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ASTM A450-A450M-2015

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

Designation:A450/A450M?15

Standard Speci?cation for

General Requirements for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Tubes1

This standard is issued under the?xed designation A450/A450M;the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or,in the case of revision,the year of last revision.A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.

A superscript epsilon(′)indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S.Department of Defense.

1.Scope*

1.1This speci?cation2covers a group of requirements which,with the exceptions of6.3and Sections7,8,19,20,21, 22,23,24,and25,are mandatory requirements to the follow-ing ASTM tubular product speci?cations:3

Title of Speci?cation ASTM Designation A

Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and Carbon

Manganese Steel Boiler Tubes

A178/A178M

Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-

Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A179/A179M

Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure

Service

A192/A192M

Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Super-

heater Tubes

A210/A210M

Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-

Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A214/A214M Seamless and Electric-Welded Low-Alloy Steel Tubes A423/A423M

Speci?cation for Seamless and Welded Carbon Steel

Heat-Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins

A498

Seamless Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater

Tubes

A556/A556M

Seamless,Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel Tubing for Hy-

draulic System Service

A822/A822M

A These designations refer to the latest issue of the respective speci?cations.

1.2One or more of Sections6.3,7,8,19,20,21,22,2

2.1, 24,and25apply when the product speci?cation or purchase order has a requirement for the test or analysis described by these sections.

1.3In case of con?ict between a requirement of the product speci?cation and a requirement of this general requirement speci?cation only the requirement of the product speci?cation need be satis?ed.

1.4The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard.Within the text,the SI units are shown in brackets.The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;therefore,each system shall be used independently of the http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.htmlbining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.The inch-pound units shall apply unless the“M”designation(SI)of the product speci?cation is speci?ed in the order.

2.Referenced Documents

2.1ASTM Standards:4

A178/A178M Speci?cation for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes

A179/A179M Speci?cation for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A192/A192M Speci?cation for Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure Service

A210/A210M Speci?cation for Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes

A214/A214M Speci?cation for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A370Test Methods and De?nitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

A423/A423M Speci?cation for Seamless and Electric-Welded Low-Alloy Steel Tubes

A498Speci?cation for Seamless and Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins

A530/A530M Speci?cation for General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe

A556/A556M Speci?cation for Seamless Cold-Drawn Car-bon Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes

A700Guide for Packaging,Marking,and Loading Methods for Steel Products for Shipment

A751Test Methods,Practices,and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel Products

A822/A822M Speci?cation for Seamless Cold-Drawn Car-bon Steel Tubing for Hydraulic System Service

1This speci?cation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.09on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.

Current edition approved May1,2015.Published June2015.Originally approved http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.htmlst previous edition approved in2010as A450/A450M–10.

DOI:10.1520/A0450_A0450M-15.

2For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Speci?-cation SA-450in Section II of that Code.

3Annual Book of ASTM Standards,V ols01.01and01.04.

4For referenced ASTM standards,visit the ASTM website,http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html,or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html.For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information,refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard Copyright?ASTM International,100Barr Harbor Drive,PO Box C700,West Conshohocken,PA19428-2959.United States

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

A941Terminology Relating to Steel,Stainless Steel,Related Alloys,and Ferroalloys

A1047/A1047M Test Method for Pneumatic Leak Testing of Tubing

A1058Test Methods for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products—Metric

D3951Practice for Commercial Packaging

E92Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials (Withdrawn 2010)5

E213Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing

E273Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of the Weld Zone of Welded Pipe and Tubing

E309Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tubu-lar Products Using Magnetic Saturation

E426Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current)Examina-tion of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products,Titanium,Austenitic Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys

E570Practice for Flux Leakage Examination of Ferromag-netic Steel Tubular Products 2.2Federal Standard:

Fed.Std.No.183Continuous Identi?cation Marking of Iron and Steel Products 62.3Military Standards:

MIL-STD-163Steel Mill Products Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage 6

MIL-STD-271Nondestructive Testing Requirements for Metals 6

MIL-STD-792Identi?cation Marking Requirements for Special Purpose Equipment 6

2.4ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code:Section IX 7

2.5Steel Structures Painting Council:

SSPC-SP 6Surface Preparation Speci?cation No.6Com-mercial Blast Cleaning 82.6Other Document:

SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Nondestructive Personnel Quali?cation and Certi?cation.3.Terminology

3.1De?nitions of Terms Speci?c to This Standard:

3.1.1remelted heat—in secondary melting,all of the ingots remelted from a single primary heat.

3.1.2thin-wall tube—a tube meeting the speci?ed outside diameter and speci?ed wall thickness set forth as follows:

Speci?ed Outside

Diameter

Speci?ed Wall Thickness

2in.[50.8mm]or less 2%or less of speci?ed outside diameter Greater than 2in.[50.8mm]3%or less of speci?ed outside diameter

Any

0.020in.[0.5mm]or less

3.2Other de?ned terms—The de?nitions in Test Methods and De?nitions A370,Test Methods,Practices,and Terminol-ogy A751,and Terminology A941are applicable to this speci?cation and to those listed in 1.1.

