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2013年12月英语六级阅读新题型模拟题

2013年12月英语六级阅读新题型模拟题

Section B(原快速阅读理解调整为长篇阅读理解,篇章长度和难度不变。篇章后附有10个句子,每句一题。每句所含的信息出自篇章的某一段落,要求考生找出与每句所含信息相匹配的段落。)

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

(1)Daylight Saving Time (DST)

How and When Did Daylight Saving Time Start?

[A] Benjamin Franklin—of “early to bed and early to rise” fame—was apparently the first person to suggest the concept of daylight savings. While serving as U.S. ambassador to France in Paris, Franklin wrote of being

awakened at 6 a.m. and realizing, to his surprise, that the sun would rise far earlier than he usually did. Imagine

the resources that might be saved if he and others rose before noon and burned less midnight oil, Franklin, tongue half in cheek, wrote to a newspaper.

[B] It wasn’t until World War I that daylight savings were realized on a grand scale. Germany was the first state to adopt the time changes, to reduce artificial lighting and thereby save coal for the war effort. Friends and foes soon followed suit. In the U.S. a federal law standardized the yearly start and end of daylight saving time in 1918—for the states that chose to observe it.

[C ] During World War II the U.S. made daylight saving time mandatory^ 强制的)for the whole country, as a way to save wartime resources. Between February 9, 1942, and September 30, 1945, the government took it a step further. During this period daylight saving time was observed year-round, essentially making it the new standard time, if only for a few years. Many years later, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was enacted, mandating a controversial month-long extension of daylight saving time, starting in 2007.

Daylight Saving Time: Energy Saver or Just Time Suck?

[D ] In recent years several studies have suggested that daylight saving time doesn’t actually save energy—and might even result in a net loss. Environmental economist Hendrik Wolff, of the University of Washington, co-authored a paper that

studied Australian power-use data when parts of the country extended daylight saving time for the 2000 Sydney Olympics and others did not. The researchers found that the practice reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening but increased energy use in the now dark mornings—wiping out the evening gains. That’s because the extra hour that daylight saving time adds in the evening is a hotter hour. “So if people get home an hour earlier in a warmer house, they turn on their air conditioning,” the University of Washington’s Wolff said.

[ E] But other studies do show energy gains. In an October 2008 daylight saving time report to Congress, mandated by the same 2005 energy act that extended daylight saving time, the U.S. Department of Energy asserted that springing forward does save energy. Extended daylight saving time saved 1.3 terawatt (太瓦)hours of electricity. That figure suggests that daylight saving time reduces annual U.S. electricity consumption by 0.03 percent and overall energy consumption by 0.02 percent. While those percentages seem small, they could represent significant savings because of the nation’s enormous total energy use.

[F] What*s more, savings in some regions are apparently greater than in others. California, for instance, appears to benefit most from daylight saving time—perhaps because its relatively mild weather encourages people to stay outdoors later. The Energy Department report found that daylight saving time resulted in an energy savings of one percent daily in the state.

[G] But Wolff, one of many scholars who contributed to the federal report, suggested that the numbers were subject to statistical variability (变化)and shouldn’t be taken as hard facts. And daylight savings, energy gains in the U.S. largely depend on your location in relation to the Mason-Dixon Line, Wolff said. “The North might be a slight winner, because the North doesn’t have as much air conditioning,” he said. “But the South is a definite loser in terms of energy consumption. The South has more energy consumption under daylight saving.”

Daylight Saving Time: Healthy or Harmful?

[ H] For decades advocates of daylight savings have argued that, energy savings or no, daylight saving time boosts health by encouraging active lifestyles—a claim Wolff and colleagues are currently putting to the test. “In a nationwide American time-use study, we’re clearly seeing that, at the time of daylight saving time extension in

the spring, television watching is substantially reduced and outdoor behaviors like jogging, walking, or going to

the park are substantially increased,” Wolff said. “That’s remarkable, because of course the total amount of daylight in a given day is the same. ”

[I] But others warn of ill effects. Till Roenneberg, a university professor in Munich (慕尼,黑),Germany, said his studies show that our circadian (生理节奏的)body clocks—set by light and darkness—never adjust to gaining an “extra” hour of sunlight to the end of the day during daylight saving time.

[J ] One reason so many people in the developed world are chronically (长期地)overtired, he said, is that they suffer from “social jet lag. ” In other words, their optimal circadian sleep periods don"t accord with their actual sleep schedules. Shifting daylight from morning to evening only increases this lag, he said. “Light doesn’t do the same things to the body in the morning and the evening. More light in the morning would advance the body clock, and that would be good. But more light in the evening would even further delay the body clock. ”

[K] Other research hints at even more serious health risks. A 2008 study concluded that, at least in Sweden, heart attack risks go up in the days just after the spring time change. “The most likely explanation to our findings is disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms,” One expert told National Geographic News via email.

