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翻译理论基础

名词解释

gloss translation the translator attempts to reproduce as literally and meaningfully as possible the form and content of the original.Such a translation would require numerous footnotes in order to make the text fully comprehensible.A gloss translatio n of this type is designed to permit the reader to identify himself as fully as possible with a persion in the source-language context,and to understand as much as he can of the customs,manner of thought, and means of expression.

False friends borrowed or cognate words which seem to be equivalent but are not always so

Adequaly refers to the qualities fo a target text which regard to the tanslation brief.ie. tanslation instrction given by the translation of the source text that are transferred.The term refers to the communicative values are meaning composites seen entirely at a textual level and in communicative context.

Documentary translation tries to provide a documention of a source-culture communication in the target language, in which any explanation for the target-culture readers is given outside the text.

Instrumental translation tends to prouce an indpendent communicative instrument for a target-culture communicative situation,processing the information of the source text in such a way that it is apropriate for the target-culture adressees in their situation. The limits of the two translations:within the framework of the functionality-plus-loyality model, an instrumental translation can be chosen only in these cases where the intention of the sender or author is not directed exclusively at SC receivers but can also be transferred to TC readers.If this is not the case, the translation must be realized in document function, informing about the source-text situation in the text environment and thus giving the target addresssees an indication that they are reading a translated text.

The translation brief should contain information abou t:1the senders?intentions2.the addressees3the time and place of text reception,4.the medium over which the text will be transmitted 5.the motive for text production or reception

Even-Zohar posits two interrelated hypotheses:1.The position assumed by translated literature in the literary polysystem tends to be a peripheral one except in three special cases2.Transtlation tends toward acceptability when it is at the periphery,and toward adequacy when it is at the center.

The role translated literature plays in the culture is either central or peripheral, primary or secondary.If it occupies a primary position,it participates actively in shaping the center of the polysystem .It may serve for innovations in the literary history and may set up new models in the target culture .If it assumers a secondary position,it represent a peripheral system within the polysystem and conforms to the established literary norms and conventional forms of the target culture.

Strategies on the translator?s part.In Lefevere?s theory,poetics is composed of two parts: one is an inventoryof literary devices,genres,motifs,prototypical characters and situations,and symbols,the other a concept of what the role of literature is , or should be ,in the social system as a whole.

Translation plays an active role in colonial and postcolonial settings.It has been used in three ways in postcolonial study:as a channel of colonization, as a lightning-rod for suviving cultural inequalities after the collapse of colonialism and a channel of decolonization .Postcolonial scholars no longer take the act of translation as a mechanical transfer of meaning from one language into another ,but a political action. Four-beat model of the hermeneutic motion—a narrative of process1.initiative trust2.aggression3.incorporation4.reciprocity or restitution

Faceed with options, the translator would determine by considerations of relecance ,and specifically by assumptions relevant to the communicative context.Thus he searches for optimal relevence and optimal resemblance in conveying the ideas so that the receiving side could derive information with minimal processing efforts.

Translation norms: are a product of the various constraints in the target culture that exert direct influences on the translator?s decisions in their translational activities. Difference:Derrida posted the word “differance” to imply both to defer and to differ, suggesting the thinking in terms of deferring and differing, an indeterminate, endless play of meaning, which underlies the deconstructionist approach.

Patronage: is understood as “sth like the power(person, institutions) that can further or hinder the reading, writing and rewriting of literature”.

What principle governing translations oriented toward Dynamic Equivalence? One way of definition a D-E translation is to describe it as“the closest natural equivalent to the source-language.” This type of definition contains 3 essential terms: 1, equivalence, which points toward the resource language message 2, natural, which points toward the receptor language 3, closest, which binds the two orientations together on the basis of the highest degree of approximation.

What kinds of text require semantic translation?

Semantic translation for works of philosophy, religion, anthropology, even politics, in texts where the manner and the matter are fused, which are therefore well written, then the translation must be more explicit and usually fuller than for works of literature, particularly poetry.

What’s the difference between the linguistic and text-linguistic models?

The linguistic model, this approach treats translation as a specific, perhaps unique, types of language use. It does not consider external and extralinguistic factors such as critical norms or the constraints of practice. It concentrates, instead, on systemic relationships between the source and target languages. And it investigates the transfer potentials of words and constructions and tries to establish correspondence rules between languages. The linguistic and text-linguistic models treat meaning differently. In the text-linguistic model, translation does not involve the transfer of meanings. It is, rather, the communicative values of the source text that are transferred. The term refers to the communicative contextualization of words and meanings in discourse. Communicative values are meaning composites seen entirely at a textual level and in communicative context.

How is the relation between the position of translated literature?

Even-zohar posits two interrelated hypotheses: 1, the position assumed by translated literature in the literary polysystem tends to be a peripheral one except in three specific cases: (1), when a polysystem has not yet been crystallized, that is to say, when a literature is “young”, in the process of being established. (2), when a literature is either “peripheral” or “weak” or both. (3) when there are turning points, crises, or literary vacuums in a literature.

2, translation tends toward acceptability when it is at the periphery, and toward adequacy when it is at the center.

目的论:the skopos theory holds that “the way the target text eventually shapes up is determined to a great extent by the function, or …skopos…,intended for it in the target context”. As a result, it is the skopos of the translation which determines the translation methods and strategies that a translator may adopt in order to produce a functionally adequate translation. There are another two important factors in V ermeer?s skopos theory. One is the addressee, i.e. the intended receiver of the target text, who determines the purpose of a translation. Another is the much lower status of the source text, which is regarded just as “an offer of information” from which a translator selects what is most useful and important to his translation purpose. Vermeer in his pa per “Framework for a general translation theory” first formulated his skopos theory, putting forward three rules guiding the translator?s translation decision: the skopos rule, coherence rule and fidelity rule. The skopos rule stipulates that translation is not determined by the source text, or its effects on the

source text recipient, or the function assigned to it by the author, but the prospective function or purpose (skopos) of the translated text as determined by the translation initiator. The coherence rule means that the translated text must be sufficiently coherent to allow the intended adressees to comprehend it, given their assumed background knowledge and situational circumstances. The fidelity rule refers to intertextual coherence, implying some kind of relation between translatum and source text. Of the three rules, the skopos rule is the top-ranking one, which must be given priority over any other rules in translating when there is a conflict among them.

Eugene Nida-----dynamic equivalence & formal equivalence

Perter Newmark-----semantic translation & communicative translation

Albrecht Newbert-----translation as text

V enuti-----resistive translation

Reiss----“adequacy” in opposition to “equivalence”/three types of text(informative;expressive;vocative)

Hans J.V ermeer----skopos theory

Holz Manttaris----theory of translational action

Christiane Nord---functionality plus loyalty

Itamar Even-Zohar----polysystem theory

Gildeon Toury---descriptive translation studies/translation norms

Andre Lefevere---translation as rewriting

Lawrence V enuti---foreignizing translation strategy

Luise von Flaotow----feminist perspective

Douglas Robinson---postcolonial approach to translation

George Steiner----hermeneutic approach to translation

Jacques Derrida----deconstructionist translation theory

Ernst-August Gutt---cognitive approach to translation

Wolfgang Lorscher---think-aloud as a Method

Mona Baker---corpus-based translation studies