4.Ordering Information

4.1It is the purchaser’s responsibility to specify in the purchase order all ordering information necessary to purchase the needed material.Examples of such information include,but are not limited to,the following:

4.1.1Quantity (feet,metres,or number of lengths),

4.1.2Speci?ciation number with grade or class,or both,as applicable and year date,

4.1.3Manufacture (hot-?nished or cold-?nished),

4.1.4Size (outside diameter and minimum wall thickness),4.1.5Length (speci?c or random),

4.1.6Test report required (see Section 27),

4.1.7Choice of testing track from the options listed in Test Methods A1058when material is ordered to an M suffix (SI units)product standard.If the choice of test track is not speci?ed in the order,then the default ASTM test track shall be used as noted in Test Methods A1058.4.1.8Supplementary Requirements,and 4.1.9Additional requirements.

5.Process

5.1The steel may be made by any process.

5.2If a speci?c type of melting is required by the purchaser,it shall be as stated on the purchase order.

5.3The primary melting may incorporate separate degas-sing or re?ning and may be followed by secondary melting,such as electroslag remelting or vacuum-arc remelting.5.4Steel may be cast in ingots or may be strand cast.When steel of different grades is sequentially strand cast,identi?ca-tion of the resultant transition material is required.The producer shall remove the transition material by an established procedure that positively separates the grades.

6.Chemical Composition

6.1Samples for chemical analysis,and method of analysis shall be in accordance with Test Methods,Practices,and Terminology A751.

6.2Heat Analysis—If the heat analysis reported by the steel producer is not sufficiently complete for conformance with the heat analysis requirements of the applicable product speci?ca-tion to be fully assessed,the manufacturer may complete the assessment of conformance with such heat analysis require-ments by using a product analysis for the speci?ed elements that were not reported by the steel producer,provided that product analysis tolerances are not applied and the heat analysis is not altered.

5

The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html.6

Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk,DODSSP,Bldg.4,Section D,700Robbins Ave.,Philadelphia,PA 19111-5098.7

Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),ASME International Headquarters,Two Park Ave.,New York,NY 10016-5990,http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html.8

Available from Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC),4024th St.,6th Floor,Pittsburgh,PA 15222-4656,

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html.

6.3Product Analysis—Product analysis requirements and

options,if any,are contained in the product speci?cation. 7.Tensile Properties

7.1The material shall conform to the requirements as to

tensile properties prescribed in the individual speci?cation.

7.2The yield strength corresponding to a permanent offset

of0.2%of the gage length or to a total extension of0.5%of

the gage length under load shall be determined.

7.3If the percentage of elongation of any test specimen is

less than that speci?ed and any part of the fracture is more than 3?4in.[19.0mm]from the center of the gage length,as indicated by scribe marks on the specimen before testing,a

retest shall be allowed.

8.Standard Weights

8.1The calculated weight per unit length,based upon a

speci?ed minimum wall thickness,shall be determined by the

following equation:

W5C~D2t!t(1) where:

C=10.69[0.0246615],

W=weight,lb/ft[kg/m],

D=speci?ed outside diameter,in.[mm],and

t=speci?ed minimum wall thickness,in.[mm]

8.2The permissible variations from the calculated weight per foot[kilogram per metre]shall be as prescribed in Table1.

9.Permissible Variations in Wall Thickness

9.1Variations from the speci?ed minimum wall thickness shall not exceed the amounts prescribed in Table2.

9.2For tubes2in.[50.8mm]and over in outside diameter and0.220in.[5.6mm]and over in thickness,the variation in wall thickness in any one cross section of any one tube shall not exceed the following percentage of the actual mean wall at the section.The actual mean wall is de?ned as the average of the thickest and thinnest wall in that section.

Seamless tubes610%

Welded tubes65%

9.3When cold-?nished tubes as ordered require wall thick-nesses3?4in.[19.1mm]or over,or an inside diameter60%or less of the outside diameter,the permissible variations in wall thickness for hot-?nished tubes shall apply.10.Permissible Variations in Outside Diameter

10.1Except as provided in10.2,variations from the speci-?ed outside diameter shall not exceed the amounts prescribed in Table3.

10.2Thin-wall tubes usually develop signi?cant ovality(out of roundness)during?nal annealing,or straightening,or both. The diameter tolerances of Table3are not sufficient to provide for additional ovality expected in thin-wall tubes,and,for such tubes,are applicable only to the mean of the extreme(maxi-mum and minimum)outside diameter readings in any one cross section.However,for thin wall tubes the difference in extreme outside diameter readings(ovality)in any one cross section shall not exceed the following ovality allowances:

Outside Diameter Ovality Allowance

1in.[25.4mm]and under0.020in.[0.5mm]

Over1in.[25.4mm] 2.0%of speci?ed outside diameter

TABLE1Permissible Variations in Weight Per Unit Length A

Method of Manufacture Permissible Variation in Weight per Unit Length,%

Over Under

Seamless,hot-?nished

Seamless,cold-?nished:

160

11?2in.[38.1mm]and under OD120

Over11?2in.[38.1mm]OD130 Welded100

A These permissible variations in weight apply to lots of50tubes or more in sizes 4in.[101.6mm]and under in outside diameter,and to lots of20tubes or more in sizes over4in.[101.6mm]in outside diameter.

TABLE2Permissible Variations in Wall Thickness A Outside

Diameter,

in.[mm]

Wall Thickness,%

0.095

[2.4]

and

Under

Over

0.095

to0.150

[2.4to

3.8],incl

Over0.150

to0.180

[3.8to

4.6],incl

Over

0.180,

[4.6]

Over Under Over Under Over Under Over Under

Seamless,Hot-Finished Tubes

4[101.6]and400350330280 under

Over4 (350330280)

[101.6]

Seamless,Cold-Finished Tubes

Over Under

11?2[38.1]and200

under

Over11?2[38.1]220

Welded Tubes

All sizes180

A These permissible variations in wall thickness apply only to tubes,except internal-upset tubes,as rolled or cold-?nished,and before swaging,expanding, bending,polishing,or other fabricating operations.

