only thing you didn't find time for was thinking about what came afterwards, at the end of those three exciting years. But you didn’t need to, because whatever your chosen career, the companies were all lining up to offer you a job.

That was what it was like in the old days as a student in the UK. But things have changed. A recent study of Britain's major multinational companies reveals that even with a good degree graduates can no longer walk into the top jobs. Today there are twice as many universities as there were just 30 years ago, and 40 percent of young people now go on to higher education. So with no shortage of graduates, a good degree has become vital in the search for a job. Competition is tough, and today's students are spending more time than ever preparing for those dreaded final exams, or doing low-paid part-time jobs to pay off debts.

But that's just the problem. In the opinion of managers from more than 200 British companies, students are spending too much time studying, or worrying about making ends meet, instead of joining clubs and acquiring

basic skills such as teamwork and making presentations. The managers also said that they were prepared to leave jobs unfilled rather than appoint graduates who didn't have the necessary skills to get ahead in the global market.

But what can be done about the problem? The solution, the managers believe, is to include social skills in degree courses; and some universities are taking the advice. At the University of Southampton, for example,

history students have to do a 12-week project—frequently related to the local context—working in teams of six. This includes making a presentation, writing a group thesis, and carrying out a public service, which might involve teaching schoolchildren or making a radio program about the topic.

There can be no doubt that this sort of cooperative approach can help many students develop personal skills which will help improve their prospects in their search for a job. One of the most well-known personality tests used by employers when interviewing candidates, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), puts the extrovert / introvert dichotomy at the top of the list of personality traits it tries to analyze. There are no "right answers" in such tests,

but extroverts, it is assumed, are going to be more suited to jobs in which they have to work in teams or deal with other people.

Equally interesting in the Southampton project is the conviction that students should be aware of the wider community, and find ways to make contributions to it. In today's shrinking world, students are increasingly aware that a university is not an ivory tower of learning, cut off from the real problems of the world, but on the contrary, can itself be an agent for change for a better world. There are numerous ways in which students can be volunteer s—before, during, or after their degree courses. With courses making heavy demands on students' time, as we have seen, a popular option is to take a gap year before or after university.

Typically, volunteering might mean helping the sick or elderly, entertaining underprivileged children on holiday camps, teaching in a Third World country or perhaps working on agricultural or environmental projects.

For students who choose to offer their talents in this way, one side effect is to gain a wealth of experience to be added to the CV, which will not go unnoticed by future employers. But a word of warning is in order: You should remember what your priorities are. As Shane Irwin, who worked for two years in Papua New Guinea, puts it: "Volunteering teaches you valuable career skills, but I don't think you should be looking to bolster your CV through volunteering—the main reason you should get involved is because you want to help."

你适合做这个工作吗?

过去,大学生活很轻松。那将是你一生中最美好的三年,你知道这一点。你是这样消磨时光的:在咖啡馆和酒吧里与新结交的朋友聊到深夜,在壁球场和板球场上尽情地挥舞球拍,或是作为大学戏剧社的大腕在舞台上昂首阔步。不管你有什么爱好,大学生活都能为你创造条件。而且,别忘了,你的学习还总能跟得上,能完成指定的阅读,并在最后一分钟匆忙草就那一周的文章。你唯一没有时间考虑的是过完这激动人心的三年后要做什么。不过这个问题并不需要考虑,因为无论选择什么职业,都有一大堆公司排着队来聘用你。

那是过去英国大学生校园生活的情形,现在情况已经改变了。最近一项对英国各大跨国公司的研究表明,即使拥有一个优良的学位,大学生再也不可能一毕业就得到最好的工作了。今天的大学数量比30年前翻了一番,40%的年轻人接受高等教育。由于并不缺少大学毕业生,拥有一个优良的学位对找工作就变得尤其重要了。竞争很激烈,结果是如今的大学生花了比任何时候都要多的时间来复习功课,为那些可怕的期末考试做准备,做报酬低的兼职以偿还债务。

然而,这恰恰是问题之所在。英国二百多家公司的经理认为,学生花在学习或挣钱维持生计上的时间太多了。他们本应该去参加各种俱乐部,学习一些基本的技能,如团队合作和现场演示。这些经理还说,他们宁可让职位空缺,也不愿意聘请那些缺乏必要技能,无法在国际市场上占领商机的毕业生。

该怎么做才能解决这个问题呢?经理们相信,解决的办法就是在学位课程里增加社交能力的训练。有的大学已经开始这样做了,例如南安普敦大学历史系学生必须做一个为期十二周、六人一组协同工作的项目—通常与当地的生活有关。项目内容包括:做一次演示、写一篇集体论文、做一项公众服务—可以是给中、小学生讲课,或做一期有关中、小学教学的广播节目。

毫无疑问,这种合作学习法能帮助许多学生培养有助于改善就业前景的个人技能。公司在面试应聘者时使用的最有名的人格测试之一是“迈尔斯一布里格斯性格分类法”(简称MBTI),这种分类法把外向/内向性格两分法置于它所分析的人格特征列表之首。测试中没有“正确答案”,但是它认为:性格外向者更适合做团队工作或与他人打交道的工作。

南安普敦大学项目中同样有趣的一个理念是:学生应该关注比校园更广阔的社区,并设法为之做出自己的贡献。在当今越来越小的世界里,学生们越来越清楚地意识到大学并不是与社会现实问题完全脱钩的学术象牙塔。正相反,大学本身可以促使世界变得更加美好。在学学位课程之前、期间、之后,学生们都可以通过多种渠道成为志愿者。正如我们所知,大学课程需要学生花费大量的时间,一般人会选择腾出上大学前或大学毕业后的一年时间作为实践年。

通常,志愿者工作指帮助病人或老年人、在假日营里招待贫困儿童、在第三世界国家教书,或者做农业或环境研究项目。

对那些选择在这些方面施展才能的学生而言,还有个意外的收获:可以把他们获取的丰富经验写进个人履历里,而未来的雇主是不会不注意到这些经验的。不过提醒一句:你应该记住自己的首要目的是什么。曾经在巴布亚新几内亚工作了两年的谢恩·欧文指出:“志愿者的工作能教给你宝贵的职业技能,但我认为你不应该只想着通过志愿者工作来给自己的履历表增添光彩—你做志愿工作的主要原因是因为你想帮助别人。”