Daylight Savings! Lovers and Haters

[L] With verdicts (定论)on the benefits, or costs, of daylight savings so split, it may be no surprise that the yearly time changes inspire polarized reactions. In the U.K., for instance, the Lighter Later movement—part of 10:10, a group advocating cutting carbon emissions—argues for a sort of extreme daylight savings. First, they say, move standard time forward an hour, then keep observing daylight saving time as usual—adding two hours of evening daylight to what we currently consider standard time. The folks behind Standardtime .com, on the other hand, want to abolish daylight saving time altogether, calling energy-efficiency claims “unproven. ”

[M] National telephone surveys by Rasmussen Reports from spring 2010 and fall 2009 deliver the same answer. Most people just “don’t think the time change is worth the hassle (麻烦洽勺事).” Forty-seven percent agreed with that statement, while only 40 percent disagreed. But Seize the Daylight author David Prerau said his research on daylight saving time suggests most people are fond of it. “I think if you ask most people if they enjoy having an extra hour of daylight in the evening eight months a year, the response would be pretty positive.”

46. Daylight savings,energy gains might be various due to different climates.

47. Disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms may be the best explanation to higher heart attack risks in the days after the spring time change.

48. A research indicated that DST might not save energy by increasing energy use in the dark mornings, though it reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening.

49. Germany took the lead to save wartime resources by adopting the time changes and reducing artificial lighting.

50. A university professor studied the effect of daylight saving time and sounded the alarm of its negative effects.

51. Social jet lag can partly account for people’s chronic fatigue syndrome in developed countries.

52. The figure of a study in the U.S. suggested that DST could save a lot of energy nationally.

53. Supporters of daylight savings have long considered daylight saving time does good to people’s health.

54. A group advocating cutting carbon emissions launches the Lighter Later movement to back a kind of extreme daylight savings.

55. A scholar contributing to a federal report suggested that the amount of saved energy had something to do with geographic position.

46. [F]。题干意为,夏令时带来的能源收益可能会因为不同的气候而有差异。注意抓住题干中的关键词 daylight savings" energy gains, various和different climates。文章段落中,提到能源节约量与天气有关的内容在[F]段出现,该段前两句提到,一些地区的节能量明显比其他地区要大。例如,加利福尼亚州似乎是从夏令时中获益最大的——可能是因为那里的气候相对溫和,鼓励人们在户外待到更晚。由此可知,题干对原文进行了概括和同义改写,故答案为[F]。

47. [K]。题干意为,睡眠障碍和生物节律紊乱可能是春季时间变化后心脏病发病率上升的最佳解释。注意抓住题干中的关键词 disturbed sleep and disruption of biological rhythms, explanation和higher heart attack risks。文章段落中,提及睡眠障碍和生物节律紊乱以及心脏病发病率上升的内容在[K]段出现,该段第二句提到,2008年的一项研究总结道,至少在瑞典,在春季时间变化后不久,心脏病发病率就上升了……接着第三句引用了一位专家的话:“根据我们的调查结果,最合理的解释是睡眠障碍及生物节奏紊乱。”由此可知,题干是对原文的同义改写,故答案为[K]。

48. [D]。题干意为,一项研究表明,尽管实行夏令时能减少夜间照明及电量消耗,但却因为增加了晨间的用电量而可能无法节约能源。注意抓住题干中的关键词increasing

energy use in the dark mornings和reduced lighting and electricity consumption in the evening。文章段落中,提到了增加晨间的用电量和减少夜间照明及

电量消耗的是[D]段,该段第三句提Sij,研究人员发现这种做法减少了夜间照明及电量消耗,但是却增加了晨间的用电量,因为现在早晨很昏暗——这就抵消了夜间节约的能源。由此可知,题干对原文进行了同义改写,故答案为[D]。

49. [B]。题干意为,德国率先通过采取时间变化和减少人工照明来节约战时资源。注意抓住题干中的关键词 Germany, the time change s和artificial lighting。文章段落中,有关德国的内容在[B ]段出现,该段第二句提到,德国是第一个采取时间变化以减少人工照明从而为战事节约煤炭资源的国家。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[B]。

50. [I]。题干意为,一位大学教授研究了夏令时的作用并警示人们其带来的消极影响。注意抓住题干中的关键词a university professor和sounded the alarm of its negative effects。文章段落中,提及夏令时会带来负面影响的内容在[I]段出现,该段首句指出,但是其他人却警告人们夏令时所带来的负面影响。德国慕尼黑一所大学的教授蒂尔?伦内伯格说,他的研究显示,我们的生物钟是根据白天和黑夜确定的,永远都适应不了夏令时期间白天快结束时所多出的那“额外”一小时的日光。由此可知,题干是对原文的概述,故答案为[I]。

51. [J]。题干意为,社会时差是发达国家的人们患长期疲劳综合征的部分原因。注意抓住题干中的关键词 social jet lag和chronic fatigue syndrome。文章段落中,提到社会时差和人们长期疲劳的内容在[J]段出现,该段第一句提到,发达国家中的很多人长期感觉过度劳累,原因之一就是,他们遭受“社会时差”的折磨。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[J]。