TABLE3Permissible Variations in Outside Diameter A

Outside Diameter,

in.[mm]

Permissible Variations,in.[mm]

Over Under

Hot-Finished Seamless Tubes

4[101.6]and under1?64[0.4]1?32[0.8]

Over4to71?2[101.6to190.5],incl1?64[0.4]3?64[1.2]

Over71?2to9[190.5to228.6],incl1?64[0.4]1?16[1.6]

Welded Tubes and Cold-Finished Seamless Tubes

Under1[25.4]0.004[0.1]0.004[0.1]

1to11?2[25.4to38.1],incl0.006[0.15]0.006[0.15] Over11?2to2[38.1to50.8],excl0.008[0.2]0.008[0.2]

2to21?2[50.8to63.5],excl0.010[0.25]0.010[0.25]

21?2to3[63.5to76.2],excl0.012[0.3]0.012[0.3]

3to4[76.2to101.6],incl0.015[0.38]0.015[0.38] Over4to71?2[101.6to190.5],incl0.015[0.38]0.025[0.64] Over71?2to9[190.5to228.6],incl0.015[0.38]0.045[1.14]

A Except as provided in10.2,these permissible variations include out-of-roundness.These permissible variations in outside diameter apply to hot-?nished seamless,welded and cold-?nished seamless tubes

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

before other fabricating operations such as upsetting,swaging,expanding,bending,or polishing.

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

11.Permissible Variations in Length

11.1Variations from the speci?ed length shall not exceed the amounts prescribed in Table 4.

12.Permissible Variations in Height of Flash on Electric-Resistance-Welded Tubes 12.1For tubes over 2in.[50.8mm]in outside diameter,or over 0.135in.[3.44mm]in wall thickness,the ?ash on the inside of the tubes shall be mechanically removed by cutting to a maximum height of 0.010in.[0.25mm]at any point on the tube.

12.2For tubes 2in.[50.8mm]and under in outside diameter and 0.135in.[3.4mm]and under in wall thickness,the ?ash on the inside of the tube shall be mechanically removed by cutting to a maximum height of 0.006in.[0.15mm]at any point on the tube.13.Straightness and Finish

13.1Finished tubes shall be reasonably straight and have smooth ends free of burrs.They shall have a workmanlike ?nish.Surface imperfections (see Note 1)may be removed by grinding,provided that a smooth curved surface is maintained,and the wall thickness is not decreased to less than that permitted by this or the product speci?cation.The outside diameter at the point of grinding may be reduced by the amount so removed.

N OTE 1—An imperfection is any discontinuity or irregularity found in the tube.

14.Repair by Welding

14.1Repair welding of base metal defects in tubing is permissible only with the approval of the purchaser and with the further understanding that the tube shall be marked “WR”and the composition of the deposited ?ller metal shall be suitable for the composition being welded.Defects shall be thoroughly chipped or ground out before welding and each repaired length shall be reheat treated or stress relieved as required by the applicable speci?cation.Each length of re-paired tube shall be tested hydrostatically as required by the product speci?cation.

14.2Repair welding shall be performed using procedures and welders or welding operators that have been quali?ed in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,Section IX.

15.Retests

15.1If the results of the mechanical tests of any group or lot do not conform to the requirements speci?ed in the individual speci?cation,retests may be made on additional tubes of double the original number from the same group or lot,each of which shall conform to the requirements speci?ed.16.Retreatment

16.1If the individual tubes or the tubes selected to represent any group or lot fail to conform to the test requirements,the individual tubes or the group or lot represented may be retreated and resubmitted for test.Not more than two reheat treatments shall be permitted.17.Test Specimens

17.1Test specimens shall be taken from the ends of ?nished tubes prior to upsetting,swaging,expanding,or other forming operations,or being cut to length.They shall be smooth on the ends and free of burrs and ?aws.

17.2If any test specimen shows ?aws or defective machining,it may be discarded and another specimen substi-tuted.

18.Method of Mechanical Testing

18.1The specimens and mechanical tests required shall be made in accordance with Annex A2of Test Methods and De?nitions A370if inch-pound units are speci?ed or to the requirements described in the applicable track of Test Methods A1058if SI units are speci?ed.

18.2Specimens shall be tested at room temperature.18.3Small or subsize specimens as described in Test Methods and De?nitions A370or Test Methods A1058may be used only when there is insufficient material to prepare one of the standard specimens.When using small or subsize specimens,the largest one possible shall be used.19.Flattening Test

19.1A section of tube not less than 21?2in.[63mm]in length for seamless and not less than 4in.[100mm]in length for welded shall be ?attened cold between parallel plates in two steps.For welded tubes,the weld shall be placed 90°from the direction of the applied force (at a point of maximum bending).During the ?rst step,which is a test for ductility,no cracks or breaks,except as provided for in 19.4,on the inside,outside,or end surfaces shall occur in seamless tubes,or on the inside or outside surfaces of welded tubes,until the distance between the plates is less than the value of H calculated by the following equation:

H 5

~11e !t

e 1t /D

(2)

where:H =distance between ?attening plates,in.[mm],t =speci?ed wall thickness of the tube,in.[mm],D =speci?ed outside diameter of the tube,in.[mm],and