52. [E]。题干意为,美国一项研究的数据表明实行夏令时能在全国范围内节约很多能源。注意抓住题干中的关键词figure, save a lot of energy和nationally。文章段落中,提到整个国家节能总量大的内容在[E]段出现,该段最后两句提到,这个数字意味着,夏令时使美国年耗电量降低了0.03%,也使整体能耗减少了0.02%。尽管这些百分比看起来很小,但是,由于国家总能耗量很庞大,它们所代表的节能量还是很大的。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义改写,故答案为[E]。

53. [H]。题干意为,夏令时的支持者长期以来认为夏令时对人们的健康有好处。注意抓住题干中的关键词 supporters of daylight savings和do good to people’s health。文章段落中,提及夏令时支持者以及夏令时与人类健康的关系的内容在[H]段出现,该段第一句提到,几十年来,夏令时的倡导者一直宣称,不管夏令时能否节约能源,它都有利于健康,因为它倡导的是积极的生活方式。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[H]。

54. [L]。题干意为,倡导降低碳排放量的一个组织发起了“晚亮灯运动”以支持一种极端的日光节约时制。注意抓住题干中的关键词 a group advocating cutting carbon emissions, Lighter Later movement 和 a kind of extreme daylight savings。文章段落中,提及“晚亮灯运动”的内容在[L]段出现,该段第二句提到,在英国,“晚亮灯运动”——作为10:10(倡导降低碳排放量的一个组织)开展的运动的一部分——提倡一种极端的

日光节约时制。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[L]。

55. [G]。题干意为,协助撰写联邦报告的一位学者表示,能源的节约量与所处的地理位置有关。注意抓住题干中的关键词a scholar contributing to a federal report和geographic position。文章段落中,提及能源节约量和地理位置的关系的内容在[G]段出现,该段第二句提到,沃尔夫表示,夏令时给美国带来的能源收益主要取决于某个地区与梅森一狄克森线的相对位置。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[G]。

(2)Beauty and Body Image in the Media

[A] Images of female bodies are everywhere. Women—and their body parts—sell everything from food to cars. Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller and thinner. Some have even been known to faint on the set from lack of food. Women’s magazines are full of articles urging that if they can just lose those last twenty pounds, they’ll have it all—the perfect marriage, loving children, great sex, and a rewarding career.

[B] Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger and more mature than any of the models? The roots, some analysts say, are economic. By presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain, the cosmetic and diet product industries are assured of growth and profits. And it’s no accident that youth is increasingly promoted, along with thinness, as an essential criterion of beauty. If not all women need to lose weight, for sure they’re all aging, says the Quebec Action Network for Women’s Health in its 2001 report. And, according to the industry, age is a disaster that needs to be dealt with.

[C] The stakes are huge. On the one hand, women who are insecure about their bodies are more likely to buy beauty products, new clothes, and diet aids. It is estimated that the diet industry alone is worth anywhere between 40 to 100 billion (U.S.) a year selling temporary weight loss (90% to 95% of dieters regain the lost weight). On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of thin, young, air-brushed female bodies is linked to depression, loss of self-esteem and the development of unhealthy eating habits in women and girls.

[D ] The American research group Anorexia Nervosa & Related Eating Disorders, Inc. says that one out of every four college-aged women uses unhealthy methods of

weight control—including fasting, skipping meals, excessive exercise, laxative (泻药)abuse, and self-induced vomiting. The pressure to be thin is also affecting young girls: the Canadian Women’s Health Network warns that weight control measures are now being taken by girls as young as 5 and 6. American statistics are similar. Several studies, such as one conducted by Marika Tiggemann and Levina Clark in 2006 titled “Appearance Culture in 9- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction,” indicate that nearly half of all preadolescent girls wish to be thinner, and as a result have engaged in a diet or are aware of the concept of dieting. In 2003, Teen magazine reported that 35 percent of girls 6 to 12 years old have been on at least one diet, and that 50 to 70 percent of normal weight girls believe they are overweight. Overall research indicates that 90% of women are dissatisfied with their appearance in some way. Media activist Jean Kilbourne concludes that, “Women are sold to the diet industry by the magazines we read and the television programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight.”

[ E] Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that media images of female beauty are unattainable for all but a very small number of women. Researchers generating a computer model of a woman with Barbie-doll proportions, for example, found that her back would be too weak to support the weight of her upper body, and her body would be too narrow to contain more than half a liver and a few centimeters of bowel.

A real woman built that way would suffer from chronic diarrhea (慢性腹泻)and eventually die from malnutrition. Jill Barad, President of Mattel (which manufactures Barbie), estimated that 99% of girls aged 3 to 10 years old own at least one Barbie doll. Still, the number of real life women and girls who seek a similarly underweight body is epidemic, and they can suffer equally devastating health consequences. In 2006 it was estimated that up to 450, 000 Canadian women were affected by an eating disorder.

[F ] Researchers report that women’s magazines have ten and one-half times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than men’s magazines do, and over

three-quarters of the covers of women’s magazines include at least one message about how to change a woman’s bodily appearance—by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery. Television and movies reinforce the importance of a thin body as a measure of a woman’s worth. Canadian researcher Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the female characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty are above average in size. Heavier actresses tend to receive negative comments from

male characters about their bodies (“How about wearing a sack?,,),and 80 percent of these negative comments are followed by canned audience laughter.

[G] There have been efforts in the magazine industry to buck (才氐制,反抗)the trend. For several years the Quebec magazine Coup de Pouce has consistently included full-sized women in their fashion pages and Chatelaine has pledged not to touch up photos and not to include models less than 25 years of age. In Madrid, one of the world’s biggest fashion capitals, ultra-thin models were banned from the runway in 2006. Furthermore Spain has recently undergone a project with the aim to standardize clothing sizes through using a unique process in which a laser beam is used to measure real life women’s bodies in order to find the most true to life measurement.

[ H] Another issue is the representation of ethnically diverse women in the media.

A 2008 study conducted by Juanita Covert and Travis Dixon titled “A Changing View: Representation and Effects of the Portrayal of Women of Color in Mainstream Women’s Magazines” found that although there was an increase in the representation of women of colour, overall white women were overrepresented in mainstream women’s magazines from 1999 to 2004.

[I] The barrage of messages about thinness, dieting and beauty tells “ordinary”women that they are always in need of adjustment—and that the female body is an object to be perfected. Jean Kilbourne argues that the overwhelming presence of media images of painfully thin women means that real women’s bodies have become invisible in the mass media. The real tragedy, Kilbourne concludes, is that many women internalize these

stereotypes, and judge themselves by the beauty industry’s standards. Women learn to compare themselves to

other women, and to compete with them for male attention. This focus on beauty and desirability “effectively destroys any awareness and action that might help to change that climate.”

46. A report in Teen magazine showed that 50% to 70% girls with normal weight think that they need to lose weight.

47. On the whole, for 6 years white women had been occupying much more space in mainstream women’s magazines since 1999.

48. Some negative effects such as depression and unhealthy eating habits in females are related to their being exposed to images of thin and young female bodies.

49. The mass media has helped boost the cosmetic and the diet industries.

50. It is reported that there is at least one message about the methods for women to change their bodily appearance on more than three-quarters of the covers of women’s magazines.

51. Some film and television actresses even faint on the scene due to eating too little.

52. Too much concern with appearance makes it impossible to change such abnormal trend.

53. Researchers found that a real woman with Barbie-doll proportions would eventually die from malnutrition.

54. The Quebec magazine Coup (e Pouce resists the trend by consistently including full-sized women in their fashion pages for several years.

5 5. According to some analysts, the fundamental reason of imposing standards of beauty on women is economic profits.

Section B

46. [D]题干意为,《青少年》杂志上的一项报道称,有50%到70%体重正常的女孩认为自己需要减肥。注意抓住题干中的关键词magazine、50% to 70%和normal weight。文章段落中,《青少年》杂志以及百分比 50%到70%的内容在[D]段出现,该段倒数第二句提到,《青少年》杂志报道称,在6~12岁的女孩当中,有 35%的人至少进行过一次减肥,有50%~70%体重正常的女孩认为自己超重。由此可知,题干是对该句部分内容的同义转述,故答案为

[D]。题干中的need to lose weight与原文中的is overweight对应。

47. [H]。题干意为,总体而言,1999年以来白人女性连续六年占据了主流女性杂志的多数篇幅。注意抓住题干中的关键词for 6 years、white women和occupying much more space。文章段落中,提及白人女性在主流女性杂志所占比例的内容在[H]段出现,该段最后一句提到,该研究发现,虽然1999~2004年间杂志中出现的有色人种的女性形象在数量上有所增加,但是从整体来看,白人女性还是占据了主流女性杂志的多数篇幅。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[H]。题干中的occupying much more space对应原文中的 overrepresented。

48. [C]。题干意为,女性身上存在的一些诸如抑郁和不健康的饮食习惯的负面影响与接触年轻苗条的女性形象有关。注意抓住题干中的关键词depression and unhealthy eating habits、being exposed to和thin and young bodies。文章段落中,[C]段提到了抑郁、不健康的饮食习惯以及接触年轻苗条的女性形象的内容,该段最后一句提到,另一方面,研究表明,接触这种年轻苗条、妆容美丽的女性形象与女性的抑郁、缺乏自信和不健康的饮食习惯有关。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[C]。题干中的are related to对应原文中的 is linked to,being exposed to对应原文中的 exposure to。

49. [B]。题干意为,大众媒体帮助促进了化妆品和减肥产品行业的发展。注意抓住题干中的关键词boosted和 the cosmetic and the diet industries。文章段落中,只有[B]段提到了化妆品和减肥产品行业的发展,该段最后一句提到,通过呈现一个难以达到和保持的理想身材,化妆品和减肥产品行业必然能够得到发展并获得利润,而其呈现方式就是通过大众媒体。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[B]。