TABLE 4Permissible Variations in Length A

Method of Manufacture Outside Diameter,in.[mm]Cut Length,in.[mm]Over Under Seamless,hot-?nished All sizes 3?16[5]0[0]Seamless,cold-?nished Under 2[50.8]2[50.8]and over 1?8

[3]3?16[5]0[0]0[0]Welded

Under 2[50.8]2[50.8]and over

1?8[3]3?16[5]

0[0]0[0]

A

These permissible variations in length apply to tubes before bending.They apply to cut lengths up to and including 24ft [7.3m].For lengths greater than 24ft [7.3m],the above over-tolerances shall be increased by 1?8in.[3mm]for each 10ft [3m]or fraction thereof over 24ft or 1

?2in.[13mm],whichever is the lesser.

e=deformation per unit length(constant for a given grade of steel:0.07for medium-carbon steel(maximum

speci?ed carbon0.19%or greater),0.08for low alloy

steel,and0.09for low-carbon steel(maximum speci-

?ed carbon0.18%or less)).

During the second step,which is a test for soundness,the ?attening shall be continued until the specimen breaks or the opposite walls of the tube meet.Evidence of laminated or unsound material,or of incomplete weld that is revealed during the entire?attening test shall be cause for rejection.

19.2Surface imperfections in the test specimens before ?attening,but revealed during the?rst step of the?attening test,shall be judged in accordance with the?nish requirements.

19.3Super?cial ruptures resulting from surface imperfec-tions shall not be cause for rejection.

19.4When low D-to-t ratio tubular products are tested, because the strain imposed due to geometry is unreasonably high on the inside surface at the six and twelve o’clock locations,cracks at these locations shall not be cause for rejection if the D to t ratio is less than10.

20.Reverse Flattening Test

20.1A5in.[100mm]in length of?nished welded tubing in sizes down to and including1?2in.[12.7mm]in outside diameter shall be split longitudinally90°on each side of the weld and the sample opened and?attened with the weld at the point of maximum bend.There shall be no evidence of cracks or lack of penetration or overlaps resulting from?ash removal in the weld.

21.Flaring Test

21.1A section of tube approximately4in.[100mm]in length shall stand being?ared with a tool having a60°included angle until the tube at the mouth of the?are has been expanded to the percentages speci?ed in Table5without cracking or showing imperfections rejectable under the provisions of the product speci?cation.

22.Flange Test

22.1A section of tube shall be capable of having a?ange turned over at a right angle to the body of the tube without cracking or showing imperfections rejectable under the provi-sions of the product speci?cation.The width of the?ange for carbon and alloy steels shall be not less than the percentages speci?ed in Table6.

23.Hardness Test

23.1For tubes0.200in.[5.1mm]and over in wall thickness,either the Brinell or Rockwell hardness test shall be used.When Brinell hardness testing is used,a10-mm ball with 3000,1500,or500-kg load,or a5-mm ball with750-kg load may be used,at the option of the manufacturer.

23.2For tubes less than0.200in.[5.1mm]to and including 0.065in.[1.7mm]in wall thickness,the Rockwell hardness test shall be used.

23.3For tubes less than0.065in.[1.7mm]in wall thickness,the hardness test shall not be required.

23.4The Brinell hardness test may be made on the outside of the tube near the end,on the outside of a specimen cut from the tube,or on the wall cross section of a specimen cut from the tube at the option of the manufacturer.This test shall be made so that the distance from the center of the impression to the edge of the specimen is at least2.5times the diameter of the impression.

23.5The Rockwell hardness test may be made on the inside surface,on the wall cross section,or on a?at on the outside surface at the option of the manufacturer.

23.6For tubes furnished with upset,swaged,or otherwise formed ends,the hardness test shall be made as prescribed in 23.1and23.2on the outside of the tube near the end after the forming operation and heat treatment.

23.7For welded or brazed tubes,the hardness test shall be made away from the joints.

23.8When the product speci?cation provides for Vickers hardness,such testing shall be in accordance with Test Method E92.

24.Hydrostatic Test

24.1Except as provided in24.2and24.3,each tube shall be tested by the manufacturer to a minimum hydrostatic test pressure determined by the following equation:

Inch2Pound Units:P532000t/D(3)

SI Units:P5220.6t/D

where:

P=hydrostatic test pressure,psi or MPa,

t=speci?ed wall thickness,in.or mm,and

D=speci?ed outside diameter,in.or mm.

TABLE5Flaring Test Requirements

Ratio of Inside Diameter to Outside

Diameter A

Minimum Expansion of Inside

Diameter,%

Carbon Steels Low

Alloy Steels

0.92115 0.82217 0.72519 0.63023

0.53928

0.45138

0.36850

A In determining the ratio of inside diameter to speci?ed outside diameter,the inside diameter shall be de?ned as the actual mean inside diameter of the material tested.

TABLE6Flange Requirements Outside Diameter of Tube,in.[mm]Width of Flange To21?2[63.5],incl15%of OD Over21?2to33?4[63.5to95.2],incl121?2%of OD Over33?4to8[95.2to203.2],incl10%of

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

OD

24.1.1The hydrostatic test pressure determined by Eq3 shall be rounded to the nearest50psi[0.5MPa]for pressure below1000psi[7MPa],and to the nearest100psi[1MPa]for pressures1000psi[7MPa]and above.The hydrostatic test may be performed prior to cutting to?nal length,or prior to upsetting,swaging,expanding,bending or other forming operations,or both.