50. [F]。题干意为,报道称超过四分之三的女性杂志封面至少包含了一条关于如何改变女性身材的方法。注意抓住题干中的关键词at least one message和more than

three-quarters。文章段落中,提到女性杂志封面提供如何改变女性身材的的内容在[F]段出现,该段首句提到,研究人员公布说,女性杂志上宣传减肥的广告和文章所占的比重比男性杂志高10.5倍,超过四分之三的女性杂志封面至少包含了一条关于如何改变女性身材的信息——诸如节食、运动或是整容手术。由此可知,题干对该句后半句内容做了概括,故答案为 [F ]。题干中的 methods for women to change their bodily appearance 是对原文中 how to change a woman’s bodily appearance—by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery洽勺相无才括。

51. [A]。题干意为,甚至有些影视女演员因为吃得太少而在拍摄现场昏倒。注意抓住题干中的关键词film and television actresses和faint。文章段落中,[A]段提到了女演员以及晕倒的内容,该段第三句提到,有些女演员甚至因为吃得太少而在拍摄现场昏倒。由此可见,题干对原文做了同义改写,故答案为[A]。题干中的 due to eating too little 和原文中的 from lack of food对应。

52. [I]。题干意为,对外表的过度关注使得改变这种不正常的风气变得不可能。注意抓住题干中的关键词too much concern和change such abnormal trend。文章段落中,提及对外表的过度关注的内容在[I]段出现,该段最后一句提到,这种对于美丽和性感的关注“事实上摧毁了任何可能有助于改变这种风气的意识和行动”。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[I]。题干中的too much concern on appearance对应原文中的 focus on beauty and desirability。

53. [E]。题干意为,研究人员发现如果一个女人的身材比例和芭比娃娃一样,那么她最终会死于营养不良。注意抓住题干中的关键词Barbie-doll proportions和die from malnutrition。文章段落中,只有[E]段提到了芭比娃娃,该段第三句提到,如果一个女人的身材真是那样(有着芭比娃娃的身材比例)的话,她将会患上慢性腹泻并最终死于营养不良。由此可知,题干对原文做了同义改写,故答案为[E]。

54. [G]。题干意为,几年来魁北克杂志坚持在其时尚页面上刊登正常身材的女性形象,以抵制这种潮流。注意抓住题干中的关键词The Quebec magazine Coup de 和consistently including fUll-sized women。文章段落中,提及魁北克杂志Coup de )ou(e坚持刊登正常身材的女性形象的内容在[G]段出现,该段前两句提到,杂志业有人正在努力抵制这种潮流。几年来魁北克杂志Coup de )ou(e坚持在其时尚页面上刊登正常身材的女性形象。由此可

知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[G]。题干中的resists对应原文中的buck(抵制,反抗)。

55. [B]。题干意为,根据一些分析家的观点,将美丽的标准强加到女性身上的根本原因是经济利益。注意抓住题干中的关键词fundamental reason、standards of beauty和economic profits。文章段落中,论及将美丽的标准强加到女性身上的根本原因的内容在[B]段出现,该段前两句提到,为什么会把美丽的标准强加到女性身上,而大多数女性生来就比模特要胖要成熟?一些分析家认为,根源在于经济利益。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[B]。题干中的fundamental reason和原文中的roots对应。

(3)How Marketers Target Kids

[ A] Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power, they influence their parents# buying decisions and they are the adult consumers of the future. Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade, increasing from a mere $100 million in 1990 to more than $2 billion in 2000.

[B ] Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size, dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income. As well, guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. Here are some of the strategies marketers employ to target kids: Pester(纠缠)Power

[C ] Today’s kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations, so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. “Pester power” refers to children’s ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power, because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be.

[D] According to the 2001 marketing industry book Kidfluence, pestering or nagging can be divided into two categories—“persistence” and “importance”. Persistence nagging (a plea, that is repeated over and over again) is not as effective as the more sophisticated “importance nagging”. This latter method appeals to parents’ desire to provide the best for their children, and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids.

The Marriage of Psychology and Marketing

[E] To effectively market to children, advertisers need to know what makes kids tick. With the help of well-paid researchers and psychologists, advertisers now have access to in-depth knowledge about children’s

developmental, emotional and social needs at different ages. Using research that analyzes children’s behaviour, fantasy lives, art work, even their dreams, companies are able to craft sophisticated marketing strategies to reach young people.

The issue of using child psychologists to help marketers target kids gained widespread public attention in 1999, when a group of U.S. mental health professionals issued a public letter to the American Psychological Association (APA) urging them to declare the practice unethical. The APA is currently studying the issue.

Building Brand Name Loyalty

[G] Canadian author Naomi Klein tracks the birth of “brand” marketing in her 2000 book No Logo. According to Klein, the mid-1980s saw the birth of a new kind of corporation—Nike, Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger, to name a few—which changed their primary corporate focus from producing products to creating an image for their brand name. By moving their manufacturing operations to countries with cheap labour, they freed up money to create their powerful marketing messages. It has been a tremendously profitable formula, and has led to the creation of some of the most wealthy and powerful multi-national corporations the world has seen.