24.2Regardless of the determination made by Eq3,the minimum hydrostatic test pressure required to satisfy these requirements need not exceed the values given in Table7.This does not prohibit testing at higher pressures at manufacturer’s option or as provided in24.3.

24.3With concurrence of the manufacturer,a minimum hydrostatic test pressure in excess of the requirements of24.2 or24.1,or both,may be stated on the order.The tube wall stress shall be determined by the following equation:

S5PD/2t(4)

where:

S=tube wall stress,psi or MPa,and all other symbols as de?ned in24.1.1.

24.4The test pressure shall be held for a minimum of5s.

24.5If any tube shows leaks during the hydrostatic test,it shall be rejected.

24.6The hydrostatic test may not be capable of testing the end portion of the pipe.The lengths of pipe that cannot be tested shall be determined by the manufacturer and,when speci?ed in the purchase order,reported to the purchaser. 25.Air Pressure Test

25.1Air Underwater Test—When this test is employed, each tube,with internal surface clean and dry,shall be internally pressurized to150psi[1000kPa]minimum with clean and dry compressed air while being submerged in clear water.The tube shall be well-lighted,preferably by underwater illumination.Any evidence of air leakage of the pneumatic couplings shall be corrected prior to testing.Inspection shall be made of the entire external surface of the tube after holding the pressure for not less than5s after the surface of the water has become calm.If any tube shows leakage during the air underwater test,it shall be rejected.Any leaking areas may be cut out and the tube retested.

25.2Pneumatic Leak Test—When this test is employed, each tube shall be subjected to a pneumatic leak test in accordance with Speci?cation A1047/A1047M. Acceptance criteria shall be as follows:

Tube O.D.in[mm]Calibration Hole,max.in[mm] #1.5[#40]0.003[0.076]

>1.5#2.0[>40#50]0.004[0.162]

>2.0#2.5[>50#65]0.005[0.127]

>2.5#3.0[>65#75]0.006[0.152]

>3.0[>75]by agreement

26.Nondestructive Examination

26.1When nondestructive examination is speci?ed by the purchaser or the product speci?cation,each tube shall be examined by a nondestructive examination method in accor-dance with Practice E213,Practice E309(for ferromagnetic materials),Practice E426(for non-magnetic materials),or Practice E570.Upon agreement,Practice E273shall be em-ployed in addition to one of the full periphery tests.The range of tube sizes that may be examined by each method shall be subject to the limitations in the scope of that practice.In case of con?ict between these methods and practices and this speci?cation,the requirements of this speci?cation shall pre-vail.

26.2The following information is for the bene?t of the user of this speci?cation.

26.2.1Calibration standards for the nondestructive electric test are convenient standards for calibration of nondestructive testing equipment only.For several reasons,including shape, orientation,width,etc.,the correlation between the signal produced in the electric test from an imperfection and from calibration standards is only approximate.A purchaser inter-ested in ascertaining the nature(type,size,location,and orientation)of discontinuities that can be detected in the speci?c application of these examinations should discuss this with the manufacturer of the tubular product.

26.2.2The ultrasonic examination referred to in this speci-?cation is intended to detect longitudinal discontinuities having a re?ective area similar to or larger than the calibration reference notches speci?ed in26.4.The examination may not detect circumferentially oriented imperfections or short,deep defects.

26.2.3The eddy current examination referenced in this speci?cation has the capability of detecting signi?cant discontinuities,especially of the short abrupt type.Practices E309and E426contain additional information regarding the capabilities and limitations of eddy-current examination. 26.2.4The?ux leakage examination referred to in this speci?cation is capable of detecting the presence and location of signi?cant longitudinally or transversely oriented disconti-nuities.The provisions of this speci?cation only provide for longitudinal calibration for?ux leakage.It should be recog-nized that different techniques should be employed to detect differently oriented imperfections.

26.2.5The hydrostatic test referred to in Section23is a test method provided for in many product speci?cations.This test has the capability of?nding defects of a size permitting the test ?uid to leak through the tube wall and may be either visually seen or detected by a loss of pressure.This test may not detect very tight,through-the-wall defects or defects that extend an appreciable distance into the wall without complete penetra-tion.

26.2.6A purchaser interested in ascertaining the nature (type,size,location,and orientation)of discontinuities that can

TABLE7Hydrostatic Test Pressures

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

be detected in the speci?c application of these examinations should discuss this with the manufacturer of the tubular products.

26.3Time of Examination—Nondestructive examination for speci?cation acceptance shall be performed after all deforma-tion processing,heat treating,welding,and straightening op-erations.This requirement does not preclude additional testing at earlier stages in the processing.

26.4Surface Condition:

26.4.1All surfaces shall be free of scale,dirt,grease,paint, or other foreign material that could interfere with interpretation of test results.The methods used for cleaning and preparing the surfaces for examination shall not be detrimental to the base metal or the surface?nish.

26.4.2Excessive surface roughness or deep scratches can produce signals that interfere with the test.

26.5Extent of Examination:

26.5.1The relative motion of the tube and the transducer(s), coil(s),or sensor(s)shall be such that the entire tube surface is scanned,except for end effects as noted in26.5.2.

26.5.2The existence of end effects is recognized,and the extent of such effects shall be determined by the manufacturer, and,if requested,shall be reported to the purchaser.Other nondestructive tests may be applied to the end areas,subject to agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 26.6Operator Quali?cations:

26.6.1The test unit operator shall be certi?ed in accordance with SNT-TC-1A,or an equivalent documented standard agreeable to both purchaser and manufacturer.