[H] Marketers plant the seeds of brand recognition in very young children, in the hopes that the seeds will grow into lifetime relationships. According to the Center for a New American Dream, babies as young as six months of age can form mental images of corporate logos and mascots. Brand loyalties can be established as early as age two, and by the time children head off to school most can recognize hundreds of brand logos. While fast food, toy and clothing companies have been cultivating brand recognition in children for years, adult-oriented businesses such as banks and automakers are now getting in on the act.

Buzz or Street Marketing

[I] The challenge for marketers is to cut through the intense advertising clutter (杂乱)in young people’s lives. Many companies are using “buzz marketing”—a new twist on the tried-and-true “word of mouth” method. The idea is to find the coolest kids in a community and have them use or wear your product in order to create a buzz around it. Buzz, or “street marketing”, as it’s also called, can help a company to successfully connect with the elusive (难找的)teen market by using trendsetters to give them products “cool” status.

[J] Buzz marketing is particularly well-suited to the Internet, where young “Net promoters” use chat rooms and blogs to spread the word about music, clothes and other products among unsuspecting users.

Commercialization in Education

[ K] School used to be a place where children were protected from the advertising and consumer messages that permeated their world—but not anymore. Budget shortfalls (亏空,差额)are forcing school boards to allow corporations access to students in exchange for badly needed cash, computers and educational materials.

[L] Corporations realize the power of the school environment for promoting their name and products. A school setting delivers a captive youth audience and implies the endorsement of teachers and the educational system. Marketers are eagerly exploiting this medium in a number of ways, including: 1) sponsored educational materials; 2) supplying schools with technology in exchange for high company visibility; 3) advertising posted in classrooms, school buses, on computers in exchange for funds; 4) contests and incentive programs: for example, the Pizza Hut reading incentives program in which children receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal; 5) sponsoring school events.

The Internet

[M ] The Internet is an extremely desirable medium for marketers wanting to target children. It’s part of youth culture.

This generation of young people is growing up with the Internet as a daily and routine part of their lives. Kids are often online alone, without parental supervision. Unlike broadcasting media, which have codes regarding advertising to kids, the Internet is unregulated. Sophisticated technologies make it easy to collect information from young people for marketing research, and to target individual children with personalized advertising.

Marketing Adult Entertainment to Kids

[N] Children are often aware of and want to see entertainment meant for older audiences because it is actively marketed to them. In a report released in 2000, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) revealed how the movie, music and video games industries routinely market violent entertainment to young children.

[O ] The FTC studied 44 films rated “Restricted”, and discovered that 80 per cent were targeted to children under 17. Marketing plans included TV commercials run during hours when young viewers were most likely to be watching. The FTC report also highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment

are often marketed to young children. Mature rated video games are advertised in youth magazines; and toys based on “Restricted” movies and M-rated video games are marketed to children as young as four.

46. Guilt can affect parents" spending decisions because they don’t have enough time for their kids.

47. The Center for a New American Dream pointed out that brand loyalties could be formed as early as age two.

48. School boards allow corporations to access to students because they need money and educational materials badly.

49. The FTC report highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children.

50. For this generation of young people, the Internet is a daily and routine part of their lives.

51. According to Kidfluence, “persistence nagging” is less effective than the more sophisticated “importance nagging”.

52. According to a report released by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the movie, music and video games industries usually market violent entertainment to young children.

53. Buzz marketing is well-suited to the Internet because the interactive environment can spread messages effectively.

54. A group of U.S. mental health professionals think that it is unethical to use child psychologists to help marketers target kids.

55. According to the Pizza Hut reading incentives program, children will receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal.

Section B

46. [B]题干意为,内疚感会影响父母做出消费决定,因为他们没有足够的时间陪孩子。注意抓住题干中的关

键词guilt和parents’ spending decisions。文章段落中,论及内疚感和影响父母购买决定的内容在[B]段出现,该段第二句提到,内疚感能够影响父母做出的消费决定,忙碌的父母希望用购买的东西来弥补自己没有足够的时间陪孩子。由此可知,题干对原文进行了同义改写,故答案为[B]。题干中的affect与原文中的play a role in对应。

47. [H]。题干意为,新美国梦中心指出,孩子早在两岁的时候就可以形成品牌忠诚度。注意抓住题干中的关键词 the Center for a New American Dream, brand loyalties 和 age two。文章段落中,提到新美国梦中心的内容在[H] 段出现,该段第三句提到,根据新美国

梦中心所说,早在两岁的时候就可以建立品牌忠诚度,而等到开始上学的时候,大多数孩子都可以认识几百个品牌标识。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[H]。

48. [K]。题干意为,教育委员会允许企业接近学生是因为他们急需资金和教学材料。注意抓住题干中的关键词school boards。文章段落中,提到教育委员会的内容在[K]段出现,该段第二句中提到,预算亏空迫使教育委员会允许企业进入校园,以此换取学校急需的资金、计算机和教学材料。题干对原文内容做了概述,故答案为[K]。