26.7Test Conditions:

26.7.1For examination by the ultrasonic method,the mini-mum nominal transducer frequency shall be2.0MHz,and the maximum transducer size shall be1.5in.[38mm].

26.7.2For eddy current testing,the excitation coil fre-quency shall be chosen to ensure adequate penetration,yet provide good signal-to-noise ratio.

26.7.2.1The maximum coil frequency shall be:

Speci?ed Wall Thickness Maximum Frequency

<0.050in.100KHz

0.050to0.15050

>0.15010

26.8Reference Standards:

26.8.1Reference standards of convenient length shall be prepared from a length of tube of the same grade,speci?ed size (outside diameter and wall thickness),surface?nish and heat treatment condition as the tubing to be examined.

26.8.2For eddy current testing,the reference standard shall contain,at the option of the manufacturer,any one of the following discontinuities:

26.8.2.1Drilled Hole—The reference standard shall contain three or more holes,equally spaced circumferentially around the tube and longitudinally separated by a sufficient distance to allow distinct identi?cation of the signal from each hole.The holes shall be drilled radially and completely through the tube wall,with care being taken to avoid distortion of the tube while drilling.The holes shall not be larger than0.031in.[0.8mm] in diameter.As an alternative,the producer may choose to drill one hole and run the calibration standard through the test coil three times,rotating the tube approximately120°each time. More passes with smaller angular increments may be used, provided testing of the full360°of the coil is obtained.For welded tubing,if the weld is visible,one of the multiple holes or the single hole shall be drilled in the weld.

26.8.2.2Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round tool or?le with a1?4in.[6.4mm]diameter,a notch shall be milled or?led tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitu-dinal axis of the tube.Said notch shall have a depth not exceeding121?2%of the speci?ed wall thickness of the tube or 0.004in.[0.1mm],whichever is greater.

26.8.2.3Longitudinal Notch—A notch0.031in.[0.8mm]or less in width shall be machined in a radial plane parallel to the tube axis on the outside surface of the tube,to have a depth not exceeding121?2%of the speci?ed wall thickness of the tube or 0.004in.[0.1mm],whichever is greater.The length of the notch shall be compatible with the testing method.

26.8.3For ultrasonic testing,the reference ID and OD notches shall be any one of the three common notch shapes shown in Practice E213,at the option of the manufacturer.The depth of the notches shall not exceed121?2%of the speci?ed wall thickness of the tube or0.004in.[0.1mm],whichever is greater.The width of the notch shall not exceed two times the depth.For welded tubing,the notches shall be placed in the weld,if the weld is visible.

26.8.4For?ux leakage testing,the longitudinal reference notches shall be straight-sided notches machined in a radial plane parallel to the tube axis on the inside and outside surfaces of the tube.Notch depth shall not exceed121?2%of the speci?ed wall thickness or0.004in.[0.1mm],whichever is greater.Notch length shall not exceed1in.[25.4mm],and the width shall not exceed the depth.Outside and inside notches shall have sufficient separation to allow distinct identi?cation of the signal from each notch.

26.8.5More or smaller reference discontinuities,or both, may be used by agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.

26.9Standardization Procedure:

26.9.1The test apparatus shall be standardized at the beginning and end of each series of tubes of the same speci?ed size(diameter and wall thickness),grade and heat treatment condition,and at intervals not exceeding4h during the examination of such tubing.More frequent standardizations may be performed at the manufacturer’s option or may be required upon agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.

26.9.2The test apparatus shall also be standardized after any change in test system settings,change of operator,equip-ment repair,or interruption due to power loss or shutdown.

26.9.3The reference standard shall be passed through the test apparatus at the same speed and test system settings as the tube to be tested,except that,at the manufacturer’s discretion, the tubes may be tested at a higher sensitivity.

26.9.4The signal-to-noise ratio for the reference standard shall be2.5:1or greater,and the reference signal amplitude for each discontinuity shall be at least50%of full scale of the display.In establishing the noise level,extraneous signals

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

from

identi?able surface imperfections on the reference standard may be ignored.When reject?ltering is used during UT testing,linearity must be demonstrated.

26.9.5If,upon any standardization,the reference signal amplitude has decreased by29%(3.0dB),the test apparatus shall be considered out of standardization.The test system settings may be changed,or the transducer(s),coil(s),or sensor(s)adjusted,and the unit restandardized,but all tubes tested since the last acceptable standardization must be re-tested.

26.10Evaluation of Imperfections:

26.10.1Tubing producing a test signal to or greater than the lowest signal produced by the reference standard shall be designated suspect,shall be clearly marked or identi?ed,and shall be separated from the acceptable tubing.

26.10.2Such suspect tubing shall be subject to one of the following three dispositions:

26.10.2.1The tubes may be rejected without further examination,at the discretion of the manufacturer.

26.10.2.2If the test signal was produced by imperfections such as scratches,surface roughness,dings,straightener marks, loose ID bead and cutting chips,steel die stamps,stop marks, tube reducer ripple,or chattered?ash trim,the tubing may be accepted or rejected depending on visual observation of the severity of the imperfection,the type of signal it produces on the testing equipment used,or both.

26.10.2.3If the test signal was produced by imperfections which cannot be identi?ed,or was produced by cracks or crack-like imperfections,the tubing shall be rejected.

26.10.3Any tubes with imperfections of the types in 26.10.2.2and26.10.2.3,exceeding0.004in.[0.1mm]or 121?2%of the speci?ed minimum wall thickness(whichever is greater)in depth shall be rejected.

26.10.4Rejected tubes may be reconditioned and retested providing the wall thickness is not decreased to less than that required by this or the product speci?cation.If grinding is performed,the outside diameter in the area of grinding may be reduced by the amount so removed.To be accepted,recondi-tioned tubes must pass the nondestructive examination by which they were originally rejected.

27.Test Report

27.1When speci?ed in the purchase order or contract,the producer or supplier shall furnish a test report stating that the material was manufactured,sampled,tested and inspected in accordance with the speci?cation,including year date,the supplementary requirements,and any other requirements des-ignated in the purchase order or contract,and that the results met the requirements of that speci?cation,the supplementary requirements and the other requirements.A signature or nota-rization is not required on the test report,but the document shall be dated and shall clearly identify the organization submitting the report.Notwithstanding the absence of a signa-ture or notarization,the organization submitting the report is responsible for the contents of the report.

27.2In addition,the test report shall include the following information and test results,when applicable:

27.2.1Heat Number,

27.2.2Heat Analysis,

27.2.3Product Analysis,when speci?ed,

27.2.4Tensile Properties,

27.2.5Width of the gage length,when longitudinal strip tension test specimens are used,

27.2.6Flattening Test acceptable,

27.2.7Reverse Flattening Test acceptable,

27.2.8Flaring Test acceptable,

27.2.9Flange Test acceptable,

27.2.10Hardness Test values,

27.2.11Hydrostatic Test pressure,

27.2.12Non-destructive Electric Test method,

27.2.13Impact Test results,and

27.2.14Other test results or information required to be reported by the product speci?cation.

27.3Test results or information required to be reported by supplementary requirements,or other requirements designated in the purchase order or contract shall be reported,but may be reported in a separate document.

27.4The test report shall include a statement of explanation for the letter added to the speci?cation number marked on the tubes(see30.2),when all of the requirements of the speci?-cation have not been completed.The purchaser must certify that all requirements of the speci?cation have been completed before removal of the letter(that is,X,Y,or Z).

27.5A test report,certi?cate of compliance,or similar document printed from or used in electronic form from an electronic data interchange(EDI)transmission shall be re-garded as having the same validity as a counterpart printed in the certi?er’s facility.The content of the EDI transmitted document shall meet the requirements of the invoked ASTM standard(s)and conform to any existing EDI agreement be-tween the purchaser and supplier.Notwithstanding the absence of a signature,the organization submitting the EDI transmis-sion is responsible for the content of the report.

28.Inspection

28.1The inspector representing the purchaser shall have entry at all times while work on the contract of the purchaser is being performed,to all parts of the manufacturer’s works that concern the manufacture of the material ordered.The manufacturer shall afford the inspector all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the material is being furnished in accordance with this speci?cation.All required tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment,unless otherwise speci?ed,and shall be conducted so as not to interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works.

29.Rejection

29.1Each length of tubing received from the manufacturer may be inspected by the purchaser and,if it does not meet the requirements of the speci?cation based on the inspection and test method as outlined in the speci?cation,the length may be rejected and the manufacturer shall be noti?ed.Disposition of rejected tubing shall be a matter of agreement between the manufacturer and the

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

purchaser.

29.2Material that fails in any of the forming operations or in the process of installation and is found to be defective shall be set aside and the manufacturer shall be noti?ed for mutual evaluation of the material’s suitability.Disposition of such material shall be a matter for agreement.

30.Product Marking

30.1Each length of tube shall be legibly stenciled with the manufacturers’s name or brand,the speci?cation number,and grade.The marking need not include the year date of the speci?cation.For tubes less than11?4in.[31.8mm]in diameter and tubes under3ft.[1m]in length,the required information may be marked on a tag securely attached to the bundle or box in which the tubes are shipped.

30.2When it is speci?ed that certain requirements of a speci?cation adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee are to be completed by the purchaser upon receipt of the material,the manufacturer shall indicate that all require-ments of the speci?cation have not been completed by a letter such as X,Y,or Z,immediately following the speci?cation number.This letter may be removed after completion of all requirements in accordance with the speci?cation.An expla-nation of speci?cation requirements to be completed is pro-vided in Section27.

30.3Bar Coding—In addition to the requirements in30.1 and30.2,bar coding is acceptable as a supplemental identi?-cation method.The purchaser may speci?y in the order a speci?c bar coding system to be used.

31.Packaging,Marking,and Loading

31.1When speci?ed on the purchase order,packaging, marking,and loading for shipment shall be in accordance with the procedures of Practices A700.

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.htmlernment Procurement

32.1Scale Free Pipe:

32.1.1When speci?ed in the contract or order,the following requirements shall be considered in the inquiry contract or order,for agencies of the http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.htmlernment where scale free tube is required.These requirements shall take precedence if there is a con?ict between these requirements and the product speci?cation.

32.1.2Tube shall be ordered to outside diameter(OD)and wall thickness.