49. [O]。题干意为,联邦贸易委员会的报告强调了一个事实,即以成人娱乐中各个角色为原型的玩具经常被推销给年幼的孩子。注意抓住题干中的关键词FTC report和highlighted the fact。文章段落中,提到联邦贸易委员会(FTC)有[N]和[0]两段,但结合题干中的highlighted the fact可知相关内容在[0]段,该段第三句提到,联邦贸易委员会的报告还强调了一个事实,即基于成人娱乐中角色的玩具经常被推销给年幼的孩子,题干与原文意思一致,故答案为[0]。

50. [M]。题干意为,对于这一代年轻人来说,互联网是他们日常生活的一部分。注意抓住题干中的关键词this generation of young people和Internet。文章段落中,提到这一代年轻人和互联网关系的内容在[M]段,该段第三句提到,互联网伴随着这一代年轻人长大,互联网是他们日常生活的一部分。由此可知,题干是对原文内容的同义转述,故答案为[M]。

51. [D]。题干意为,根据《儿童影响力》这本书所说,“坚持纠缠”不如更圆滑的“重要性纠缠”有效。注意抓住题干中的关键词!persistence nagging, effective和importance nagging。文章段落中,提到《儿童影响力》这本书是在[D]段,该段第二句提到,“坚持纠缠”就是一再地恳求)不如更圆滑的“重要性纠缠”有效。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[D]。题干中的less effective than与原文中的not as effective as对应。

52. [N]。题干意为,依据美国联邦贸易委员会的一份报告,电影、音乐和电子游戏业经常向年幼的儿童推销暴力娱乐。注意抓住题干中的关键词a report released by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission和movie, music and video games industries。文章段落中,提到美国联邦贸易委员会的报告和电影等行业的内容在[N]段,该段第二句中提到,美国联邦贸易委员会2000年发表的一份报告中披露了电影、音乐和电子游戏业是如何习惯性地向年幼的儿童推销暴力娱乐的,由此可知,题干对原文内容进行了同义改写,故答案为[N]。

53. [J]。题干意为,口碑营销很适合互联网,因为其互动的环境可以让信息有效传播。注意抓住题干中的关键词buzz marketing和well-suited to the Internet。文章段落中,论及口碑营销和互联网关系的内容在[J ]段出现,该段提到,口碑营销很适合互联网,网上的年轻“网络推销员”利用聊天室和博客在毫无戒备心的用户中传播有关音乐、服饰和其他产品的信息。由此可知,题干对原文进行了同义转述,故答案为[J]。

54. [F]。题干意为,一个美国心理健康专家小组认为,利用儿童心理专家来帮助市场营销人员定位儿童需求是不道德的。注意抓住题干中的关键词U.S. mental health professionals,unethical和psychologists。文章段落中,提到美国心理健康专家小组的内容在[F]段出现,该段第一句提到,一个美国心理健康专家小组发表了一封给美国心理学会(APA)的公开信,要求他们宣布那种让儿童心理学家帮助市场营销人员定位儿童需求的做法是不道德的。题干与原文相符,故答案为[F]。

55. [L]。题干意为,根据必胜客的读书奖励计划,完成每月阅读目标的孩子可以获得免费比萨券。注意抓住题干中的关键词Pizza Hut和monthly reading goal。文章段落中,提到必胜客及免费比萨的内容出现在[L]段,

该段列举的第四点内容中提到,必胜客的读书奖励计划即完成每月阅读目标的儿童可以获得免费比萨券。由此可知,题干是对原文内容的同义转述,故答案为[L]。

(4)Into the Unknown

The world has never seen population ageing before. Can it cope?

[A] Until the early 1990s nobody much thought about whole populations getting older. The UN had the foresight to convene a “world assembly on ageing” back in 1982, but that came and went. By 1994 the World Bank had noticed that something big was happening. In a report entitled “Averting the Old Age Crisis” , it argued that pension arrangements in most countries were unsustainable.

[B] For the next ten years a succession of books, mainly by Americans, sounded the alarm. They had titles like Young Old, Gray Dawn and The Coming Generational Storm, and their message was blunt: health-care systems were heading for the rocks, pensioners were taking young people to the cleaners, and soon there would be intergenerational warfare.

[C] Since then the debate has become less emotional, not least because a lot more is known about the subject. Books, conferences and research papers have multiplied. International organisations such as the OECD and the EU issue regular reports. Population ageing is on every agenda, from G8 economic conferences to NATO summits. The World Economic Forum plans to consider the future of pensions and health care at its prestigious Davos conference early next year. The media, including this newspaper, are giving the subject extensive coverage.

[D ] Whether all that attention has translated into sufficient action is another question. Governments in rich countries now accept that their pension and health-care promises will soon become unaffordable, and many of them have embarked on reforms, but so far only timidly. That is not surprising: politicians with an

eye on the next election will hardly rush to introduce unpopular measures that may not bear fruit for years, perhaps decades.

[E ] The outline of the changes needed is clear. To avoid fisca(财政的)meltdown, public pensions and health-care provision will have to be reined back severely and taxes may have to go up. By far the most effective method to restrain pension spending is to give people the opportunity to work longer, because it increases tax revenues and reduces spending on pensions at the same time. It may even keep them alive longer. John Rother, the AARP’s head of policy and strategy, points to studies showing that other things being equal, people who remain at work have lower death rates than their retired peers.