32.1.3Responsibility for Inspection—Unless otherwise speci?ed in the contract or purchase order,the manufacturer is responsible for the performance of all inspection and test requirements speci?ed.The absence of any inspection require-ments in the speci?cation shall not relieve the contractor of the responsibility for ensuring that all products or supplies submit-ted to the Government for acceptance comply with all require-ments of the contract.Sampling inspection,as part of the manufacturing operations,is an acceptable practice to ascertain conformance to requirements,however,this does not authorize submission of known defective material,either indicated or actual,nor does it commit the Government to accept the material.Except as otherwise speci?ed in the contract or purchase order,the manufacturer may use his own or any other suitable facilities for the performance of the inspection and test requirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the time the order is placed.The purchaser shall have the right to perform any of the inspections and tests set forth when such inspections and tests are deemed necessary to ensure that the material conforms to the prescribed requirements.

32.1.4Sampling for Flattening and Flaring Test and for Visual and Dimensional Examination—Minimum sampling for ?attening and?aring tests and visual and dimensional exami-nation shall be as follows:

Lot Size(pieces per

lot)

Sample Size

2to8Entire lot

9to908

91to15012

151to28019

281to50021

501to120027

1201to320035

3201to1000038

10001to3500046

In all cases,the acceptance number is zero and the rejection number is one.Rejected lots may be screened and resubmitted for visual and dimensional examination.All defective items shall be replaced with acceptable items prior to lot acceptance 32.1.5Sampling for Chemical Analysis—One sample for chemical analysis shall be selected from each of two tubes chosen from each lot.A lot shall be all material poured from one heat.

32.1.6Sampling for Tension and Bend Test—One sample shall be taken from each lot.A lot shall consist of all tube of the same outside diameter and wall thickness manufactured during an8-h shift from the same heat of steel,and heat treated under the same conditions of temperature and time in a single charge in a batch type furnace,or heat treated under the same condition in a continuous furnace,and presented for inspection at the same time.

32.1.7Hydrostatic and Ultrasonic Tests—Each tube shall be tested by the ultrasonic(when speci?ed)and hydrostatic tests.

32.1.8Tube shall be free from heavy oxide or scale.The internal surface of hot?nished ferritic steel tube shall be pickled or blast cleaned to a free of scale condition equivalent to the CSa2visual standard listed in SSPC-SP6.Cleaning shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure that has been shown to be effective.This procedure shall be available for audit.

32.1.9In addition to the marking in Speci?cation A530/ A530M,each length of tube1?4in.outside diameter and larger shall be marked with the following listed information.Marking shall be in accordance with Fed.Std.No.183and MIL-STD-792.(a)Outside diameter,wall thickness,and length(b)Heat or lot identi?cation number.

32.1.10Tube shall be straight to within the tolerances speci?ed in Table8:

32.1.11When speci?ed,each tube shall be ultrasonically examined in accordance with MIL-STD-271,except that the notch depth in the calibration standard shall be5%of the wall thickness or0.005in.,whichever is greater.Any tube which produces an indication equal to or greater than100%of the indication from the calibration standard shall be

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

rejected.

32.1.12The tube shall be free from repair welds,welded

joints,laps,laminations,seams,visible cracks,tears,grooves,slivers,pits,and other imperfections detrimental to the tube as determined by visual and ultrasonic examination,or alternate tests,as speci?ed.

32.1.13Tube shall be uniform in quality and condition and have a ?nish conforming to the best practice for standard

quality tubing.Surface imperfections such as handling marks,straightening marks,light mandrel and die marks,shallow pits,and scale pattern will not be considered injurious if the imperfections are removable within the tolerances speci?ed for wall thickness or 0.005in.,whichever is greater.The bottom of imperfections shall be visible and the pro?le shall be rounded and faired-in.

32.1.14No weld repair by the manufacturer is permitted.32.1.15Preservation shall be level A or commercial,and packing shall be level A,B,or commercial,as speci?ed.Level A preservation and level A or B packing shall be in accordance with MIL-STD-163and commercial preservation and packing shall be in accordance with Practices A700or Practice D3951.33.Keywords

33.1alloy steel tube;austenitic stainless steel;carbon steel tube;general delivery;stainless steel tube;steel tube

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee A01has identi?ed the location of selected changes to this speci?cation since the last issue,A450/A450M–10,which may impact the use of this speci?cation.(Approved May 1,2015)

(1)Incorporated Test Methods A1058throughout.(2)Added Section 4.

(3)Added metric equivalent of foot in 8.1and Table 1.

(4)Deleted the word “certi?ed”from the term “certi?ed test report”in Section 27.

(5)Deleted Note 2of 27.5and moved its requirements to the text of 27.5.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.htmlers of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights,and the risk of infringement of such rights,are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ?ve years and if not revised,either reapproved or withdrawn.Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee,which you may attend.If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards,at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International,100Barr Harbor Drive,PO Box C700,West Conshohocken,PA 19428-2959,United States.Individual reprints (single or multiple copies)of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585(phone),610-832-9555(fax),or service@http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html (e-mail);or through the ASTM website (http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html).Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center,222Rosewood Drive,Danvers,MA 01923,Tel:(978)646-2600;http://www.wendangku.net/doc/68806808998fcc22bdd10d81.html/

TABLE 8Straightness Tolerances

Speci?ed OD (in.)Speci?ed Wall Thickness (in.)Maximum Curvature in Any 3ft (in.)Maximum Curvature in Total

Length (in.)

Up to 5.0,incl Over 3%OD to

0.5,incl 0.0300.010×length,ft Over 5.0to 8.0,

incl

Over 4%OD to

0.75,incl 0.0450.015×length,ft Over 8.0to 12.75,

incl.

Over 4%OD to

1.0,incl

0.060

0.020×length,

ASTM A450-A450M-2015

ft