[F] Younger people today mostly accept that they will have to work for longer and that their pensions will be less generous. Employers still need to be persuaded that older workers are worth holding on to. That may be because they have had plenty of younger ones to choose from, partly thanks to the post-war baby-boom and partly because over the past few decades many more women have entered the labour force, increasing employers’ choice. But the reservoir of women able and willing to take up paid work is running low, and the baby-boomers are going grey.

[G] In many countries immigrants have been filling such gaps in the labour force as have already emerged (and remember that the real shortage is still around ten years off). Immigration in the developed world is the highest it has ever been, and it is making a useful difference. In still-fertile America it currently accounts for about 40% of total population growth, and in fast-ageing western Europe for about 90%.

[H] On the face of it, it seems the perfect solution. Many developing countries have lots of young people in need of jobs; many rich countries need helping hands that will boost tax revenues and keep up economic growth. But over the next few decades labour forces in rich countries are set to shrink so much that inflows of immigrants would have to increase enormously to compensate: to at least twice their current size in western Europe’s most youthful countries, and three times in the older ones. Japan would need a large multiple of the few immigrants it has at present. Public opinion polls show that people in most rich countries already think that immigration is too high. Further big increases would be politically unfeasible.

[I] To tackle the problem of ageing populations at its root, “old” countries would have to rejuvenate(使年轻) themselves by having more of their own children.

A number of them have tried, some more successfully than

others. But it is not a simple matter of offering financial incentives or providing more child care. Modern urban life in rich countries is not well adapted to large families. Women find it hard to combine family and career. They often compromise by having just one child.

[J] And if fertility in ageing countries does not pick up? It will not be the end of the world, at least not for quite a while yet, but the world will slowly become a different place. Older societies may be less innovative and more strongly disinclined to take risks than younger ones. By 2025 at the latest, about half the voters in America and most of those in western European countries will be over 50—and older people turn out to vote in much greater number than younger ones. Academic studies have found no evidence so far that older voters have used their power at the ballot box to push for policies that specifically benefit them, though if in future there are many more of them they might start doing so.

[K] Nor is there any sign of the intergenerational warfare predicted in the 1990s. After all, older people themselves mostly have families. In a recent study of parents and grown-up children in 11 European countries, Karsten Hank of Mannheim University found that 85% of them lived within 25km of each other and the majority of them were in touch at least once a week.

[L] Even so, the shift in the centre of gravity to older age groups is bound to have a profound effect on societies, not just economically and politically but in all sorts of other ways too. Richard Jackson and Neil Howe of America’s CSIS, in a thoughtful book called The Graying of the Great Powers, argue that, among other things, the ageing of the developed countries will have a number of serious security implications.

[M] For example, the shortage of young adults is likely to make countries more reluctant to commit the few they have to military service. In the decades to 2050, America will find itself playing an ever-increasing role in the developed world’s defence effort. Because America’s population will still be growing when that of most other developed countries is shrinking, America will be the only developed country that still matters geopoliticallyi 地缘政治上).

Ask me in 2020

[ N] There is little that can be done to stop population ageing, so the world will have to live with it. But some of the consequences can be alleviated. Many experts now believe that given the right policies, the effects, though grave, need

not be catastrophic. Most countries have recognised the need to do something and are beginning to act.

[ O] But even then there is no guarantee that their efforts will work. What is happening now is historically unprecedented. Ronald Lee, director of the Centre on the Economics and Demography of Ageing at the University of California, Berkeley, puts it briefly and clearly: “We don’t really know what population ageing will be like, because nobody has done it yet. ”

46. Employers should realise it is important to keep older workers in the workforce.

47. A recent study found that most old people in some European countries had regular weekly contact with their adult children.

48. Few governments in rich countries have launched bold reforms to tackle the problem of population ageing.

49. In a report published some 20 years ago, the sustainability of old age pension systems in most countries was called into doubt.

50. Countries that have a shortage of young adults will be less willing to send them to war.

51. One-child families are more common in ageing societies due to the stress of urban life and the difficulties of balancing family and career.

52. A series of books, mostly authored by Americans, warned of conflicts between the older and younger generations.

53. Compared with younger ones, older societies tend to be less innovative and take fewer risks.

54. The best solution to the pension crisis is to postpone the retirement age.

55. Immigration as a means to boost the shrinking labour force may meet with resistance in some rich countries.

Section B

46. [F]。题干意为,雇主们应该意识到留住老龄员工很重要。注意抓住题干中的关键词employers和older workers。文章段落中,谈及雇主和老龄员工关系的内容在[F]段出现,该段第二句提到,我们仍需说服雇主们继续雇用老龄员工是值得的。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为[F]。

47. [K]。题干意为,最近的一项研究发现,在一些欧洲国家,大多数的老年人每周都会联系他们的成年子女。注意抓住题干中的关键词a recent study, European countries 和adult children。文章段落中,有关欧洲国家老人及其成年子女的研究的内容在[K]段出现,该段第三句提到,在最近的一项关于11个欧洲国家的父母及其